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Contra Costa County CERT Program Unit 5 – Light Search & Rescue Released: 18 August 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Contra Costa County CERT Program Unit 5 – Light Search & Rescue Released: 18 August 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contra Costa County CERT Program Unit 5 – Light Search & Rescue Released: 18 August 2011

2 Visual 5.1 Community Emergency Response Team Personal safety is ALWAYS the number one priority Work as a team Wear personal protective equipment…gloves, helmet, goggles, N95 mask and boots The CERT goal is to do the Greatest Good for the Greatest Number Hope for the best but plan for the worst

3 Visual 5.2 Unit Objectives Identify size-up requirements for potential search and rescue situations Describe the most common techniques for searching a structure Use safe techniques for debris removal and victim extrication using a lever and cribbing

4 Visual 5.3 Top Ten Natural Disasters EventYearFEMA Funding Hurricane Katrina (AL, LA, MS) 2005$7.2 billion* Northridge Earthquake (CA) 1994$6.961 billion Hurricane Georges (AL, FL, LA, MS, PR, VI) 1998$2.251 billion Hurricane Ivan (AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, NJ, NY, PA, TN, WVA) 2004$1.947 billion** Hurricane Andrew (FL, LA) 1992$1.813 billion Hurricane Charley (FL, SC) 2004$1.559 billion** Hurricane Frances (FL, GA, NC, NY, OH, PA, SC) 2004$1.425 billion** Hurricane Jeanne (DE, FL, PR, VI, VA) 2004$1.407 billion** Tropical Storm Allison (FL, LA, MS, PA, TX) 2001$1.387 billion Hurricane Hugo (NC, SC, PR, VI) 1989$1.307 billion Ranked By FEMA Relief Costs

5 Visual 5.4 What is the chance of a big earthquake? " The USGS has estimated a 62 percent chance of a magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquake in the Bay Area within the next 28 years" - John Rundle, director of the Center for Computational Science and Engineering at the University of California, Davis 2008

6 Visual 5.5 The Bay Area Risk Assessment

7 Visual 5.6 Rescue Skills Needed Entombed Void Space Non-Structural Entrapment Injured NOT Trapped USAR Teams Emergency Services Provider CERT Teams Spontaneous Rescue Teams 5% 15% 30% 50%

8 Visual 5.7 The Golden Day Entrapped Victim Survival Rate 30 Minutes99.3% 1 Day81.0% 2 Days36.7% 3 Days33.7% 4 Days19.0% 5 Days7.4% Time Until Rescue Survival Rate Buck Helms Car Cypress Structure Loma Prieta Earthquake Photo Courtesy of Ben Ho

9 Visual 5.8 Goals of Search and Rescue Keep rescuers safe Rescue greatest number in shortest amount of time Get walking wounded out first Rescue lightly trapped victims next

10 Visual 5.9 Search and Rescue Operations 1. Size-up Evaluate everything that is going on 2. Search Locate victims Document location 3. Rescue Involve procedures and methods to extricate victims

11 Visual 5.10 Search and Rescue Safety Always have a whistle! The following Emergency Alerting System is to be used in the event of problems at the site: Evacuate - 3 short blasts (1 second each) Out – Out - Out Drop everything and get out now! Cease Operations - 1 long blast (3 seconds duration) Quiet Stop what youre doing and wait for instructions Resume Operations -1 long and 1 short blast Oooh - Kay This is the FEMA US&R Standard

12 Visual 5.11 Search and Rescue Safety Earthquakes aftershocks Severe after shocks following a major earthquake are common and can create additional injuries and fatalities Unstable structures including bridges, overpasses, high rises, homes and water towers may suffer further collapse as a result of after shocks First responders must be constantly aware that they may be affected by such events and take necessary precautions while conducting their operations. Many injuries and deaths of first responders could be prevented if more precautions against additional shock waves were taken

13 Visual 5.12 Search and Rescue Safety With the constant threat of terrorist attacks it is essential that response teams pay special attention to a very new and potentially deadly threat Everyone has to heighten their awareness of their surroundings Secondary explosions are becoming common techniques used to cause serious injury and possibly mass death for response teams There are no second chances when explosions are used for this purpose After an explosion it is safe to assume that a secondary devise is involved, unless proven otherwise

14 Visual 5.13 Before You Start STOP Stop Think Organize Plan

15 Visual 5.14 Effective Search and Rescue Effective size-up Rescuer safety Victims safety

16 Visual 5.15 CERT Search and Rescue Size-up 1.Gather Facts 2.Assess Damage and Communicate 3.Consider Probabilities 4.Assess Your Situation 5.Establish Priorities 6.Make Decisions 7.Develop Plan of Action 8.Take Action 9.Evaluate Progress

17 Visual 5.16 Step 1: Gather Facts Consider: Time of event and day of week Type of structure and construction type Weather Hazards Occupancy Gather facts accurately

18 Visual 5.17 Step 2: Assess Damage 360 degree (overview and assessment) Identify entry and egress routes Identify hazards Is it safe to enter ? Potential for occupants Interview neighbors Voice call out

19 Visual 5.18 Assess Damage CERT mission changes if: Damage is light Damage is moderate Damage is heavy Consider structure type and age Never enter a structure with heavy damage!

20 Visual 5.19 Assess Damage Light Damage Light: Superficial or cosmetic damage, broken windows, fallen plaster; primary damage to contents of structure Locate, triage, and prioritize removal of victims to designated treatment areas by the medical operation teams

21 Visual 5.20 Assess Damage Moderate Damage Moderate: Questionable structural stability; fractures, tilting, foundation movement or displacement Locate, stabilize, and immediately evacuate victims to a safe area while minimizing the number of rescuers inside the building

22 Visual 5.21 Assess Damage Heavy Damage Heavy: Obvious structural instability; partial or total wall collapse, ceiling failures Secure the building perimeter and control access into the structure by untrained but well-intentioned volunteers

23 Visual 5.22 Assess Damage Heavy Damage Loma Prieta earthquake damage in San Francisco. The soft first story is due to construction of garages in the first story and resultant reduction in shear strength. Photo from:

24 Visual 5.23 Collapse Zone: Stay Out of This Area The collapse zone is one and a half times the height of the building (X), in all directions (Y) Example: 40 tall building, collapse zone is 60 out from building For buildings, chimneys and other tall things that can fall or crumble Danger tape goes here

25 Visual 5.24 Hazards – Light Frame Construction Loose HVAC equipment Cracked stucco Check doors and frame to see if square Brick chimneys Broken electrical Lines Masonry veneer can fall off House off foundation Broken glass Loose roof tiles Separated porches or overhangs Broken Gas and Water lines

26 Visual 5.25 Frame House Forces

27 Visual 5.26 Light Frame Collapse Pattern

28 Visual 5.27 Copyright FEMA News Photo Light Frame Construction

29 Visual 5.28 Separation Between Buildings Are walls parallel? Dont Get Caught in the Middle!

30 Visual 5.29 Fallen Fixtures Loose Ceiling Structure Glass Unsecured Furniture Above Ground Hazards

31 Visual 5.30 Unstable Buildings Falling Debris Energized Wires Loose Footing Hazmat Emotionally Unstable Survivors Fire Glass Animals Ground Level Hazards

32 Visual 5.31 Natural Gas: Locate The Shutoff

33 Visual 5.32 Water Service: Locate The Shutoff

34 Visual 5.33 Below Level Hazards

35 Visual 5.34 Step 3: Consider Probabilities How stable is the situation? What else could go wrong? What it all means for the Search and Rescue? Consider what probably will happen and what could happen

36 Visual 5.35 Step 4: Assess Your Situation Assess : Whether the situation is safe enough to continue The risks that rescuers will face if they continue What resource you will need to conduct the operation safely What resources are available Personnel Equipment Tools

37 Visual 5.36 Know Your Limitations

38 Visual 5.37 Take A Break BE BACK IN 10 MINUTES

39 Visual 5.38 CERT Search and Rescue Size-up 1.Gather Facts 2.Assess Damage 3.Consider Probabilities 4.Assess Your Situation 5.Establish Priorities 6.Make Decisions 7.Develop Plan of Action 8.Take Action 9.Evaluate Progress

40 Visual 5.39 Step 5: Establish Priorities What should be done? In what order? How to rescue the greatest number in the shortest amount of time?

41 Visual 5.40 Step 6: Make Decisions Keep in mind: Safety of CERT members Life safety for victims and others Protection of the environment Protection of property

42 Visual 5.41 Step 7: Develop Plan of Action Focus operation on established priorities and decisions Provide for documentation to give to responding agencies Provide for documentation to become part of CERT records

43 Visual 5.42 Safety Considerations Make rescuer safety your primary concern Use a buddy system Be alert for hazards Use safety equipment Rotate teams Teamwork = Success

44 Visual 5.43 Search Methodology An effective search methodology: Is systematic and thorough Avoids unnecessary duplication of effort Provides for documentation of search results

45 Visual 5.44 Search Methods 1.Call out to victims 2. Stop frequently to listen 3. Use systematic search pattern 4.Mark searched areas to document what you found 5.Report what you found

46 Visual 5.45 Conducting Search Operations Pancake Voids: Pancake voids (most common in pre-1933 buildings) are small voids throughout a structure that are created by weakening or destruction of load-bearing walls and the resulting collapse of floors onto each other. Lean-To Voids: Lean-to voids are created when a collapsed wall or floor is resting against an outside wall, creating a pocket of space. V Voids: These voids are created by a V collapse of a floor or wall: the middle collapses and the ends lean against the outside walls..

47 Visual 5.46 Conducting Search Operations Individual Voids

48 Visual 5.47 Conducting Search Operations Be thorough in your search !

49 Visual 5.48 Decision To Attempt Rescue Risk involved to the rescuer Greatest good for greatest number of people

50 Visual 5.49 Step 8: Take Action Start the Search Identify alternate exits Stay together & along the walls Start search from top down Right or left handed pattern Continue to call out and listen Move slowly testing the floor Mark each individual unit Complete X after leaving

51 Visual 5.50 While Searching Always know the closest way out Knock, shout, and listen Call out to victims If anyone can hear my voice, come here Ask any victims who do respond for more information about the building or others who may be trapped Search under & around debris Check elevators Victims might be in shock or confused Always be alert for aftershocks, fires, and the smell of gas

52 Visual 5.51 Conducting Search Operations Be Systematic !

53 Visual 5.52 Conducting Search Operations Be Systematic !

54 Visual 5.53 Conducting Search Operations Triangulate

55 Visual 5.54 Search Marking System Indicates rescuer location Prevents duplication of effort

56 Visual 5.55 Search Marking System NE means No Entry made

57 Visual 5.56 Victim Marking System Make a large V (2 x 2) with marker or Orange Paint near the known or potential victim. Add team ID and arrow with distance to the victim.

58 Visual 5.57 Victim Marking System Make a circle around the V when a potential victim has been confirmed to be alive. If more than one confirmed live victim, mark total number under the V.

59 Visual 5.58 Victim Marking System Make a horizonal line through the V when a potential victim has been confirmed to be dead. If a combination of live and deceased victims are found, make two Vs.

60 Visual 5.59 Victim Marking System When all victims have been removed, make an X over the symbol.

61 Visual 5.60 Building Marking System Buildings are marked by Structural Engineers only! CERT OK NO CERT

62 Visual 5.61 Search Marking Examples

63 Visual 5.62 Building Marking Example

64 Visual 5.63 Exterior Search Set up a grid search Set distance between searchers according to visibility and debris Overlap patterns for full coverage Search in as straight a line as possible Mark areas that have been searched

65 Visual 5.64 Conducting Rescue Operations

66 Visual 5.65 Conducting Rescue Operations Maintain rescuer safety Create a safe rescue environment Move debris and objects out of the way Use tools not your backs to move objects Triage and stabilize victims in lightly and moderately damaged buildings Evacuate victims quickly but safely

67 Visual 5.66 Proper Lifting Method Back straight Bend knees Keep load close to body Push up with legs

68 Visual 5.67 Extrication Method Depends upon: General stability of immediate environment Number of rescuers available Tools and equipment available Strength and ability of rescuers Condition of victim

69 Visual 5.68 Removing Victims Types of victim removal include: Self-removal or assist Lifts and drags Allow victims to extricate themselves when possible

70 Visual 5.69 Single Person Lift If safety and time permit, you should not use lifts and drags to remove victims when closed-head or spinal injury is suspected One-Person Arm Carry One-Person Pack-Strap Carry Not Good

71 Visual 5.70 Two-Person Carry Chair CarryTwo-Person Carry Better

72 Visual 5.71 Drags Good Backs!

73 Visual 5.72 Transporting Victims Watch your backs!! GoodBad Twisted

74 Visual 5.73 Leveraging and Cribbing Operations ICS-US&R-120-1

75 Visual 5.74 Planning / Staging Conduct a size-up of the scene Have one person in charge and formulate a plan of action Gather necessary materials for leveraging (lifting) and cribbing operations

76 Visual 5.75 Leveraging And Cribbing When a large object such as a collapsed wall or heavy debris needs to be moved in order to free victims, leverage and cribbing may be used. Leverage is obtained by wedging a lever (pole or other long object) under the object that needs to be moved with a stationary object underneath it to act as a fulcrum. When the lever is forced down over the fulcrum, greater force is obtained to lift the object. A crib is a framework of wooden, plastic or metal bars used for support or strengthening. Box cribbing means arranging pairs of wood pieces alternately to form a stable rectangle. In a disaster situation, debris may be available to use for cribbing.

77 Visual 5.76 Leveraging Lever Defined: A rigid bar, either straight or bent, that is free to move on a fixed point called a fulcrum A lever works by transferring a force from one place to another while at the same time changing the direction of the force Clallam County Technical Rescue Team photo

78 Visual 5.77 Cribbing Video

79 Visual 5.78 Leveraging (Lifting) Stabilize the object to be lifted Initiate the lift using the lever and fulcrum for mechanical advantage Have someone available to handle the victim As the object is lifted, add cribbing as needed; build on the foundation of the box crib When the object is adequately supported, the victim may be removed Lift an inch, Crib an inch

80 Visual 5.79 Cribbing 4 x 4 wood 6,000 lbs. at each joint 24, 000 lbs. total if load is supported by 4 joints 54,000 lbs. total if load is supported by 9 joints

81 Visual 5.80 Cribbing Wood fails at cut ends first Overlap ends by width of member – 4x4 = 3.5 overlap Dont crib higher than three times the width of the crib Load needs to be supported with wood-to-wood contact all the way to the ground

82 Visual 5.81 Cribbing Shims are used to match the angle of a surface Shims balance the load by ensuring even contact Copyright Marin Sheriffs Search & Rescue

83 Visual 5.82 Cribbing Wedges are used as variable height crib members Wedges are inserted as Married Pairs Wedges can be used as Inclined Planes to prevent sliding movement Single wedges can be used for temporary stabilization until flat pieces can be inserted

84 Visual 5.83 Cribbing Operations Cribbing Operations Check list S- Safety: Are we safe S- Size up: The situation S- Stabilize: All four corners R- Remove: Debris R- Raise: The load R- Rescue: Pull victim clear Keep hands and toes clear of the load.

85 Visual 5.84 Resource Arrangement Example Safety Officer

86 Visual 5.85 Cribbing Example Stabilize structures Entry & Egress Provide rescuer safety Access to victims

87 Visual 5.86 Step 9: Evaluate Progress Most critical step Monitor plans effectiveness and safety

88 Visual 5.87 Unit Summary CERT size-up for potential search and rescue situations Search techniques Lifts and drags Levers and cribbing

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