3Agenda Definitions Comprehensive Emergency Management Incident Command System (ICS)ExerciseBuilding Disaster Resilient CommunitiesIf there is time remaining we will cover EOCs and Virtual EOC concepts.
4Are We Ready For Anything? *07/16/96Are We Ready For Anything?Eighty-one per cent of CEOs say that their company's plans were inadequate to handle the myriad of issues arising from the World Trade Center tragedyRecent events have made it clear that you need to be ready for anything.Business that are not prepared typically fail after suffering a disaster.*
6What is Emergency Management? *07/16/96What is Emergency Management?Emergency Management is the process of mitigating threats and preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency.Planning is only one component of a CEMP. Hazard mitigation, preparedness, training, testing, and coordination are all equally important activities.*
7What’s an Emergency?An unexpected situation or event, which places life and/or property in danger and requires an immediate response to protect life and property.
8*Emergency Management07/16/96“Organized analysis, planning, decision-making, and assignment of available resources to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from the effects of all hazards. The goal of emergency management is to save lives, prevent injuries, and protect property and the environment if an emergency occurs.”Discuss how this sounds, where does business continuity and DR fit in? Is it different? Does anyone think they have responsibilities that encompass saving lives and property?*
9Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM) *07/16/96Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM)An integrated approach to the management of all emergency programs and activities for all four emergency phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery), for all types of emergencies and disasters (natural, man-made, and attack.)Includes continuity, disaster recovery, and related activities.Comprehensive Emergency Management is a poorly understood term. It is generally defined to be a broad process aimed at the reduction of loss of life and property and the protection of assets from all types of hazards through a risk-based program of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. When properly implemented, CEM includes many of the related activities included in specialty areas such as business continuity and disaster recovery.*
10CEMP PlanContains policies, authorities, concept of operations, legal constraints, responsibilities, and emergency functions to be performed. Agency response plans, responder SOPs, and specific incident action plans are developed from this strategic document.
11The plan documents the program CEMP ProgramProvides the framework for development, coordination, control, and direction of all CEM planning, preparedness, readiness assurance, response, and recovery actionsThe plan documents the program
12CEM Planning Activities Conducting a Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Assessment;Obtaining executive support;Developing a work schedule;Assembling and coordinating the plan; and,Maintaining the plan and the program.
13The Four Phases of Emergency Management MitigationPreparednessRecoveryResponse
14MitigationMitigation is any action of a long-term, permanent nature that reduces the actual or potential risk of loss of life or property from a hazardous event.
15Mitigation Examples Building and Facility Design Critical Infrastructure ProtectionAcquisition or Relocation of StructuresHazards Control MeasuresPublic Education, Awareness, Outreach
16PreparednessPreparedness is planning now on how to respond in case of emergency in order to protect human lives and property, and developing capabilities and programs that contribute to a more effective response.
17Preparedness Examples Establishing an Emergency Management ProgramDevelop PlansCapability AssessmentTraining and EducationTests and ExercisesInsurance
18ResponseEmergency response activities are conducted during the time period that begins with the detection of the event and ends with the stabilization of the situation following impact.
22Other Terms Civil Defense/Emergency Preparedness Business Continuity/Contingency PlanningCrisis or Consequence ManagementDisaster Recovery, Management or ServicesEmergency ServicesHazard Management or MitigationRecovery/Business Resumption PlanningRisk Management
23What Does Comprehensive Emergency Management Include?
24Comprehensive Emergency Management Traditional Emergency ManagementContingency PlanningDisaster RecoverySecurityBusiness ContinuityCrisis Communications
25CEMP Plan Components CEMP Mitigation Disaster Recovery Business ContinuityBusiness ResumptionContingency PlanningObjectivePrevent or Reduce ImpactCritical Computer AppsCritical Business ProcessesProcess RestorationProcess WorkaroundFocusPreventionData RecoveryProcess RecoveryReturn to NormalMake DoExampleEventFlood ProofingMainframe or server failureLaboratory FloodBuilding FireLoss of ApplicationSolutionCheck ValveHot Site RecoveryDry Out & RestartNew Equip. New Bldg.Use Manual Process
26Today’s Approach to EM Decentralization of responsibilities Focus on all phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) and all hazards (natural, man-made, and attack)Public-Private PartnershipsCommunity InvolvementCommunity Resilience
27New Generation of Emergency Managers More Professional and KnowledgeableYounger and More DiverseEmergency Management is CareerBuilds Disaster Resilient CommunitiesProactivePlans With Jurisdictional StakeholdersPartnering and Networking
28Emergency Planning Concepts Incident Command System (ICS)All Hazards AddressedAll-inclusive – Everyone ParticipatesEmergency Response CoordinationEffective Crisis CommunicationTraining for Responders and EmployeesDisaster RecoveryCommunication and Information Sharing
29Planning Process Assess - identify and triage all threats (BIA) Evaluate - assess likelihood and impact of each threatMitigate - identify actions that may eliminate risks in advancePrepare – plan for contingent operationsRespond – take actions necessary to minimize the impact of risks that materializeRecover – return to normal as soon as possible
30Emergency Support Functions *Emergency Support Functions07/16/961 Laws and Authorities 2 Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment 3 Hazard Management 4 Resource Management 5 Planning 6 Direction, Control and Coordination 7 Communications and Warning 8 Operations and Procedures 9 Logistics and Facilities 10 Training 11 Exercises 12 Public Education and Information 13 Finance and Administration These 13 Emergency Management Functions (EMFs) comprise the elements of a community emergency management program as prescribed by FEMA. Used in CAR to assess readiness in these areas.*
32NFPA 1600A “Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity.It may become the industry standard for all organizations, including governments and businesses.Describes the basic criteria for a comprehensive program that addresses disaster recovery, emergency management, and business continuity.
331600 MethodologiesAddresses methodologies for defining and identifying risks and vulnerabilities and provides planning guidelines which address:Restoration of the physical infrastructureProtecting the health and safety of personnelCrisis communications proceduresManagement structures for both short-term recovery and ongoing long-term continuity of operations
34Capabilities Assessment for Readiness The aim of a CAR project is to research, identify, and report on the scope of the Organization’s Emergency Management Program to ensure compatibility with federal and state emergency management standards.The report will support strategic planning by identify program areas needing immediate development, updating, or improvement, and those elements to be accomplished during the later planning phases.
35Capabilities Assessment for Readiness Benefits Identify existing strengths and weaknessesEvaluate the current state of readinessDevelop strategic plans to improve identified weaknesses for terrorism and other threatsJustify existing program staffing and budgetDemonstrate need for additional program development resources, e.g. staff, budget, support from other community agencies, etcSupport professional development and accreditation programs
37BackgroundThe Incident Command System in use today is an outgrowth of California’s FIRESCOPE program developed in the 1970s to improve management of large wildfires.It was designed to provide a commonly accepted management structure that would result in better decisions and more effective use of available resources.It was specifically designed for incidents that involve many local, state, and federal agencies and multiple political jurisdictions.
38ICS Features Standard Organization Incident Facilities *07/16/96ICS FeaturesStandard OrganizationIncident FacilitiesIncident Action PlanSpan of ControlUnity of CommandCommon Responsibilities*
39Common ICS Terminology Organizational Functions:Operations, Intelligence, Logistics, and Finance.Functions pre-designated and named for the ICS.Resources:Refers to the combination of personnel and equipment used in response and recovery.Facilities:Common identifiers used for those facilities in and around the incident area which will be used during the course of the incident. These facilities include the command center, staging areas, etc.
40Modular Organization ICS's organizational structure is modular. As the need arises, functional areas may be developed.Several branches may be established.Structure based upon the needs of the incident.One individual can simultaneously manage all major functional areas in some cases.If more areas require independent management, someone must be responsible for that area.
41Typical EOC Organization Emergency Response and Recovery Teams
43Incident Commander In Charge at the Incident *07/16/96Incident CommanderIn Charge at the IncidentAssigned by Responsible Jurisdiction or AgencyMay Have One or More Deputy Incident CommandersMay Assign Personnel for Command Staff & General Staff*
44EOC Manager Manages the EOC - not the incident Makes sure everything is workingMaintains a safe environmentOptimizes efficiencyFacilitates and coordinatesSolves problems
45EOC Staff Members Check-in with the EOC Manager. Review the situation report (SitReps) and incident logs.Make sure that your name is listed on the current EOC organization chart.Review the staff Operating Guide (SOG) and set up your work station.Start an incident log which details your actions (chronologically.)
46Incident Action Plan (IAP) Concepts Planning process has been developed as a part of the ICS to assist planners in the development of a plan in an orderly and systematic manner.Incidents vary in complexity, size, and requirements for detailed plans.Not all incidents require detailed plans.
47Incident Action Plan (IAP) Responsibilities Planning Chief - conducts a planning meeting and coordinates preparation of the incident action plan.Incident Manager - conducts planning meeting and coordinates preparation of the IAP.Operations Chief - conduct the planning meeting and coordinates preparation of the IAP.Finance Chief - provides cost implications of control objectives as required.Logistics Chief - ensures resources.
48IAP Meeting Participants For major incidents, attendees should include:Incident ManagerCommand and general staff membersResource unit leaderSituation unit leaderCommunications unit leaderTechnical/Specialists (As Required)Agency representatives (As Required)Recorders
49IAP Briefing on Situation and Resource Status The planning section chief and/or resources and situation unit leaders should provide an up-to-date briefing on the situation as it currently exists.Specify Tactics for Each Division.Place Resource and Personnel Order.Consider Communication Requirements.Finalize, Approve, and Implement the Incident Action Plan.
50It’s Not Enough Just to Plan *07/16/96It’s Not Enough Just to PlanUse focus groups and brainstormingSeek “what can go wrong”Find alternate plans & manual work aroundsFind innovative solutions to risksPlans must be exercisedHold table top exercises for disastersConduct “fire drills” of plansTrain staff for action during emergenciesExplain use of focus groupWe are going to do a table top of sorts to identify information management issuesInformal, will stop and ask questionsThink about what you would be doing at the office*
51Using Scenarios Be creative but not too creative *07/16/96Using ScenariosBe creative but not too creativeThink about how bad it should beLoss of Lifelines?Supply Chain Disruptions?Civil unrest?Develop likely scenarios and develop scenario-based plans*
53“Sick Ticket” Scenario Think about CEMP and IAP concepts and how they would apply in this scenario.
54Table Top Exercise Bio Terrorism Scenario *07/16/96Table Top ExerciseBio Terrorism ScenarioDesigned to demonstrate interagency communication requirementsForm a group, assume your traditional role if possibleSomeone play the Emergency Manager roleSomeone will play a Health Department roleSmallpox: Fever occurs 1- 4 days before rash onset: fever >101° F and at leastone of the following: prostration, headache, backache, chills, vomiting or severe abdominal pain.The fever may drop with rash onset.*
55Sick Ticket Scenario An international flight takes off from overseas. *07/16/96Sick Ticket ScenarioAn international flight takes off from overseas.During the flight, the flight crew reported that an individual was sick during the flight.The young man (Sick Ticket) appeared to be feverish and tired but declined medical aid.A few red spots were noted on Sick Ticket’s face as he walked down the jet way.Facts about SmallpoxSmallpox infection was eliminated from the world in 1977.Smallpox is caused by variola virus. The incubation period is about 12 days (range: 7 to 17 days) following exposure. Initial symptoms include high fever, fatigue, and head and back aches. A characteristic rash, most prominent on the face, arms, and legs, follows in 2-3 days. The rash starts with flat red lesions that evolve at the same rate. Lesions become pus-filled and begin to crust early in the second week. Scabs develop and then separate and fall off after about 3-4 weeks. The majority of patients with smallpox recover, but death occurs in up to 30% of cases.Smallpox is spread from one person to another by infected saliva droplets that expose a susceptible person having face-to-face contact with the ill person. Persons with smallpox are most infectious during the first week of illness, because that is when the largest amount of virus is present in saliva. However, some risk of transmission lasts until all scabs have fallen off.Routine vaccination against smallpox ended in The level of immunity, if any, among persons who were vaccinated before 1972 is uncertain; therefore, these persons are assumed to be susceptible.Vaccination against smallpox is not recommended to prevent the disease in the general public and therefore is not available.*
56*07/16/96Sick Ticket ScenarioLocal news reports mention concerns raised at the airport about the sick person.Local “expert” mentions that he is concerned that it could have been smallpox.Local officials acknowledge that they are looking for “Sick Ticket”.Covert dissemination of a biological agent in a public place will not have an immediate impact because of the delay between exposure and onset of illness (i.e., the incubation period). Consequently, the first casualties of a covert attack probably will be identified by physicians or other primary health-care providers. For example, in the event of a covert release of the contagious variola virus, patients will appear in doctors' offices, clinics, and emergency rooms during the first or second week, complaining of fever, back pain, headache, nausea, and other symptoms of what initially might appear to be an ordinary viral infection. As the disease progresses, these persons will develop the papular rash characteristic of early-stage smallpox, a rash that physicians might not recognize immediately. By the time the rash becomes pustular and patients begin to die, the terrorists would be far away and the disease disseminated through the population by person-to-person contact. Only a short window of opportunity will exist between the time the first cases are identified and a second wave of the population becomes ill. During that brief period, public health officials will need to determine that an attack has occurred, identify the organism, and prevent more casualties through prevention strategies (e.g., mass vaccination or prophylactic treatment). As person-to-person contact continues, successive waves of transmission could carry infection to other worldwide localities.*
57You heard the news - Questions *07/16/96You heard the news - QuestionsWhat are you going to do?Where will you turn for information?What do you need to know?What is your action plan?What actions will you take?What are your next steps?Use IAP forms*
59Community-Wide Planning Local Government PersonnelBusiness and IndustryVolunteer/Community-Based GroupsFaith-based OrganizationsThe PublicMediaAcademia
60Public/Private Partnership No one left to fend for themselvesHappens at the local levelA state and local as well as federal responsibilityEach level has contributions to makeImprovisation and flexibility requiredRequires teamwork
61Public/Private Partnerships Improvisation and FlexibilityMutual Respect and UnderstandingTeam Approach/Networking and CoordinationSharing Resources and InformationJoint Planning, Programming, ExercisesFiscal Linkages, e.g. Joint Budgets
62Public/Private Partnership Mutual TrustMutual SupportGenuine CommunicationCommitment to Work Out ConflictsMutual Respect
63Emergency Management Issues for Business Work with local and regional disaster agencies and business associationsAssess special problems with disastersLoss of lifelinesEmergency responseReview and revise existing disaster plansLook for new areas for planning
64Building Disaster Resilient Communities Sustainable Development PhilosophyUnconstrained Development = DisasterStrategic Community Planning (Smart Growth)Mitigate HazardsRespect and Defend the EnvironmentNetwork and Partner
65Building Disaster Resilient Communities Reduce Vulnerability of PeopleSeek Inter & Intra-Governmental EquitySmart & Long-Term Structural MitigationPublic Education NeededThe Future of Emergency ManagementFour-Phases
66Problem Areas Low Salience Lack of Strong Political Constituency Un-funded Federal Mandate ResistanceDisaster IgnoranceDifficulty Demonstrating EffectivenessTechnical & Administrative Know-How
67Develop Working Contacts Public-Private PartnershipsGovernment OfficialsPlanning & Zoning BoardsNatural Resources/Environmental Protection Agencies and OrganizationsAcademia & Professional OrganizationsCommunity Based Organizations
69The Purpose of the EOCThe EOC’s purpose is to coordinate incident information and resources for management. The EOC must receive, analyze, and display information about the incident to enable CEO decision-making. The EOC must find, prioritize, deploy, and track critical resources. The EOC must enhance decision making, communication, collaboration, and coordination.
70The EOC is really a place where: Uncomfortable peopleMeet in cramped conditionsTo play unfamiliar rolesMaking unpopular decisionsBased on inadequate informationIn much too little timeWhile drinking way too much coffee….
71What Makes the EOC Work? A Good Concept of Operations Good Space *07/16/96What Makes the EOC Work?A Good Concept of OperationsGood SpaceGood TeamsGood StaffGood CommunicationsGood Technology*
72What Makes the EOC Work? Basic Management Functions Objective Based *07/16/96What Makes the EOC Work?Basic Management FunctionsObjective BasedIncident Action PlanningUnity of CommandDelegationSpan of ControlSupport Staff*
74The Ideal Information System *07/16/96The Ideal Information SystemEasy to use and robust information and decision management systemCentral command and controlEarly alert communications functionEvent tracking and loggingSOP and automated check listsResource managementDocumentation of response actions for due diligence*
75Virtual EOCs A “Virtual EOC” enables managers to: participate in critical decision-making processes regardless of physical locationeffectively direct and control resourcesautomate processes and methodologiesassign and track tasksefficiently communicate real-time informationprotect communication and data with needed redundancy and flexibility
76Advantages of a Virtual EOC Augments physical centersAnyone, anywhere can participateLower investmentEase of use, flexibilityRequires shared communications and dataData can be hosted off-site using redundant servers in hardened sitesLittle or no infrastructure required – uses readily available Internet technology
77Management Strategies *07/16/96Management StrategiesLead a top-notch teamAssess all hazards and risksComplete and test contingency plansDesign a robust Command CenterDrill the Command CenterImplement a system for command, control, communication, and intelligence*
78A Good Plan "The plan is nothing. Planning is everything.“ *07/16/96A Good Plan"The plan is nothing.Planning is everything.“General EisenhowerWhere are you going to get PC’s? Spare partsPersonnel sources: temp agencies, cross training and knowledge bases.Gartner Group: New approaches since 9/11: increased use of telecommuting, moving out of the city into cheaper space and split technology and staff into multiple locations. People trained in multiple jobs, so if you have loss of lives, that knowledge base survives.Collaboration and knowledge bases software will increase.*
79For More Information Contact: Steve Davis, Principal All Hands ConsultingAllHandsConsulting.comAllHandsConsulting.com