Presentation on theme: "Classroom Management Introductory Workshop"— Presentation transcript:
1Classroom Management Introductory Workshop Dr. Sandy WashburnMr. Mike HorvathMs. Michele BrentanoCenter on Education and Lifelong LearningIndiana Institute on Disability and CommunityIndiana UniversityIndiana Regional Workshops11
2“The children of today love luxury “The children of today love luxury. They have bad manners, contempt for authority, they show disrespect to adults, and love to talk rather than work or exercise. They contradict their parents, chatter in front of company, gobble up food at the table, and intimidate their teachers.”
3“The children of today love luxury “The children of today love luxury. They have bad manners, contempt for authority, they show disrespect to adults, and love to talk rather than work or exercise. They contradict their parents, chatter in front of company, gobble up food at the table, and intimidate their teachers.” Socrates attributed to Plato 470 BC–399 BC
7A Brief History of Classroom Management Research Systematic study a rather recent phenomenon.Kouinin (1970)“Withitness”Smoothness and momentum during lesson presentationClear expectations for students.Variety and challenge in work assigned to students.
8A Brief History of Classroom Management Research Brophy and Evertson (1976)Findings support Kounin’s earlier workMajor finding: Classroom Management is a CRITICAL aspect of effective teaching.
9A Brief History of Classroom Management Research The Classroom Strategy Study (Brophy 1996;) Brophy & McCaslin,1992).Major Finding: Effective managers employed different types of strategies with different types of students, whereas ineffective managers employed the same strategies regardless of the type of student or the situation.
10A Brief History of Classroom Management Research Series of 4 studies by the Research and Development Center for Teacher Education in Austin, Texas. (Early 80’s) (Evertson, Emmer, Sanford, Clements, and Martin)Major findings:Support earlier work of KouninEarly attention to Classroom Management at the beginning of the year was critical to a well-run classroom.Teachers can improve management techniques through training (study and practice)
11Classroom Management That Works (Marzano, 2003) Meta analysisExamined effectiveness of 5 components of classroom managementRules and ProceduresDisciplinary InterventionsTeacher-Student RelationshipsMental SetPromoting Responsibility
12Rules and ProceduresRules are location specific behavioral expectationsProcedures tell students what to do when, promote student independence and free the teacher to teach, monitor and interact.
13Disciplinary Interventions Actions taken by the teacher in response to student behavior in order to influence behavior.Examples from participants
14Teacher to Student Relationship Clear Purpose and Strong GuidanceEffective InstructionHigh Level of CooperationAttentive to Student NeedsModeling
15Emotional Objectivity Heightened AwarenessEmotional ObjectivityMental Set
16Make 3 tic marks-1 for each statement. This element makes the most difference (1st section)I am most competent with this element. (2nd section)I need to do better with this element. (3rd section)Disciplinary InterventionsRule and ProceduresTeacher-Student RelationshipsMental Set
17Marzano’s Meta-analysis Results for Four Management Factors Average Effect SizeNumber of SubjectsNumber of StudiesPercentile Decrease in DisruptionsRules and Procedures-.7636261028Disciplinary Interventions-.9093,3226832Teacher-Student Relationships-.8691.110431Mental Set-1.294502540
18Marzano’s Meta-analysis Results for Four Management Factors Average Effect SizeEffect Size by LevelRules and Procedures-.763H.SM.SInt. -772Disciplinary Interventions-.909H.SM.SIntPriTeacher-Student Relationships-.869H.SM.SIntMental Set-1.294
19Criteria for Classroom Rules Rules are based on 3-5 broad social principlesUse your SW ExpectationsRules describe location-specific behaviorWhat does it look like?Rules are stated positivelyInvolve students in the development.Publicly post the rules.The first statement really refers to the general principles or concepts that will guide everyone’s behavior at all times. Why do we do that—why is this effective?The rule really operationalize the broad principles, the rules tell us what “respect looks like.”Ask someone to read the 3rd bullet and ask everyone to turn to their neighbor and tell them what that means. Then ask for volunteer to share and then ask all of them to think of an example. Ask for a volunteer.Students can be involved in the development in lots of ways—you can start with the principles and ask students what they should look like in the classroom, think through what they need from others to be successful. You can offer the list and students may offer those that can be hard and you will help them generate natural supports and other types of supports,Make the public posting fun and colorful. Use students. Tie to mascot or theme.
20Rules are based on broad social principles/expectations Just an example of the school-wide expectations and a catchy label. Every teacher in the building build their classroom rules and procedures around these broad principles.
21Be on time with all materials. Classroom RulesResponsibilityBe on time with all materials.Have your work completed by the deadline.Work on the task that the teacher tells you to work on.Follow procedures—check the posters when unsure.RespectUse kind and caring words.Use voice levels 0-3 as directed.Take turns and share materials.SafetyKeep unfriendly, unwanted and overly friendly hands and feet to self.Walk at all times.Keep all chair legs on floor.Keep prohibited items at home.What are the guidelines for rule development—turn to your neighbor—there are five guidelines for developing rulesYou have a copy of this—it is in the right hand side pocket of your notebooks--it is _____ color. Pull out this handout and the purple one that follows it.Give them 15 minutes toLook at these classroom rules. Are there any that you would change because they don’t fit our guidelines?? (Only three guidelines can be assessed) Turn to your neighbor and discuss which rules you would change because they don’t fit the guidelines.
22Criteria for Classroom Rules Rules are based on 3-5 broad social principlesUse your SW ExpectationsRules describe location-specific behaviorWhat does it look like?Rules are stated positivelyInvolve students in the development.Publicly post the rules.The first statement really refers to the general principles or concepts that will guide everyone’s behavior at all times. Why do we do that—why is this effective?The rules really operationalize the broad principles, the rules tell us what “respect looks like.”Ask someone to read the 3rd bullet and ask everyone to turn to their neighbor and tell them what that means. Then ask for volunteer to share and then ask all of them to think of an example. Ask for a volunteer.Students can be involved in the development in lots of ways—you can start with the principles and ask students what they should look like in the classroom, think through what they need from others to be successful. You can offer the list and students may offer those that can be hard and you will help them generate natural supports and other types of supports,Make the public posting fun and colorful. Use students. Tie to mascot or theme.
23Evaluate and fix Sample Rules No gum, food or drinksListen to adultsRespect peers and adults with words and actionsUse appropriate langaugeNo electronics
24Partner Work Read through a sample set of rules. (handout) (15 minutes total-- 8 min to prepare and 7 min to share)Read through a sample set of rules. (handout)Look back at the criteria.Identify rules which meet the criteria-mark somehow.Make improvements to those that don’t.Working backwards, what broad principles would you tie these rules to?
25Respect Responsibility Integrity General Classroom Rules School-wide Expectations or Guiding PrinciplesRespectResponsibilityIntegrityClassroom RulesGeneral Classroom RulesKeep unfriendly and overly friendly hands and feet to self.Use words and actions that are kind, welcoming, and helpful.Be on time with all materials.Have your work completed by the deadlineUse time allotted for this class’s work.Take credit for your achievements and accept the outcomes of mistakesLeave prohibited items at home or in locker.Talk about ideas and not peopleArrival and DismissalGreet othersLeave area around desk clean for othersWalk through doorway before bell endsHave necessary materials before bell endsLeave promptly with all necessary materials when dismissedBring only allowed items into classroomFollow school dress codeTeacher-led Instruction or Independent seatworkRaise hand and wait to be called on or helped.Listen, consider and think about topics of studyBe able to paraphrase directionsFollow directionsTry each problem before asking for helpPut forth serious effort and time towards work.Small group workTalk quietly to those in your own groupLook at the speakerBe able to paraphrase the speaker’s wordsParticipate fully—take turns contributingAsk relevant questions of group membersComplete action items on timeKnow and fulfill the tasks of your roleHere is an example of a teacher’s work in describing what the principles look like in general, and then for the various procedures that are expected throughout the day. Many teachers prefer this because it more accurately describes what is really expected. Using this framework really helps with “say what you mean.”What’s the difference between what theThe procedures themselves are not written here, although some steps might be. Here we see at attempt to describe what the broad principles mean for behavior during the event in question.Go back to the _________ handout. What I’m going to ask you to do right now is either develop a set of classroom rules connected to 3-5 broad social principles, or connect your existing rules to some broad social principles, and/or make improvements to your existing set of rules, using the guidelines we developed.
26Teach Expectations, Rules and Procedures Teach expectations directly.State the rule in concrete termsTell Students WhyProvide students with examples and non-examples of rule-following.Provide examples via demonstration.Actively involve students in lesson— game, role-play, etc., to check for their understanding.Provide opportunities to practice rule following behavior in the natural setting.It is not enough to develop rules, they must be taught. Even if we think the students know how to follow the rules, teaching the rules is a necessary way to communicate to the students our commitment to the rules, and our commitment for making these very clear to them.The best lessons are upbeat and fun, because they engage students. It is critical that students have an opportunity to practice.
27Prompt or Remind Students of the Rules Provide students with visual prompts (e.g., posters, illustrations, etc).Use pre-corrections, which include: “verbal reminders, behavioral rehearsals, or demonstrations of rule-following or socially appropriate behaviors that are presented in or before settings where problem behavior is likely” (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997).Once we have developed and taught the rules to students, it is important to have the rules very close by to provide visual support in the form of prompts and reminders. Visual prompts can be used later to redirect students in a way that defers to a higher authority.The rules themselves can also help me, the classroom teacher, quickly put together precorrections—particularly behavioral rehearsals and demonstrations.turn to your partner and offer an example of a behavior problem that you currently precorrect.Prep for next conceptDeveloping rulesTeaching Rules,Reminding and prompting the rules –all are necessary, but we also must do something else with the rules. What else must we do—ask your partner.
28Monitor Students’ Behavior in Natural Context Active Supervision (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997):Move aroundLook around (Scan)Interact with studentsProvide reinforcement and specific praise to students who are following rules.Catch errors early and provide specific, instructive feedback to students who are not following rules. (Think about how you would correct an academic error.)Yes. that’s right, we must follow through with the rules. And the way that we follow through is by providing active supervision not only to prevent problem behavior but also so that we are aware of behaviors that need to be reinforced or corrected.
29Evaluate the Effects of Instruction Collect informationAre rules being followed?If there are errors,who is making them?where are the errors occurring?when are errors being made?what kind of errors are being made?Summarize information (look for patterns)Use information to make decisionsHow many of you have used the phrase, “I taught it, but he didn’t get it.” the next step is to use information coming from your examination of behavior patterns to decide if you might need to re-teach.If you have many kids making errors, you probably do not have an individual kid problem, it is problem a matter of instructional match, ill-defined procedures, or a lack of prompts and reminders.In this new paradigm of teaching behavior, when students make mistakes, we think about teaching differently or making changes to the procedures.
30Writing Procedures Procedures tell students what to do when. Focus in on student behaviorProcedures promote student independenceFree teacher to teach, do not rely on your involvementTask AnalysisStep by stepDiscrete and observableSequential
35Mental Set-Emotional Objectivity Monitor your own thoughts. Do not hold grudges. Start fresh.Mentally review and anticipate troublesome studentTry to replace negative expectations with positive onesKeep those in mindTake Care of Yourself
36Disciplinary Interventions Balanced Set of:RewardsPunishmentsT chart
37Types of Disciplinary Interventions Teacher ReactionGroup ContingencyHome ContingencyDirect CostTangible Recognition
38Teacher Reaction Eye contact and proximity Silent signals Private request (Initiating v. terminating)Non-disruptive? Prompt desired behaviorPrecision commandPre-correction or stimulus cueingFrequent acknowledgment4:1 positive to negative interactionsRe-teach and practice
39Teacher Greetings and On- Task Behavior Allday & Pakurar (2007)
40General Guidelines for Responding to Problem Behavior (see salmon colored handout in folder) What is the reason we should delete these from our commentary?“Why”“You”“No” and “Don’t”Nagging/Berating/Lecturing
41Tangible Recognition = Refers to any type of concrete recognition or reward offered by teacher.=
42Types of Differential Reinforcement DR…of lower rates of behavior (DRL)DR…of other behaviors (DRO)DR…of alternative behavior (DRA)DR…of incompatible behavior (DRI)42
43Direct Cost Move seat Briefly remove access to materials Restitution or OvercorrectionToken economiesLoss of privilegeIsolation time out
44Group Contingency Three types: “All for one” (Interdependent Group Contingency)“One for all”(Dependent Group Contingency)“To each his/her own” (Independent Group Contingency)
45Home Contingency Most basic—Information shared More detailed—parents collaborate to establish home consequencesRequires face to face meetingRequires record keeping and communicationPop quiz: A)Only for problem behaviorB) For problem and positive behaviorC) Only for positive behaviorD) B or C
46Disciplinary Interventions Rank these in order of impact/effect from most to leastTeacher ReactionTangible RecognitionDirect CostGroup ContingencyHome Contingency
48General Response Hierarchy (staff managed) Proximity, eye contact, silent signalGeneral Response Hierarchy (staff managed)Behavior StopsBehavior ContinuesDirection/Re-teachingState the ruleTell me . . .Show me . . .AcknowledgeStudent CompliesBehavior ContinuesWarning of Impending ConsequenceGive small consequence that prevents behavior from continuingStudent RefusesBehavior ContinuesDefusing StrategyBigger consequence—logically related
49Disciplinary Interventions--Limits and Record Keeping for Unacceptable Behavior Establish realistic and meaningful limitsInvolve students in their own record keepingThe simpler the betterEveryone needs a clean slatePublic record keeping is NOT good
50Establishing a Group Contingency Decide on a behavior that you wish to increase or a problem you wish to decreaseIf decrease, look back to DRDecide on type of GCBehavioral Criteria (consider baseline)Tracking or record keepingReward (incremental and final)
51Group Contingency Three types: “All for one” (Interdependent Group Contingency)“One for all”(Dependent Group Contingency)“To each his/her own” (Independent Group Contingency)
52Goal Setting/Action Planning Identify 1-2 goals for yourself.For each goal, list 2 specific things that you will do in the next two weeksWhat, When, With whom, For how longHow will you monitor whether you implement the strategy?What will be the outcome measure?How will you decide if it is worth continuing?
53Continued this Summer Developing Procedures Teacher to Student RelationshipPractice activitiesSelf-assessment and action planningCulturally Responsive ManagementDefusing Power Struggles
54Teacher to Student Relationship Clear Purpose and Strong GuidanceEffective InstructionHigh Level of CooperationAttentive and Responsive to Student NeedsModeling
55Classroom Management is ______ proactive and __________ reactive.Do you remember the 5 elements of effective classroom management?
56Marzano’s Meta-analysis Results for Four Management Factors Average Effect SizeNumber of SubjectsNumber of StudiesPercentile Decrease in DisruptionsRules and Procedures-.7636261028H.SM.SInt. -772Disciplinary Interventions-.9093,3226832H.SM.SIntPriTeacher-Student Relationships-.8691.110431H.SM.SIntMental Set-1.294502540