3 WHAT IS ORM?.1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand Review2. Assessthe Risk5. ImplementRisk ControlsORM is a logic-based common-sense approach to making calculated decisions on human and material factors before, during, and after missions, activities, and operations both on- and off-duty.3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisions
4 WHAT IS ORM? Using common sense and not being stupid! .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand Review2. Assessthe Risk5. ImplementRisk Controls3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisionsUsing common sense and not being stupid!Problem -- Common sense isn’t always common and to some people it doesn’t always make sense.
5 OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand Review2. Assessthe RiskWhy do I need it?It could save your lifeWho should use it?EveryoneWhen do I use it?All of the time--on-and-off dutyHow do I use it?Read on5. ImplementRisk Controls3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisions
6 TYPES OF ORM Time- Critical (done in your head) Deliberate Strategic .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand ReviewTime- Critical (done in your head)Takes only a minute or so to doYou do this each day (hopefully)DeliberateThis may take a few hours or it could take weeksStrategicVery long term (could take months or years)2. Assessthe Risk5. ImplementRisk Controls3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisions
7 Example of Time-Critical ORM .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand ReviewYou just finished working a 12-hour shift and your buddy says, “Why don’t we drive to Dallas?”What are the risks?How serious are the risks?Analyze the situationMake your decisions and implement risk controls2. Assessthe Risk5. ImplementRisk Controls3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisions
8 Example of Time-Critical ORM .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand ReviewRisksFalling asleep while drivingRunning off the roadColliding with an on-coming vehicleHow serious?Very, you could kill someone - maybe youAnalyze the situation...Sure, I’ll go to Dallas---but first I need some sleep2. Assessthe Risk5. ImplementRisk Controls3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisions
9 Fundamental Goals of ORM .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand Review2. Assessthe RiskEnhance mission effectivenessIntegrate ORM into mission processesTrain all AF personnel to manage risks in all their on-and off-duty activitiesIdentify opportunities to increase Air Force combat effectiveness5. ImplementRisk Controls3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisions
10 ORM PRINCIPLES Accept no unnecessary risks .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand Review2. Assessthe Risk5. ImplementRisk ControlsAccept no unnecessary risksMake risk decisions at the appropriate levelAccept risks when benefits outweigh costsIntegrate ORM into AF doctrine and planning at all levels3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisions
11 Accept No Unnecessary Risk .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand ReviewRisk is the probability and severity of failure or loss resulting from exposure to various threats of harmThree reasons for unnecessary risk:Not aware of the riskAn incorrect assessment of cost versus benefitInterpreting “bold risk taking” as gambling2. Assessthe Risk5. ImplementRisk Controls3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisions
12 Make Risk Decisions at the Appropriate Level .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand Review2. Assessthe Risk5. ImplementRisk ControlsWho will answer in the event of an accident?Who is the senior person at the scene of the task?Who knows the full benefits and cost of a risk?What level makes the most operational sense?3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisions
13 Accept Risks When Benefits Outweigh the Costs .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand Review2. Assessthe RiskThe three key questions are:What is the potential cost of a risk versus the benefit it may produce?What is the cost of taking a risk versus the cost of not taking a risk?Do the total benefits outweigh the total costs?5. ImplementRisk Controls3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasures4. MakeControldecisions
14 Integrate ORM Into AF Doctrine and Planning At all Levels .1. Identifythe Threats of Harm6. Superviseand Review2. Assessthe Risk5. ImplementRisk Controls3. AnalyzeRisk ControlMeasuresRisks are more easily assessed and managed in the planning stages of a taskEarly integration provides the decision maker the greatest opportunity to apply ORM principlesUse the Air Force 6-Step Process4. MakeControldecisions
15 Step 1 - Hazard IDThreats of Harm – Any real or potential condition that can cause mission degradation, injury, illness, or death to personnel or property damage to or loss of equipment or property
16 Step 2 - Risk Assessment Assessment Pitfalls: Use the Risk Assessment Matrix to assign a “Value” to threats of harm (AFPAM )Assessment Pitfalls:Over Optimism - “It can’t happen to us. We’re already doing it.”Inaccuracy - Misunderstood dataAlarmism - “The sky’s falling!”Prejudice - Hidden agenda vs facts
17 Step 3 - Analyze Risk Control Measures There are three actions involved in this step:Identify Control OptionsDetermine Control EffectsPrioritize Risk Controls
18 Action 1 - Identify Control Measures Reject - Risk Outweighs the BenefitAvoid - Do it a Different WayDelay - Problem May Go AwayTransfer - Contract Out the TaskReduce - Incorporate Safety Devices
19 Action 2 - Determine Control Effects What is the impact on the probability and severity of the threat of harm?What will the risk control cost?How will various risk control options work together?
20 Action 3 - Prioritize Risk Controls Get operator inputThe best controls minimize the threats of harm to an acceptable level, while allowing completion of the mission.
21 Step 4 - Make Control Decisions Select the best risk controlChoose the right time to implement the controlDecide on the appropriate level of implementation.
22 Step 5 - Implement Risk Controls Make implementation clearInvolve all personnel and coordinate as neededEstablish accountabilityWho will be responsibleProvide supportGive feedback on results
23 Why Implementation Sometimes Fails Operators dislike itLeaders dislike itIt’s too costlyIt’s misunderstoodWrong control for the problem
24 Step 6 - Supervise & Review Supervise - Assure controls are effective and detect needed changesReview - Was the benefit worth the costFeedback - Cross talk and supply feedback up and down the chain of command
25 Final ThoughtsAll AF instructions/directives incorporate ORM into processes and need continued emphasisSome level of risk management must be used for all tasks and operationsORM is simply applying common sense on and off-duty
26 ORM Information For additional information Go to the Air Force Safety Center websiteat
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.