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By [preposition] 1 near or beside, or movement past (a place): They sat by the fire. · I drove by the new hotel. 2 on or before (a time): I had to be home.

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Presentation on theme: "By [preposition] 1 near or beside, or movement past (a place): They sat by the fire. · I drove by the new hotel. 2 on or before (a time): I had to be home."— Presentation transcript:

1 by [preposition] 1 near or beside, or movement past (a place): They sat by the fire. · I drove by the new hotel. 2 on or before (a time): I had to be home before ten oclock. 3 to say who or what did something, or how: Have you read anything by Camilo J. Cela? ·The tiles were painted by hand. [adverb] near, past: We heard a train go by. Grammar patterns 1. by + -ing: They live by fishing and hunting. 2. by + NP: I usually go to work by train. · The dentist sees clients by appoinment. 3. am/is/was etc. + past participle + by + NP: Jessica was bitten by a dog. 4. by + himself/herself/etc. : He was sitting by himsel 5. by + time adverbial: the photos will be ready by Friday. 6. by the time + clause + clause: By the time you get this, I will have left.

2 by Collocations By as a preposition is followed by these groups of verbs: Transport. by car, plane, etc. Communications: by , phone etc. by as an adverb an preposition occurs with lots of verbs of movement, such as go, pass, run, fly, rush, walk, etc. by (as an adverb particle) forms a number of phrasal verbs: if you get by, you manage to live or survive with minimal resources. by as preposition forms some phrasal verbs with idiomatic meaning: if you come by something, you obtain it. by is often found after these words: followed, caused, surrounded and also: surprised, worried, pleased, impressed: The house is surrounded by trees.

3 by Set phrases By and large … By and large, AIDS is an economic issue. bit by bit / little by little / step by step etc.. :Lorenzos English is improving bit by bit. By the way … : By the way, is it true that youve been promoted?


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