Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

ARMOR AND MATERIALS FOR COMBAT THREAT AND DAMAGE PROTECTION Gwynedd A. Thomas, Ph.D. Auburn University Polymer and Fiber Engineering.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "ARMOR AND MATERIALS FOR COMBAT THREAT AND DAMAGE PROTECTION Gwynedd A. Thomas, Ph.D. Auburn University Polymer and Fiber Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 ARMOR AND MATERIALS FOR COMBAT THREAT AND DAMAGE PROTECTION Gwynedd A. Thomas, Ph.D. Auburn University Polymer and Fiber Engineering

3 Some DoD Projects (Dr. Gwen Thomas, P.I.) 1)US Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (Comanche Project, 1998) 2)US Army ARDEC Picatinny Arsenal (LOSAT Kinetic Energy Missile Protection, 2001) 3)US Army Air Warrior Program (Air Warrior Vest Upgrade, Phases 1-3, ) 4)US Navy NAVAIR (V-22 Osprey Internal Armor Provision, current) A.Army Research Lab follow-on (2009) B.AFSOCOM, AFRL, USSOCOM follow-on (2010 ->) 5)ONR Roadside Bomb Protection (2010)

4 Modern Military Body Armor The FLAK jacket FLAK = Fliegerabwehrkanone (AAA) –This armor was only intended to stop shrapnel Not intended for bullets

5 Ballistic armor has 2 fields of application wPolice and government officials w Rated projectile threats (handguns, long guns) w Armor: light, concealable, flexible wMilitary applications w Threats from explosive device fragments w High energy projectile threats (smg, rifle, mg)

6 Energy delivered by various ammunitions

7 Modern Protective Materials Fibers –Very light –Very limited –Very flexible Ceramics –Very strong –Pretty light –Really expensive! Metals –Very strong –Relatively cheap –VERY heavy

8 Energy absorption in aramids wTensile strength w gpd wElongation to break w % wYoungs modulus w gpd wSpecific gravity = 1.44 wFibrillates on impact

9 Energy absorption in HPPE wTensile strength w gpd wElongation to break w % wYoungs modulus w gpd wSpecific gravity = 0.97 wUsually uniaxially wrapped and resin encased*

10 PIPD Fiber Poly{2,6-diimidazo[4,5-b4',5'-e]pyridinylene- 1,4(2,5-dihydroxy)phenylene} Commercial name M5 Reputation as the upcoming Rock Star of ballistic resistant fibers Tests by U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center labs indicate very promising likelihood of success in ballistic applications But there is little available right now

11 Ceramics Aluminum oxide Silicon Carbide Boron carbide Aluminum nitride

12 Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) Also known as alumina Naturally occurring ore of aluminum High purity grades make acceptable armor Spec. grav. = Less expensive than other armor grade ceramics Is also the material of rubies and sapphires

13 Silicon carbide (SiC) Very rare in nature –Found in meteorites Very effective in body armor and Chobham armor Much more expensive than alumina Spec. grav. = Hardness = 2800 kg/mm 2

14 Boron carbide (B 4 C) Third hardest known material –Diamond = 1 –Cubic boron nitride = 2 Spec. grav. ~ 2.5 Extremely effective in armor Very expensive Hardness = kg/mm 2

15 Aluminum Oxynitride (AlON) Transparent aluminum or transparent ceramic Spec. grav Superior to glass and Lexan in transparent armor –Scratch resistant –Defeats.50 cal AP Very expensive ($10- $15/ square inch!) Hardness=1850 kg/mm 2

16 Fragment defense – nonwoven approach wStrong weight advantages for nonwoven fabrics over woven fabrics (8+lbs) wInitial commercial introduction of 100% HPPE nonwoven - DSM Fraglight, 1995 wInitial suggestion of blended nonwoven fabrics wThomas and Thompson, Techtextil 1992 wCordova, Kirkland et al 1994 Fiber blend nonwoven100% Kevlar nonwoven Nonwovens allow a great deal of moisture and heat transport compared to tight weaves. This nonwoven does not require plastic resin coatings. (TechTextil Frankfurt, Thomas and Thompson)

17 Energy absorption in HPPE/Aramid fiber blends wRadiated strain energy w Transferred by aramid and HPPE beyond impact area wFibrillation of aramids wBut fabric network integrity preserved by non-malleable character of aramid wPhase change induced in the thermoplastic HPPE wResulted in a 30% increase in performance over the predicted force dissipation behavior Tests performed at DuPont labs, Wilmington, DE

18 Fragment armor improvements with nonwoven technology Results from US Army Aberdeen Proving Grounds test.22 cal gram, fragment simulating projectile, steel Parameters : Weight < 3.42 kg/m2 Projectile speed > 425 m/sec (1400fps) Nonwoven materials were superior to woven aramid and woven PBO Historical development of nonwoven armor- Original Kevlar 29 = 389 m/sec Original (1991) blend yielded 434 m/sec (HPPE, 2nd quality and Kevlar 29) * Test results 31 August – 1 September 2002

19 Results of V50 testing, 0.13 gram (2 grain) RCC FSP

20 Results of V50 testing, 0.26 gram (4 grain) RCC FSP

21 Results of V50 testing, 1.0 gram (16 grain) RCC FSP

22 Results of V50 testing, 4.15 gram (64 grain) RCC FSP

23 Results of V50 testing, 9 mm, 8.0 gram (124 grain) FMJ

24 2 December 2003 US Marines Test Results I.E.D.s 2.2lbs/ft 2 sample, range 15 meters Nine fragments impacted the sample panel –No complete penetration. –3 large ( grain) fragments impacted the panel along with six smaller (50 grain or less) fragments. One of the large fragments, penetrated three ArmorFelt and 14 aramid layers –(out of 3 layers of ArmorFelt, 40 layers of Kevlar, 3 layers of ArmorFelt) No other large fragments, penetrated deeper than three ArmorFelt layers None of the fragments completely penetrated the armor.

25 2 December 2003 US Marines Test Results I.E.D.s (cont) 2.2lbs/ft 2 sample, range 5 meters 22 fragments impacted the sample panel –1 complete penetration. –2 large ( grain) fragments impacted the panel along with twenty smaller (50 grain or less) fragments. Only one of the two large fragments, completely penetrated the armor –(3 layers of ArmorFelt, 40 layers of Kevlar, 3 layers of ArmorFelt) None of the smaller fragments penetrated the armor.

26 November 2003 Test conducted under guidance of Maj. A.J. Butler, USMC (ret) US Marines Test Results Hand Grenades Tests performed at Quantico, VA 2 samples tested –A) Identical to Auburn AW design –B) Heavier than Auburn AW design M-67 hand grenade –One detonation each target from 4 feet range Results –A) No penetrations on Auburn AW design type 22 hits by fragments –B) 1 penetration on heavier type 17 hits by fragments

27 Levels III and IV Very high energy projectiles 7.62 x 51 FMJ (.308)

28 State of the Art SAPI –Small Arms Protective Insert Based on Boron or Silicon Carbide Backing made of aramid or HPPE composites

29 ESAPI Enhanced Small Arms Protective Insert Permits protection against armor penetrating bullets Was needed protection beginning 2003

30 Ceramic or metal plate armor spall wAs the projectile penetrates the armor w fragmentation (shatter) occurs w momentum is transferred to the particles w a spall cloud forms wV spall = US Army, ARL Website

31 Armor piercing projectiles wMost serious threat to military personnel with body armor wMay use either hardened steel or tungsten carbide wDesigned as multicomponent (eg) w copper sheath w lead tip (spall generator) w carbon steel interior Graphic courtesy of Jeff Simon, SRI International

32 One solution to this problem - Stop the bullets by inducing chaos wA trajectory is a highly ordered kinetic path wTargets are destroyed by release of the kinetic energy where the projectile is aimed wDestabilization can result in degradation of lethality, kinetic energy transfer

33 A flexible hard armor media wGeneration of multiple simultaneous paths wProjectile spreads, fragments wSpall cloud redirected by internal geometrics wFragment defense by nonwovens Graphic courtesy of Jeff Simon, SRI International US Patent # 5,736,474, Multistructure Ballistic Material, Auburn University Thomas., 1997

34 Projectile Impact Sequence How the new armor works: In the initial stages of the impact, the projectile enters the vest in the normal manner, with standard ballistic resistant fabrics or thin, high strength ceramic plates distorting the leading end and increasing the projectile drag as it enters. Upon entry into the geometrics zone, the projectile is turned by the deflecting surfaces. As it continues along the path, the initially turned leading end is deflected into other paths while the trailing end has not yet experienced the torquing action of the shock waves in the projectile body. The front portion begins to disintegrate, clearing the way for the rear section to be deflected along similar reverse torqued paths until the projectile is finally totally destroyed and comes to rest in the geometric layer. In initial tests with this media, both 7.62x39 mm Russian and US rifle ammunition have been destroyed at 15 meters distance and less without the use of ceramic front plate facings on the armor package. Both ammunition types were destroyed in multi hit test conditions.

35 ChaoTech: Hard armor media Generation of multiple simultaneous paths Projectile spreads, fragments Spall cloud redirected by internal geometrics Felt Fragment defense by ArmorFelt Multiple materials available ChaoTech reduces the weight of any armor material 7.62x39 API (6 hits) APM2 (5 hits) 12.7 mm API (All projectiles impacted at full muzzle velocities)


Download ppt "ARMOR AND MATERIALS FOR COMBAT THREAT AND DAMAGE PROTECTION Gwynedd A. Thomas, Ph.D. Auburn University Polymer and Fiber Engineering."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google