Presentation on theme: "Almost all plants are photosynthetic autotrophs, as are some bacteria and protists –Autotrophs generate their own organic matter through photosynthesis."— Presentation transcript:
Almost all plants are photosynthetic autotrophs, as are some bacteria and protists –Autotrophs generate their own organic matter through photosynthesis –Sunlight energy is transformed to energy stored in the form of chemical bonds (a) Mosses, ferns, and flowering plants (b) Kelp (c) Euglena (d) Cyanobacteria THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Light Energy Harvested by Plants & Other Photosynthetic Autotrophs 6 CO H 2 O + light energy → C 6 H 12 O O 2
WHY ARE PLANTS GREEN? Plant Cells have Green Chloroplasts The thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast is impregnated with photosynthetic pigments (i.e., chlorophylls, carotenoids).
Chloroplasts absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy Light Reflected light Absorbed light Transmitted light Chloroplast THE COLOR OF LIGHT SEEN IS THE COLOR NOT ABSORBED
Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophic organisms use light energy to make sugar and oxygen gas from carbon dioxide and water AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Carbon dioxide WaterGlucoseOxygen gas PHOTOSYNTHESIS
The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide –ATP generated by the light reactions provides the energy for sugar synthesis –The NADPH produced by the light reactions provides the electrons for the reduction of carbon dioxide to glucose Light Chloroplast Light reactions Calvin cycle NADP ADP + P The light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy –Produce ATP & NADPH AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
PHOTOSYNTHESIS Sunlight provides ENERGY CO 2 + H 2 O produces Glucose + Oxygen 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
Steps of Photosynthesis Light hits reaction centers of chlorophyll, found in chloroplasts Chlorophyll vibrates and causes water to break apart. Oxygen is released into air Hydrogen remains in chloroplast attached to NADPH “THE LIGHT REACTION”
Steps of Photosynthesis The DARK Reactions= Calvin Cycle CO2 from atmosphere is joined to H from water molecules (NADPH) to form glucose Glucose can be converted into other molecules with yummy flavors!
In most plants, photosynthesis occurs primarily in the leaves, in the chloroplasts A chloroplast contains: –stroma, a fluid –grana, stacks of thylakoids The thylakoids contain chlorophyll –Chlorophyll is the green pigment that captures light for photosynthesis Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts
The location and structure of chloroplasts LEAF CROSS SECTION MESOPHYLL CELL LEAF Chloroplast Mesophyll CHLOROPLAST Intermembrane space Outer membrane Inner membrane Thylakoid compartment Thylakoid Stroma Granum StromaGrana
Chloroplasts contain several pigments Chloroplast Pigments –Chlorophyll a –Chlorophyll b –Carotenoids –Xanthophyll Figure 7.7
Chlorophyll a & b Chl a has a methyl group Chl b has a carbonyl group Porphyrin ring delocalized e - Phytol tail
Different pigments absorb light differently
Cyclic Photophosphorylation Process for ATP generation associated with some Photosynthetic Bacteria Reaction Center => 700 nm
Photon Water-splitting photosystem NADPH-producing photosystem ATP mill Two types of photosystems cooperate in the light reactions
Primary electron acceptor Electron transport chain Electron transport Photons PHOTOSYSTEM I PHOTOSYSTEM II Energy for synthesis of by chemiosmosis Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Photosystem II regains electrons by splitting water, leaving O 2 gas as a by-product
The O 2 liberated by photosynthesis is made from the oxygen in water (H + and e - ) Plants produce O 2 gas by splitting H 2 O
Two connected photosystems collect photons of light and transfer the energy to chlorophyll electrons The excited electrons are passed from the primary electron acceptor to electron transport chains –Their energy ends up in ATP and NADPH In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP, NADPH, & O 2
The electron transport chains are arranged with the photosystems in the thylakoid membranes and pump H + through that membrane –The flow of H + back through the membrane is harnessed by ATP synthase to make ATP –In the stroma, the H + ions combine with NADP + to form NADPH Chemiosmosis powers ATP synthesis in the light reactions
2 H + 1 / 2 Water-splitting photosystem Reaction- center chlorophyll Light Primary electron acceptor Energy to make Electron transport chain Primary electron acceptor Primary electron acceptor NADPH-producing photosystem Light NADP How the Light Reactions Generate ATP and NADPH
The production of ATP by chemiosmosis in photosynthesis Thylakoid compartment (high H + ) Thylakoid membrane Stroma (low H + ) Light Antenna molecules Light ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN PHOTOSYSTEM IIPHOTOSYSTEM IATP SYNTHASE
Summary—Light Dependent Reactions a. Overall input light energy, H 2 O. b. Overall output ATP, NADPH, O 2.
Animation is of the Calvin Cycle Note what happens to the carbon dioxide and what the end product is. Animation is of the Calvin Cycle Second animation of the Calvin Cycle is very clear and even does the molecular bookkeeping for you. Second animation of the Calvin Cycle
Light Independent Reactions aka Calvin Cycle Carbon from CO 2 is converted to glucose (ATP and NADPH drive the reduction of CO 2 to C 6 H 12 O 6.)
Light Independent Reactions aka Calvin Cycle CO2 is added to the 5-C sugar RuBP by the enzyme rubisco. This unstable 6-C compound splits to two molecules of PGA or 3-phosphoglyceric acid. PGA is converted to Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), two of which bond to form glucose. G3P is the 3-C sugar formed by three turns of the cycle.
Summary—Light Independent Reactions a. Overall input CO 2, ATP, NADPH. b. Overall output glucose.
Review: Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food molecules Light Chloroplast Photosystem II Electron transport chains Photosystem I CALVIN CYCLE Stroma Electrons LIGHT REACTIONSCALVIN CYCLE Cellular respiration Cellulose Starch Other organic compounds A summary of the chemical processes of photosynthesis
Types of Photosynthesis C3 C4 CAM Rubisco: the world’s busiest enzyme!
Competing Reactions Rubisco grabs CO 2, “fixing” it into a carbohydrate in the light independent reactions. O 2 can also react with rubisco, inhibiting its active site –not good for glucose output –wastes time and energy (occupies Rubisco)
Photorespiration When Rubisco reacts with O 2 instead of CO 2 Occurs under the following conditions: –Intense Light (high O 2 concentrations) –High heat Photorespiration is estimated to reduce photosynthetic efficiency by 25%
Why high heat? When it is hot, plants close their stomata to conserve water They continue to do photosynthesis use up CO 2 and produce O 2 creates high O 2 concentrations inside the plant photorespiration occurs
C4 Photosynthesis Certain plants have developed ways to limit the amount of photorespiration –C4 Pathway* –CAM Pathway* * Both convert CO 2 into a 4 carbon intermediate C4 Photosynthesis
Leaf Anatomy In C3 plants (those that do C3 photosynthesis), all processes occur in the mesophyll cells. Image taken without permission from Mesophyll cells Bundle sheath cells
C4 Pathway In C4 plants photosynthesis occurs in both the mesophyll and the bundle sheath cells. Image taken without permission from
C4 Pathway CO 2 is fixed into a 4- carbon intermediate Has an extra enzyme– PEP Carboxylase that initially traps CO 2 instead of Rubisco– makes a 4 carbon intermediate
C4 Pathway The 4 carbon intermediate is “smuggled” into the bundle sheath cell The bundle sheath cell is not very permeable to CO 2 CO 2 is released from the 4C malate goes through the Calvin Cycle C3 Pathway
How does the C4 Pathway limit photorespiration? Bundle sheath cells are far from the surface– less O 2 access PEP Carboxylase doesn’t have an affinity for O 2 allows plant to collect a lot of CO 2 and concentrate it in the bundle sheath cells (where Rubisco is)
CAM Pathway Fix CO 2 at night and store as a 4 carbon molecule Keep stomates closed during day to prevent water loss Same general process as C4 Pathway
How does the CAM Pathway limit photorespiration? Collects CO 2 at night so that it can be more concentrated during the day Plant can still do the calvin cycle during the day without losing water
Summary of C4 Photosynthesis C4 Pathway –Separates by space (different locations) CAM Pathway –Separates reactions by time (night versus day)