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WS1 - Emergency Management Workshop

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1 WS1 - Emergency Management Workshop
* 07/16/96 WS1 - Emergency Management Workshop NEDRIX Annual Conference October 29, Newport, RI Presented by Steve Davis Principal, DavisLogic & All Hands Consulting *

2 Introductions

3 Agenda Definitions Comprehensive Emergency Management
Incident Command System (ICS) Exercise Building Disaster Resilient Communities If there is time remaining we will cover EOCs and Virtual EOC concepts.

4 Are We Ready For Anything?
* 07/16/96 Are We Ready For Anything? Eighty-one per cent of CEOs say that their company's plans were inadequate to handle the myriad of issues arising from the World Trade Center tragedy Recent events have made it clear that you need to be ready for anything. Business that are not prepared typically fail after suffering a disaster. *

5 Definitions

6 What is Emergency Management?
* 07/16/96 What is Emergency Management? Emergency Management is the process of mitigating threats and preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency. Planning is only one component of a CEMP. Hazard mitigation, preparedness, training, testing, and coordination are all equally important activities. *

7 What’s an Emergency? An unexpected situation or event, which places life and/or property in danger and requires an immediate response to protect life and property.

8 * Emergency Management 07/16/96 “Organized analysis, planning, decision-making, and assignment of available resources to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from the effects of all hazards. The goal of emergency management is to save lives, prevent injuries, and protect property and the environment if an emergency occurs.” Discuss how this sounds, where does business continuity and DR fit in? Is it different? Does anyone think they have responsibilities that encompass saving lives and property? *

9 Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM)
* 07/16/96 Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM) An integrated approach to the management of all emergency programs and activities for all four emergency phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery), for all types of emergencies and disasters (natural, man-made, and attack.) Includes continuity, disaster recovery, and related activities. Comprehensive Emergency Management is a poorly understood term.  It is generally defined to be a broad process aimed at the reduction of loss of life and property and the protection of assets from all types of hazards through a risk-based program of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. When properly implemented, CEM includes many of the related activities included in specialty areas such as business continuity and disaster recovery. *

10 CEMP Plan Contains policies, authorities, concept of operations, legal constraints, responsibilities, and emergency functions to be performed. Agency response plans, responder SOPs, and specific incident action plans are developed from this strategic document.

11 The plan documents the program
CEMP Program Provides the framework for development, coordination, control, and direction of all CEM planning, preparedness, readiness assurance, response, and recovery actions The plan documents the program

12 CEM Planning Activities
Conducting a Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Assessment; Obtaining executive support; Developing a work schedule; Assembling and coordinating the plan; and, Maintaining the plan and the program.

13 The Four Phases of Emergency Management
Mitigation Preparedness Recovery Response

14 Mitigation Mitigation is any action of a long-term, permanent nature that reduces the actual or potential risk of loss of life or property from a hazardous event.

15 Mitigation Examples Building and Facility Design
Critical Infrastructure Protection Acquisition or Relocation of Structures Hazards Control Measures Public Education, Awareness, Outreach

16 Preparedness Preparedness is planning now on how to respond in case of emergency in order to protect human lives and property, and developing capabilities and programs that contribute to a more effective response.

17 Preparedness Examples
Establishing an Emergency Management Program Develop Plans Capability Assessment Training and Education Tests and Exercises Insurance

18 Response Emergency response activities are conducted during the time period that begins with the detection of the event and ends with the stabilization of the situation following impact.

19 Response Examples Implement Preparedness Measures
Emergency Response Teams Provide Emergency Assistance Confront Hazard Effects & Reduce Damage Enhance Recovery Potential

20 Recovery Recovery refers to those non-emergency measures following disaster whose purpose is to return all systems, both formal and informal, to as normal as possible.

21 Recovery Examples Crisis Counseling Business Resumption
Debris Clearance (non-critical) Develop Recovery Strategy Temporary Housing Disaster Assistance Reconstruction

22 Other Terms Civil Defense/Emergency Preparedness
Business Continuity/Contingency Planning Crisis or Consequence Management Disaster Recovery, Management or Services Emergency Services Hazard Management or Mitigation Recovery/Business Resumption Planning Risk Management

23 What Does Comprehensive Emergency Management Include?

24 Comprehensive Emergency Management
Traditional Emergency Management Contingency Planning Disaster Recovery Security Business Continuity Crisis Communications

25 CEMP Plan Components CEMP Mitigation Disaster Recovery
Business Continuity Business Resumption Contingency Planning Objective Prevent or Reduce Impact Critical Computer Apps Critical Business Processes Process Restoration Process Workaround Focus Prevention Data Recovery Process Recovery Return to Normal Make Do Example Event Flood Proofing Mainframe or server failure Laboratory Flood Building Fire Loss of Application Solution Check Valve Hot Site Recovery Dry Out & Restart New Equip. New Bldg. Use Manual Process

26 Today’s Approach to EM Decentralization of responsibilities
Focus on all phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) and all hazards (natural, man-made, and attack) Public-Private Partnerships Community Involvement Community Resilience

27 New Generation of Emergency Managers
More Professional and Knowledgeable Younger and More Diverse Emergency Management is Career Builds Disaster Resilient Communities Proactive Plans With Jurisdictional Stakeholders Partnering and Networking

28 Emergency Planning Concepts
Incident Command System (ICS) All Hazards Addressed All-inclusive – Everyone Participates Emergency Response Coordination Effective Crisis Communication Training for Responders and Employees Disaster Recovery Communication and Information Sharing

29 Planning Process Assess - identify and triage all threats (BIA)
Evaluate - assess likelihood and impact of each threat Mitigate - identify actions that may eliminate risks in advance Prepare – plan for contingent operations Respond – take actions necessary to minimize the impact of risks that materialize Recover – return to normal as soon as possible

30 Emergency Support Functions
* Emergency Support Functions 07/16/96 1 Laws and Authorities  2 Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment  3 Hazard Management  4 Resource Management  5 Planning  6 Direction, Control and Coordination  7 Communications and Warning  8 Operations and Procedures  9 Logistics and Facilities  10 Training  11 Exercises  12 Public Education and Information  13 Finance and Administration  These 13 Emergency Management Functions (EMFs) comprise the elements of a community emergency management program as prescribed by FEMA. Used in CAR to assess readiness in these areas. *

31 Building a CEMP Plan

32 NFPA 1600 A “Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity. It may become the industry standard for all organizations, including governments and businesses. Describes the basic criteria for a comprehensive program that addresses disaster recovery, emergency management, and business continuity.

33 1600 Methodologies Addresses methodologies for defining and identifying risks and vulnerabilities and provides planning guidelines which address: Restoration of the physical infrastructure Protecting the health and safety of personnel Crisis communications procedures Management structures for both short-term recovery and ongoing long-term continuity of operations

34 Capabilities Assessment for Readiness
The aim of a CAR project is to research, identify, and report on the scope of the Organization’s Emergency Management Program to ensure compatibility with federal and state emergency management standards. The report will support strategic planning by identify program areas needing immediate development, updating, or improvement, and those elements to be accomplished during the later planning phases.

35 Capabilities Assessment for Readiness Benefits
Identify existing strengths and weaknesses Evaluate the current state of readiness Develop strategic plans to improve identified weaknesses for terrorism and other threats Justify existing program staffing and budget Demonstrate need for additional program development resources, e.g. staff, budget, support from other community agencies, etc Support professional development and accreditation programs

36 Using the Incident Command Structure

37 Background The Incident Command System in use today is an outgrowth of California’s FIRESCOPE program developed in the 1970s to improve management of large wildfires. It was designed to provide a commonly accepted management structure that would result in better decisions and more effective use of available resources. It was specifically designed for incidents that involve many local, state, and federal agencies and multiple political jurisdictions.

38 ICS Features Standard Organization Incident Facilities
* 07/16/96 ICS Features Standard Organization Incident Facilities Incident Action Plan Span of Control Unity of Command Common Responsibilities *

39 Common ICS Terminology
Organizational Functions: Operations, Intelligence, Logistics, and Finance. Functions pre-designated and named for the ICS. Resources: Refers to the combination of personnel and equipment used in response and recovery. Facilities: Common identifiers used for those facilities in and around the incident area which will be used during the course of the incident. These facilities include the command center, staging areas, etc.

40 Modular Organization ICS's organizational structure is modular.
As the need arises, functional areas may be developed. Several branches may be established. Structure based upon the needs of the incident. One individual can simultaneously manage all major functional areas in some cases. If more areas require independent management, someone must be responsible for that area.

41 Typical EOC Organization
Emergency Response and Recovery Teams

42 Cisco’s EOC Based on the Incident Command System

43 Incident Commander In Charge at the Incident
* 07/16/96 Incident Commander In Charge at the Incident Assigned by Responsible Jurisdiction or Agency May Have One or More Deputy Incident Commanders May Assign Personnel for Command Staff & General Staff *

44 EOC Manager Manages the EOC - not the incident
Makes sure everything is working Maintains a safe environment Optimizes efficiency Facilitates and coordinates Solves problems

45 EOC Staff Members Check-in with the EOC Manager.
Review the situation report (SitReps) and incident logs. Make sure that your name is listed on the current EOC organization chart. Review the staff Operating Guide (SOG) and set up your work station. Start an incident log which details your actions (chronologically.)

46 Incident Action Plan (IAP) Concepts
Planning process has been developed as a part of the ICS to assist planners in the development of a plan in an orderly and systematic manner. Incidents vary in complexity, size, and requirements for detailed plans. Not all incidents require detailed plans.

47 Incident Action Plan (IAP) Responsibilities
Planning Chief - conducts a planning meeting and coordinates preparation of the incident action plan. Incident Manager - conducts planning meeting and coordinates preparation of the IAP. Operations Chief - conduct the planning meeting and coordinates preparation of the IAP. Finance Chief - provides cost implications of control objectives as required. Logistics Chief - ensures resources.

48 IAP Meeting Participants
For major incidents, attendees should include: Incident Manager Command and general staff members Resource unit leader Situation unit leader Communications unit leader Technical/Specialists (As Required) Agency representatives (As Required) Recorders

49 IAP Briefing on Situation and Resource Status
The planning section chief and/or resources and situation unit leaders should provide an up-to-date briefing on the situation as it currently exists. Specify Tactics for Each Division. Place Resource and Personnel Order. Consider Communication Requirements. Finalize, Approve, and Implement the Incident Action Plan.

50 It’s Not Enough Just to Plan
* 07/16/96 It’s Not Enough Just to Plan Use focus groups and brainstorming Seek “what can go wrong” Find alternate plans & manual work arounds Find innovative solutions to risks Plans must be exercised Hold table top exercises for disasters Conduct “fire drills” of plans Train staff for action during emergencies Explain use of focus group We are going to do a table top of sorts to identify information management issues Informal, will stop and ask questions Think about what you would be doing at the office *

51 Using Scenarios Be creative but not too creative
* 07/16/96 Using Scenarios Be creative but not too creative Think about how bad it should be Loss of Lifelines? Supply Chain Disruptions? Civil unrest? Develop likely scenarios and develop scenario-based plans *

52 Ready to Roll? Ready for a Break?

53 “Sick Ticket” Scenario
Think about CEMP and IAP concepts and how they would apply in this scenario.

54 Table Top Exercise Bio Terrorism Scenario
* 07/16/96 Table Top Exercise Bio Terrorism Scenario Designed to demonstrate interagency communication requirements Form a group, assume your traditional role if possible Someone play the Emergency Manager role Someone will play a Health Department role Smallpox: Fever occurs 1- 4 days before rash onset: fever >101° F and at least one of the following: prostration, headache, backache, chills, vomiting or severe abdominal pain. The fever may drop with rash onset. *

55 Sick Ticket Scenario An international flight takes off from overseas.
* 07/16/96 Sick Ticket Scenario An international flight takes off from overseas. During the flight, the flight crew reported that an individual was sick during the flight. The young man (Sick Ticket) appeared to be feverish and tired but declined medical aid. A few red spots were noted on Sick Ticket’s face as he walked down the jet way. Facts about Smallpox Smallpox infection was eliminated from the world in 1977. Smallpox is caused by variola virus. The incubation period is about 12 days (range: 7 to 17 days) following exposure. Initial symptoms include high fever, fatigue, and head and back aches. A characteristic rash, most prominent on the face, arms, and legs, follows in 2-3 days. The rash starts with flat red lesions that evolve at the same rate. Lesions become pus-filled and begin to crust early in the second week. Scabs develop and then separate and fall off after about 3-4 weeks. The majority of patients with smallpox recover, but death occurs in up to 30% of cases. Smallpox is spread from one person to another by infected saliva droplets that expose a susceptible person having face-to-face contact with the ill person. Persons with smallpox are most infectious during the first week of illness, because that is when the largest amount of virus is present in saliva. However, some risk of transmission lasts until all scabs have fallen off. Routine vaccination against smallpox ended in The level of immunity, if any, among persons who were vaccinated before 1972 is uncertain; therefore, these persons are assumed to be susceptible. Vaccination against smallpox is not recommended to prevent the disease in the general public and therefore is not available. *

56 * 07/16/96 Sick Ticket Scenario Local news reports mention concerns raised at the airport about the sick person. Local “expert” mentions that he is concerned that it could have been smallpox. Local officials acknowledge that they are looking for “Sick Ticket”. Covert dissemination of a biological agent in a public place will not have an immediate impact because of the delay between exposure and onset of illness (i.e., the incubation period). Consequently, the first casualties of a covert attack probably will be identified by physicians or other primary health-care providers. For example, in the event of a covert release of the contagious variola virus, patients will appear in doctors' offices, clinics, and emergency rooms during the first or second week, complaining of fever, back pain, headache, nausea, and other symptoms of what initially might appear to be an ordinary viral infection. As the disease progresses, these persons will develop the papular rash characteristic of early-stage smallpox, a rash that physicians might not recognize immediately. By the time the rash becomes pustular and patients begin to die, the terrorists would be far away and the disease disseminated through the population by person-to-person contact. Only a short window of opportunity will exist between the time the first cases are identified and a second wave of the population becomes ill. During that brief period, public health officials will need to determine that an attack has occurred, identify the organism, and prevent more casualties through prevention strategies (e.g., mass vaccination or prophylactic treatment). As person-to-person contact continues, successive waves of transmission could carry infection to other worldwide localities. *

57 You heard the news - Questions
* 07/16/96 You heard the news - Questions What are you going to do? Where will you turn for information? What do you need to know? What is your action plan? What actions will you take? What are your next steps? Use IAP forms *

58 Building Disaster Resilient Communities

59 Community-Wide Planning
Local Government Personnel Business and Industry Volunteer/Community-Based Groups Faith-based Organizations The Public Media Academia

60 Public/Private Partnership
No one left to fend for themselves Happens at the local level A state and local as well as federal responsibility Each level has contributions to make Improvisation and flexibility required Requires teamwork

61 Public/Private Partnerships
Improvisation and Flexibility Mutual Respect and Understanding Team Approach/Networking and Coordination Sharing Resources and Information Joint Planning, Programming, Exercises Fiscal Linkages, e.g. Joint Budgets

62 Public/Private Partnership
Mutual Trust Mutual Support Genuine Communication Commitment to Work Out Conflicts Mutual Respect

63 Emergency Management Issues for Business
Work with local and regional disaster agencies and business associations Assess special problems with disasters Loss of lifelines Emergency response Review and revise existing disaster plans Look for new areas for planning

64 Building Disaster Resilient Communities
Sustainable Development Philosophy Unconstrained Development = Disaster Strategic Community Planning (Smart Growth) Mitigate Hazards Respect and Defend the Environment Network and Partner

65 Building Disaster Resilient Communities
Reduce Vulnerability of People Seek Inter & Intra-Governmental Equity Smart & Long-Term Structural Mitigation Public Education Needed The Future of Emergency Management Four-Phases

66 Problem Areas Low Salience Lack of Strong Political Constituency
Un-funded Federal Mandate Resistance Disaster Ignorance Difficulty Demonstrating Effectiveness Technical & Administrative Know-How

67 Develop Working Contacts
Public-Private Partnerships Government Officials Planning & Zoning Boards Natural Resources/Environmental Protection Agencies and Organizations Academia & Professional Organizations Community Based Organizations

68 Emergency Operations Centers

69 The Purpose of the EOC The EOC’s purpose is to coordinate incident information and resources for management.  The EOC must receive, analyze, and display information about the incident to enable CEO decision-making.  The EOC must find, prioritize, deploy, and track critical resources.  The EOC must enhance decision making, communication, collaboration, and coordination.

70 The EOC is really a place where:
Uncomfortable people Meet in cramped conditions To play unfamiliar roles Making unpopular decisions Based on inadequate information In much too little time While drinking way too much coffee….

71 What Makes the EOC Work? A Good Concept of Operations Good Space
* 07/16/96 What Makes the EOC Work? A Good Concept of Operations Good Space Good Teams Good Staff Good Communications Good Technology *

72 What Makes the EOC Work? Basic Management Functions Objective Based
* 07/16/96 What Makes the EOC Work? Basic Management Functions Objective Based Incident Action Planning Unity of Command Delegation Span of Control Support Staff *

73 The Challenge of Coordination

74 The Ideal Information System
* 07/16/96 The Ideal Information System Easy to use and robust information and decision management system Central command and control Early alert communications function Event tracking and logging SOP and automated check lists Resource management Documentation of response actions for due diligence *

75 Virtual EOCs A “Virtual EOC” enables managers to:
participate in critical decision-making processes regardless of physical location effectively direct and control resources automate processes and methodologies assign and track tasks efficiently communicate real-time information protect communication and data with needed redundancy and flexibility

76 Advantages of a Virtual EOC
Augments physical centers Anyone, anywhere can participate Lower investment Ease of use, flexibility Requires shared communications and data Data can be hosted off-site using redundant servers in hardened sites Little or no infrastructure required – uses readily available Internet technology

77 Management Strategies
* 07/16/96 Management Strategies Lead a top-notch team Assess all hazards and risks Complete and test contingency plans Design a robust Command Center Drill the Command Center Implement a system for command, control, communication, and intelligence *

78 A Good Plan "The plan is nothing. Planning is everything.“
* 07/16/96 A Good Plan "The plan is nothing. Planning is everything.“ General Eisenhower Where are you going to get PC’s? Spare parts Personnel sources: temp agencies, cross training and knowledge bases. Gartner Group: New approaches since 9/11: increased use of telecommuting, moving out of the city into cheaper space and split technology and staff into multiple locations. People trained in multiple jobs, so if you have loss of lives, that knowledge base survives. Collaboration and knowledge bases software will increase. *

79 For More Information Contact: Steve Davis, Principal
All Hands Consulting

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