1Emergency Operations Centers & Incident Action Planning Process John Lindsay and Ann Stangby
2Session ObjectivesExplain the purpose and major functions of the Emergency Operations Center (EOC).Describe the process of information flow within the EOC.Discuss the operational hierarchy within the emergency management system.Explain the Incident Action Planning process.
3Types of events Immediate threats to life and property. Loss of facility operating status.Facility support to other facilities or national problems.EOC Required?
4Definition of an EOC “An unfamiliar place where leaders of an organization goto make decisionsin little or no timebased on little or no information”Snowshoe Thompson, 1856
5Why Is an EOC Needed? Centralized direction and control Single point for collection, evaluation, display and dissemination of informationFacilitates verification of informationProvides a repository of dataMakes maximum use of existing communications
6Why an EOC is Needed (con’t) Facilitates coordinationProvides continuity and facilitates shift changesProvides for the identification of all available resourcesProvides a ready reference on the current situation
7Major Functions of an EOC Information gathering and managementcollection, evaluation, display, documentationEmergency policy-makingOperations management / action planningCommunications and warningCoordination / support of resourcesPublic informationHosting VisitorsAfter: Perry, R. in T. Drabek, and G. Hoetmer (eds.) Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington: ICMA
8Basic EOC Capabilities Activated quickly (within an hour ?).Remain operational.Afford space for other agencies.Offer communications per work space.Perform information processing, coordination and documentation functions.
10EOC Staff Agency administrator EOC Director Public Information Officer, Liaison OfficerGeneral staff sections from ICSOperations, Plans, Logistics, FinanceSupport (security, communications, etc.)Clerical
11Management Principles Management by objectives.Clear management responsibilities (“unity of command”) and delegation of authority.Span of Control.Action Planning.
12EOC Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Use of information processing systems.Communications with external entities.Managing resource requests.Preparing coordinated public information.Activation and establishing the EOC.
13General EOC Activation Criteria Resources required beyond local capabilitiesThe emergency is of long durationMultiple agency/jurisdictional involvementUnique or emerging problem(s) may require policy decisionsA local state of emergency declared
14ICS Management Functions OperationsSectionPlansSectionLogisticsSectionFinanceSectionActivitiesSituation ReportsTravel OrdersResource ActivationMission AssignmentsComputer ProblemsWork EnvironmentShift SchedulesConference CallsInter-agency LiaisonIncident StatusResource StatusOffice SuppliesBriefingsShift Action PlanParking/Bldg. AccessProcurement/BudgetHere is an example of some PHS EOC activities and where they would be assigned. The black dots indicate primary responsibility, with the gray dots indicating what other Sections and Units would be involved with that activity, or coordinated with to accomplish that activity.
15Managing Time Establishing the operational period Cycle of activities First operational periodRemaining operational periodsShift change meetingsSituation briefingAction planning meetingBrief supervisors on planTrack, coordinate incident progressSituation updates
17EOC Communications Purpose: Demands Communication / Coordination / DirectionInformation sharingDecision makingEmergency activitiesDemandsHigh volume of informationRequirement for good communication between all parties
18Communication Considerations Flexibility - able to fit different situationsRedundancy - works when you need itUniversality - in common with othersCapacity - able to handle the volumeDistribution of loads between alternativesSpeed - how long will it take to get there?Priority - how long will it take to be acted on?
19Types of Messages 4 types of messages: Inquiries asking for informationAdvisories providing informationRequests asking for resources or decisionsOrders directing resources or activities
20Information Management HistoricalRecordsTelephoneLogRadioVisualDisplaysVerifyFAXSituationBriefingsSource(s)AnalyzeThis slide illustrates the components of the Information/Intelligence process.ActionPlansSynthesizeMass MediaDistributeSituationReportsRumor
21Displays Situation Status (SITSTAT) Incident history Current status Patients, facilities, weatherCurrent objectives and assignmentsResource StatusAssigned resourcesAvailable (staged) resources
22Common Mistakes Unworkable Emergency Operations Plan No knowledge of disaster resourcesLack of visible leadershipNot controlling information flowUntrained staffKey people leaveNot focusing on what happens next !
23Operational Hierarchy DHS’s National EOCESF Lead Agency EOC(s)DHS’s Regional EOCNetwork EOC(s)State EOC(s)DHS’s Disaster Field OfficeHCF EOC(s)Local Gov’t / County EOC(s)Incident Site(s)
26Operational PeriodThe period of time scheduled for execution of a given set of actions specified in an IAP.Can be of any length, although rarely longer than 24 hours.Not necessarily related to shift length.
27Briefing Topics Date/time of start of incident Type of incident Services involvedCurrent incident statusCurrent resource statusCurrent strategy/objectivesCommunications systems being usedSpecial problems/issues
28Incident Action Planning Steps... Brief on current situation and resource statusSet incident objectivesDetermine areas of operationSpecify objectives and tactics for each groupSpecify resources needed by each group
29IAP Steps (con’t) Specify operating facilities and reporting locations Place resource and personnel ordersConsider communications, medical, safety and traffic requirementsFinalize, approve and implement
30IAP Responsibilities: Management Provide general control objectives and strategyEstablish policy for resource ordersApprove completed IAP
31IAP Responsibilities: Planning Chief Prepare for the Planning MeetingConduct the Planning MeetingCoordinate preparation of the IAP
32IAP Responsibilities: Operations Chief Determine area(s) of operationDetermine tacticsDetermine work assignmentsDetermine resource requirements
33IAP Responsibilities: Logistics Chief Ensure resource ordering procedures are developedEnsure the IAP can be supported
34IAP Responsibilities: Finance Chief Provide cost implications of control objectives, as requiredEnsure the IAP is within the cost limitations established by Management.
35Elements of an IAP Name of event and operational period. Summary of the current situation.Statement of policy(s), overall objectives and priorities.Statements of operational period objectives for each major section.Action items to carry out the objectives.Current organizational chart/listing.