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XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 2 Table of Contents Engine Disks and Encryption Page 1 Table of ContentsPage 2 Disk Encryption OverviewPage 3 Disks, Partitions, Volume Groups, and VolumesPage 4 Logical Volume SummaryPage 5 Why is not the Boot Volume Encrypted?Page 6 Encrypted vs. Unencrypted InstallationPage 7 Checking Computer Encryption StatusPage 8 Engine Disk Sizing Page 9 How Many Bytes In a Gigabyte?Page 10 Engine Disk Sizing CalculationsPage 11 Disk Sizing ExamplePage 12 Encrypted Boot Sequence Page 13 Before Computer StartupPage 14 Encryption Unlock ScreenPage 15 User Enters Unlock PasswordPage 16 Repository Volume UnlockPage 17 Boot Process CompletePage 18 Encryption Setup and Passwords Page 19 Encryption SetupPage 20 Password Validation After Encryption UnlockPage 21 Resetting Encryption PasswordsPage 22 User Prompt To Change Encryption PasswordPage 23 Unlock Password vs. Active Directory PasswordPage 24 Encryption and NetworkingPage 25 Synchronizer Unlock CodePage 26 Encryption LockoutPage 27 Computer Storage Report Page 28 Computer Storage ReportPage 29 Computer Storage Report ResultsPage 30 Total SpacePage 31 Engine SpacePage 32 Virtual Machines SpacePage 33 Virtual Machine Space UsedPage 34 Additional Virtual Machine Space Required for Growth Page 35 Summary ResultsPage 36 Example of VHD Growth With 30 GB Local DiskPage 37
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 3 Disk Encryption Overview Disk Encryption Features Resources are protected at the logical volume layer. All Virtual Machine (VM) disks, engine configuration data, and log files. Encryption remains intact if the disk is removed from the computer. Easy to configure and manage Encrypted computers. Encryption is an install-time option, no further configuration required. Encryption does not impact management operations in Synchronizer. Minimal impact to end-users. No understanding or awareness of encryption is required. Minimal impact on overall VM performance for most typical use cases. Encryption Standards and Technologies AES 256-bit encryption (specifically, AES-CBC-ESSIV with SHA256 hash). Uses standard Linux modules (dm-crypt, lvm2, LUKS, etc). What is not Supported Yet Integration with Intel vPro trusted boot features (TXT/TPM). Smart cards or two-factor authentication to unlock encryption. These are features under consideration for a future release.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 4 Disks, Partitions, Volume Groups, and Volumes Hard DiskPartitionsVolume GroupLogical Volumes XCE Engine only supports a single hard drive per computer. Up to 4 primary partitions. XCE Engine only uses one partition. Others might be used to dual-boot another operating system. The partition containing the Engine installation is configured into a LVM Logical Volume Group. Several logical volumes are created within the group containing different parts of the XCE Engine installation. Boot Volume (primary) Boot Volume (secondary) Root Volume (primary) Root Volume (secondary) Swap Space Volume Log Volume Engine Repository Volume
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 5 Logical Volume Summary *If the disk encryption option is chosen during Engine installation.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 6 Why is not the Boot Volume Encrypted? Boot Volume Does Not Require Encryption Boot volume does not contain any data that requires encryption. All sensitive data is stored in encrypted volumes. Contents of boot volume cannot be used to unlock encrypted volumes. Engine Cannot Boot Encrypted Partitions Booting from encrypted volumes is not currently supported. This is an area of investigation for a future release.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 7 Encrypted vs. Unencrypted Installation Encryption status is set when Engine is installed. Cannot change encryption status after installation. Enabling or disabling encryption requires a full Engine reinstall.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 8 Checking Computer Encryption Status After Rebooting a Computer If the Engine asks for a username and password, then encryption is not enabled. If the Engine only asks for a password, then encryption is enabled. In the Engine Control Panel Start the Engine control panel. Select the Tools by Category view. Start the System Summary applet. The encryption status appears in the Hardware section. In the Synchronizer Console Locate the computer in the navigation panel. Select the Summary tab. The encryption status appears in the General section.
Engine Disk Sizing
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 10 How Many Bytes In a Gigabyte? Windows 1 GB = 1,073,741,824 (2 30 ) bytes Disk Manufacturers 1 GB = 1,000,000,000 (10 9 ) bytes XenClient Enterprise uses the Windows standard. The difference is about 7%. Must account for this difference when sizing hard drives. Might be significant for smaller drives (especially SSDs).
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 11 Engine Disk Sizing Calculations This is a rough calculation designed to give a conservative estimate of the required computer disk space, based on the VMs that will be installed. Start with 10 GB to account for disk space used by the Engine. For each VM deployed from Synchronizer: Add the size of the system disk multiplied by 2.0. Add the size of the user disk multiplied by 1.5. Add the size of the local disk. For each VM installed locally on Engine: Add the size of the system disk. Add 10 GB if the Dock is enabled in the Engine policy. Multiply the result by This calculation is designed to give a conservative answer that should minimize the risk of disk over-subscription under most circumstances. Actual disk space requirements might be significantly less, but can be difficult to predict.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 12 Disk Sizing Example Engine10 GB Dock (enabled in Engine policy)10 GB Windows XP VM (deployed from Synchronizer) 16 GB system disk (x2.0) 8 GB user disk (x1.5) 4 GB local disk 48 GB Windows 7 VM (deployed from Synchronizer) 40 GB system disk (x2.0) 10 GB user disk (x1.5) 20 GB local disk 115 GB Windows 2008 Server VM (local) 50 GB system disk No user or local disk 50 GB Subtotal233 GB Total (add 7%)249 GB For this configuration, a 250 GB disk (or larger) is recommended. This is a conservative figure designed to minimize the risk of disk over-subscription.
Encrypted Boot Sequence
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 14 Before Computer Startup Root Volume Boot Volume Repository Computer Status Engine installed, encryption configured, but computer powered off. Encrypted volumes remain locked when the computer is powered off, or if the disk is removed from the computer. Networking Status No networking (computer is powered off). Boot Volume Status Unlocked. The boot volume is always unlocked. There is no requirement to lock this volume. Root Volume Status Locked. The root volume is locked with the user password. Repository Volume Status Locked. The repository volume is locked with a key stored in the root volume, which is locked with the user password.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 15 Encryption Unlock Screen Root Volume Boot Volume Repository Computer Status After power-on, computer boots up just enough so the Engine can accept a password from the user. Networking Status Disabled. Engine does not start networking until the computer is fully booted. Boot Volume Status Unlocked. Root Volume Status Locked. The root volume cannot be unlocked until the user provides the password. Repository Volume Status Locked. Password:
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 16 User Enters Unlock Password 16 Boot Volume Status Unlocked. Root Volume Status Unlocked. Encryption is unlocked with the password provided by the user. Repository Volume Status Locked. This volume is not locked with the users password. It gets unlocked in the next boot phase. Password: mypassword Boot Volume Repository Root Volume Computer Status User enters the password. Engine uses the password to unlock the root volume. Networking Status Still disabled. Checking the password with Synchronizer or Active Directory is not necessary or possible. If the password can be used to unlock the root volume then it must be correct.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 17 Repository Volume Unlock Boot Volume Status Unlocked. Root Volume Status Unlocked. Engine reads the repository key from the unlocked volume. Repository Volume Status Unlocked. Engine uses the repository key to unlock the repository volume. Computer Status After unlocking the root volume, Engine reads a key from the root partition and uses the key to unlock the repository volume. The repository volume is not encrypted with the user password. Networking Status Still disabled. Networking is not enabled until Engine is fully booted. Boot Volume Root Volume Repository
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 18 Boot Process Complete Boot Volume Status Unlocked. Root Volume Status Unlocked. Repository Volume Status Unlocked. This volume contains VHD files for VMs which can now be started. Boot Volume Root Volume Repository Computer Status Fully booted. User might start VMs or access the Engine control panel. Engine can communicate with and be managed by the Synchronizer. Networking Status Enabled. Networking becomes available when the Engine boot process is complete.
Encryption Setup and Passwords
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 20 Encryption Setup The following message is displayed when Engine sets up disk encryption. The encryption setup process should not be interrupted! Initial Encryption Setup Encryption is not initially setup when the Engine is installed. A password is required to setup encryption. Encryption setup is delayed: Until the computer is registered to Synchronizer. Or when a local password is set for unregistered computers. Subsequent Encryption Setup Encryption setup also happens when the users Active Directory password changes. This is to keep disk encryption in sync with Active Directory passwords.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 21 Password Validation After Encryption Unlock User provides password to Engine. Engine unlocks encryption and completes the boot process. Password is encrypted and cached in memory. Engine sends the encrypted password to Synchronizer for validation. For local users, Synchronizer can validate the password directly. For domain users, Synchronizer validates the password with Active Directory. Synchronizer password Engine password AD password The Engine never communicates directly with Active Directory. Any operations that require Active Directory go through the Synchronizer.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 22 Resetting Encryption Passwords 22 At the end of this process, the AD password, the Engine password cache, and the encryption unlock password are all synchronized. If the encryption unlock password validation fails, the following process is used to synchronize the password between Engine and Synchronizer or Active Directory. New password is validated, password cache is updated, and encryption is setup with the new password. The user is prompted to enter a new password. Active Directory password validation fails. AD password INVALID Or validation of a local password fails at the Synchronizer. Synchronizer password INVALID Engine clears the password cache. Engine password Engine password
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 23 User Prompt To Change Encryption Password 23 If the password validation process fails because of an invalid password: Engine will lock the computer screen. A message is displayed indicating the password has changed. User must enter credentials which are validated with Synchronizer. After validation, the new password is used to setup encryption. When the computer reboots, use the new password to unlock encryption.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 24 Unlock Password vs. Active Directory Password Password for Encryption Unlock The password used to unlock encryption must be the same password that was last used to setup encryption. No other password will work. But an unlock code is available at the Synchronizer if the password is lost or forgotten. Encryption Password vs. Active Directory Password Usually the encryption unlock password will be the same as the Active Directory password for the registered user. But they can get out of sync. This usually happens when the Active Directory password changes while the Engine is offline. Current Password vs. Previous Password If the encryption unlock password gets out of sync with the Active Directory password, it might be necessary to provide the previous password to unlock encryption. If the previous password is lost or forgotten, use the unlock code from the Synchronizer.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 25 Encryption and Networking Networking Status During Encrypted Boot During encrypted boot, networking is not available until after encryption is unlocked. Engine network configuration data is stored in the encrypted volumes, so it cannot be accessed until after the volumes are unlocked. Networking Status at Encryption Unlock Screen When the computer has booted to the encryption unlock screen, there is no networking available. The password provided by the user cannot be validated with Synchronizer or Active Directory until later in the boot process, after the encrypted volumes are unlocked. Password Validation for Encryption Unlock It is not necessary for the Engine to validate the unlock password with Synchronizer or Active Directory. If the password can be used to unlock the encrypted volumes, then it must be correct. Remote Access to Encrypted Computers If you are managing an encrypted computer with the VNC remote helpdesk feature, be careful about rebooting the computer. When the computer reboots, it will pause at the encryption unlock screen until the password is entered. There is no networking available at this stage so the VNC remote helpdesk feature cannot be used to connect to the computer and unlock encryption.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 26 Synchronizer Unlock Code 26 The Synchronizer stores an alternate key for each encrypted computer that can be used to unlock encryption on the computer if the user forgets the password, or if an administrator is required to unlock a computer and the user is not available. To request the unlock code from Synchronizer, select the computer in the navigation panel then click the Unlock Code action button. Only administrators with the Super User role should have access to this feature.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 27 Encryption Lockout User has 4 attempts to unlock encryption. After the 4 th unsuccessful unlock attempt: The computer will pause for 30 seconds. Then the computer will reboot. The unlock count is reset after reboot. The user is never permanently locked out.
Computer Storage Report
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 29 Computer Storage Report A summary of disk space and disk usage for a computer is available in the Synchronizer console. Select the computer in the navigation panel then click the Storage tab.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 30 Computer Storage Report Results A sample computer storage report is shown below. This report only reflects VMs deployed from Synchronizer. Local VMs are not included in the report.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 31 Total Space Equal to the size of the volume group containing the Engine logical volumes. Nearly equal to the size of the disk partition containing the Engine installation. Nearly equal to the entire disk size for installations using the entire disk.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 32 Engine Space Amount of disk space currently being used (or reserved for future use) by the Engine. Including the Dock, but not including any other VMs. Usually around 10 GB. Could be larger if the Dock is used in a way that causes its VHD files to grow. For example, downloading files in the Chrome browser, or writing data to the Dock file share.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 33 Virtual Machines Space About equal to Total Space minus Engine Space. Represents the total space available within the repository volume for VMs. Not including the Dock VHD files (they are part of Engine Space). Calculated as follows: Start with the total capacity of the repository volume, Then subtract about 1.5 GB reserved for use by the Engine, Then subtract the size of the Dock VHD files.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 34 VM Space Used Actual amount of disk space currently being used by the disk within the repository volume. For disks with multiple VHD files, this is the total size of all VHD files for the disk. Percent of VM Space Used This is VM Space Used expressed as a percentage of Virtual Machine Space. These Numbers Might Be Larger Than Expected! Might be much larger than what the VM reports as space used within the virtual disk. Could even be larger than the logical size of the virtual disk. If this happens to a system disk: Synchronizer might have many versions of a VM image outstanding. Check to see if VM image versions can be rolled up. If this happens to a user disk: Engine might have pending backups that cannot be uploaded. Check for a network or storage issue that might be preventing backups.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 35 Additional VM Space Required for Growth VHD files start out very small and grow as data is written into them. This column reflects the additional space that would be used if the VHD files were to grow to maximum size. These numbers are used to determine if the hard disk is over-subscribed or under-subscribed.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 36 Summary Results Total current size of all VHD files for all VMs. Current amount of free disk space available for new VMs or VM growth. Total extra space that would be used if all VHD files grew to maximum size. Indication of whether the disk is over-subscribed or under-subscribed. Keep the disk under-subscribed to avoid running out of disk space because of VHD growth.
XenClient Enterprise 4.5 Engine Disks and Encryption Copyright © 2013 Citrix Page 37 Example of VHD Growth With 30 GB Local Disk Disk space reporting in the VM is not a reliable indicator of how much disk space is actually being used for the VM within the Engine. Initial VM InstallationLocal Disk Fills UpAfter Local Disk Cleanup The local disk in the Windows VM is almost completely empty. The user has written data to the local disk, causing it to fill up. After disk cleanup, Windows reports significant free space available. The VHD file has expanded to contain the data written to the local disk by the Windows VM. The VHD file is still large. VHD files start small, and grow as required to a maximum size, but never get smaller. The VHD file for the local disk begins much smaller than the 30 GB logical size. VHD files start small and grow as required.
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