Presentation on theme: "Research Process, Research Design"— Presentation transcript:
1Research Process, Research Design and Questionnaires
2Identify and Define Research Problem Theory / Practice RESEARCH PROCESSIdentify and Define Research ProblemTheory / PracticeHypotheses / ConceptualizationResearch DesignData collectionData AnalysisFindingsIn this workshop we talk about all of the steps in the research process except Data Analysis and Findings.
3RESEARCH PROCESS – Research Problem What is a problem?any situation where a gap exists between the actual and the desired state.A problem does not necessarily mean that something is seriously wrong. It could simply indicate an interest in improving an existing situation. Thus, problem definitions can include both existing problems in the current situation as well as the quest for idealistic states in the future.
4How are problems identified? RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem IdentificationHow are problems identified?Observation – manager/researcher senses that changes are occurring, or that some new behaviors, attitudes, feelings, communication patterns, etc., are surfacing in one’s environment. The manager may not understand exactly what is happening, but can definitely sense that things are not what they should be.Preliminary Data Collection – use of interviews, both unstructured and structured, to get an idea or “feel” for what is happening in the situation.Literature Survey – a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished work from secondary sources of data in the areas related to the problem.
5A literature survey ensures that: RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem IdentificationA literature survey ensures that:Important variables likely to influence the problem are not left out of the study.A clearer idea emerges regarding what variables are most important to consider, why they are important, and how they should be investigated.The problem is more accurately and precisely defined.The interviews cover all important topics.The research hypotheses are testable.The research can be replicated.One does not “reinvent the wheel”; that is, time is not wasted trying to rediscover something that is already known.The problem to be investigated is perceived by the scientific community as relevant and significant.
6Typical Business Research Problems: RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem IdentificationTypical Business Research Problems:Training programs are not as effective as anticipated.Sales volume of products/services is not increasing.Balancing of accounting ledgers is becoming increasingly difficult.The newly installed information system is not being used by the employees for whom it was designed.Introduction of flexible work hours has created more problems than it has solved.Anticipated results of a recent merger/acquisition have not been realized.Inventory control systems are not effective.Frequent interruptions in production.Low employee morale.Frequent customer complaints.Installation of an MIS keeps getting delayed.Ad campaign is not generating new sales prospects.
7What are some business problems you are aware of or have confronted? RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem IdentificationWhat are some business problems you are aware of or have confronted?
8Problem Definition Steps: “A problem well defined is a problem half solved!”RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem DefinitionProblem Definition Steps:Understand and define the complete problem. If more than one problem is identified, separate and prioritize them in terms of who and when they will be dealt with.Identify and separate out measurable symptoms to determine root problem versus easily observable symptoms. For example, a manager may identify declining sales or lost market share as the problem, but the real problem may be bad advertising, low salesperson morale, or ineffective distribution. Similarly, low productivity may be a symptom of employee morale or motivation problems, or supervisor issues.Determine the unit of analysis = individuals, households, businesses, objects (e.g., products, stores), geographic areas, etc., or some combination.Determine the relevant variables, including specifying independent and dependent relationships, constructs, etc.
9Examples of Well-Defined problems: RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem DefinitionExamples of Well-Defined problems:Has the new packaging affected the sales of the product?How do price and quality rate on consumers’ evaluation of products?Is the effect of participative budgeting on performance moderated by control systems?Does better automation lead to greater asset investment per dollar of output?Has the new advertising message resulted in higher recall?To what extent do the organizational structure and type of information systems account for the variance in the perceived effectiveness of managerial decision-making?Will expansion of international operations result in an improvement in the firm’s image and value?What are the effects of downsizing on the long-range growth patterns of companies?What are the components of “quality of life”?What are the specific factors to be considered in creating a data warehouse for a manufacturing company?
10RESEARCH PROCESS – Definitions Variable = the observable and measurable characteristics/attributes the researcher specifies, studies, and draws conclusions about.Types of Variables:Independent variable = also called a predictor variable, it is a variable or construct that influences or explains the dependent variable either in a positive or negative way.Dependent variable = also known as a criterion variable, it is a variable or construct the researcher hopes to understand, explain and/or predict.Moderator variable = a variable that has an effect on the independent – dependent variable relationship. The presence of a moderator variable modifies the original relationship between the independent and dependent variables by interacting with the independent variable to influence the strength of the relationship with the dependent variable.Mediating variable = also known as an intervening variable, it is a variable that surfaces as a function of the independent variable and explains the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Moderator variables specify when certain effects will occur whereas mediators speak to how or why such effects occur. Moreover, mediators explain how external events take on internal psychological significance.
11RESEARCH PROCESS – Definitions continued . . . Measurement = is the process of determining the direction and intensity of feelings about persons, events, concepts, ideas, and/or objects of interest that are defined as being part of the business problem. As part of measurement, researchers use predetermined rules to assign numbers or labels to: (1) individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, characteristics, etc.; (2) objects’ features or attributes; and (3) any other phenomenon or event being investigated. Rules tell researchers how to assign numbers or labels; e.g., assign the numbers 1 to 7 to responses based on the intensity of an individual’s feelings, beliefs, etc.Measurement involves two processes: (1) identification/development of constructs; and (2) scale measurement. The first process involves identifying and defining what is to be measured, while the second process involves selecting the scale to measure the construct(s).Construct = also referred to as a concept, it is a abstract idea formed in the mind based on a set of facts or observations. The idea is a combination of a number of similar characteristics of the construct. Examples of constructs include: brand awareness, brand familiarity, purchase intentions, satisfaction, importance, trust, service quality, role ambiguity, etc.Scale measurement = using a set of symbols or numbers to represent the range of possible responses to a research question.
12RESEARCH PROCESS – Constructs Examples of Constructs Investigated in Marketing:Constructs Operational DescriptionBrand Awareness Percentage of respondents that have heard of a designated brand; awareness could be either unaided or aided.Brand Attitudes The number of respondents and their intensity of feeling positive or negative toward a specific brand.Purchase Intentions The number of people planning to buy thespecified object (e.g., product or service) withina designated time period.Importance of Factors To what extent do specific factors influencea person's purchase choice.Psychographics The attitudes, opinions, interests andlifestyle characteristics of individualsproviding the information.Satisfaction How people evaluate their post-purchaseconsumption experience with a particularproduct, service or company.
13“Role Ambiguity” Construct Conceptual/theoretical definition = the difference between the information available to the person (actual knowledge) and that which is required for adequate performance of a role.Operational definition = the amount of uncertainty an individual feels regarding job role responsibilities and expectations from supervisors, other employees and customers.Measurement scale = consists of 45 items assessed using a 5-point scale, with category labels 1 = very certain, 2 = certain, 3 = neutral, 4 = uncertain, and 5 = very uncertain.Examples of items:How much freedom of action I am expected to have.How I am expected to handle non-routine activities on the job.The sheer amount of work I am expected to do.To what extent my boss is open to hearing my point of view.How satisfied my boss is with me.How I am expected to interact with my customers.Source: Singh & Rhoads, JMR, August 1991, p. 328.
14“Service Quality” Construct Conceptual/theoretical definition = the difference between an individual’s expectations of service and their actual experiences.Operational definition = how individuals react to their actual service experience with a company relative to their expectations that a company will possess certain service characteristics.Measurement scale = consists of 82 items assessed using a 7-point scale, with category labels 1 = not at all essential to 7 = absolutely essential.Examples of items:Employees of excellent companies will give prompt service to customers.Excellent companies will have the customers’ best interests at heart.Excellent companies will perform services right the first time.Employees of excellent companies will never be too busy to respond tocustomer requests.Excellent companies will give customers individual attention.Materials associated with products and services of excellent companies(such as pamphlets or statements) will be visually appealing .Source: Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry, JM, Fall 1985, p. 44.
15RESEARCH PROCESSIdentify and Define Research ProblemTheory / PracticeHypotheses / ConceptualizationResearch DesignData collectionData AnalysisFindings
16RESEARCH PROCESS – Theory/Practice What is theory ??
17RESEARCH PROCESS – Theory/Practice Theory = a systematic set of relationships providing a consistent and comprehensive explanation of a phenomenon. In practice, a theory is a researcher’s attempt to specify the entire set of dependence relationships explaining a particular set of outcomes.Theory is based on prior empirical research, past experiences and observations of behavior, attitudes, or other phenomena, and other theories that provide a perspective for developing possible relationships.Theory is used to prepare a theoretical framework for the research.
18RESEARCH PROCESSIdentify and Define Research ProblemTheory / PracticeHypotheses / ConceptualizationResearch DesignData collectionData AnalysisFindings
19RESEARCH PROCESS – Hypotheses Hypotheses = preconceptions the researcher develops regarding the relationships represented in the data, typically based on theory, practice or previous research.Examples:“The average number of cups of coffee students drink during finals will be greater than the average they consume at other times.”“Younger, part-time employees of Samouel’s restaurant are more likely to search for a new job.”
20RESEARCH PROCESS – Theoretical Framework Theoretical Framework = a written description that includes a conceptual model. It integrates all the information about the problem in a logical manner, describes the relationships among the variables, explains the theory underlying these relationships, and indicates the nature and direction of the relationships.The process of developing a theoretical framework involves conceptualization – which is a visual specification (conceptual model) of the theoretical basis of the relationships you would like to examine.
21Basic Features of a Good Theoretical Framework: RESEARCH PROCESS – Theory/PracticeBasic Features of a Good Theoretical Framework:The variables/constructs considered relevant to the study are clearly identified and labeled.The discussion states how the variables/constructs are related to each other, e.g., dependent, independent, moderator, etc.If possible, the nature (positive or negative) of the relationships as well as the direction is hypothesized on the basis of theory, previous research or researcher judgment.There is a clear explanation of why you expect these relationships to exist.A visual (schematic) diagram of the theoretical framework is prepared to clearly illustrate the hypothesized relationships.
24Theoretical Framework – Conceptualization Group Exercise: Use the Samouel’s and Gino’s restaurant database variables to develop a theoretical framework/conceptual model of the relationships that could be examined. Consider and evaluate several models, but be prepared to report your most interesting or thought provoking model.
25Conceptual Models – Samouel’s Employee Database SupervisionEmployeeCommitmentWork GroupsCompensationSupervisionIntention toSearchWork GroupsCompensationPotential Hypotheses:Commitment is positively related to supervision, work groups and compensation.Intention to Search is negatively related to supervision, work groups & compensation.
26Description of Customer Survey Variables GINO'SSamouel's RestaurantVS.Variable Description Variable TypeRestaurant PerceptionsX1 Excellent Food Quality MetricX2 Attractive Interior MetricX3 Generous Portions MetricX4 Excellent Food Taste MetricX5 Good Value for the Money MetricX6 Friendly Employees MetricX7 Appears Clean & Neat MetricX8 Fun Place to Go MetricX9 Wide Variety of menu Items MetricX10 Reasonable Prices MetricX11 Courteous Employees MetricX12 Competent Employees MetricSelection Factor RankingsX13 Food Quality NonmetricX14 Atmosphere NonmetricX15 Prices NonmetricX16 Employees NonmetricRelationship VariablesX17 Satisfaction MetricX18 Likely to Return in Future MetricX19 Recommend to Friend MetricX20 Frequency of Patronage NonmetricX21 Length of Time a Customer NonmetricClassification VariablesX22 Gender NonmetricX23 Age NonmetricX24 Income NonmetricX25 Competitor NonmetricX26 Which AD Viewed (#1, 2 or 3) NonmetricX27 AD Rating MetricX28 Respondents that Viewed Ads Nonmetric
27Description of Employee Survey Variables Samouel's RestaurantDescription of Employee Survey VariablesVariable Description Variable TypeWork Environment MeasuresX1 I am paid fairly for the work I do MetricX2 I am doing the kind of work I want MetricX3 My supervisor gives credit an praise for work well done MetricX4 There is a lot of cooperation among the members of my work group MetricX5 My job allows me to learn new skills MetricX6 My supervisor recognizes my potential MetricX7 My work gives me a sense of accomplishment MetricX8 My immediate work group functions as a team MetricX9 My pay reflects the effort I put into doing my work MetricX10 My supervisor is friendly and helpful MetricX11 The members of my work group have the skills and/or trainingto do their job well MetricX12 The benefits I receive are reasonable MetricRelationship MeasuresX13 Loyalty – I have a sense of loyalty to Samouel’s restaurant MetricX14 Effort – I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond thatexpected to help Samouel’s restaurant to be successful MetricX15 Proud – I am proud to tell others that I work for Samouel’s restaurant MetricClassification VariablesX16 Intention to Search MetricX17 Length of Time an Employee NonmetricX18 Work Type = Part-Time vs. Full-Time NonmetricX19 Gender NonmetricX20 Age NonmetricX21 Performance Metric
28RESEARCH PROCESSIdentify and Define Research ProblemTheory / PracticeHypotheses / ConceptualizationResearch DesignData collectionData AnalysisFindings
29RESEARCH DESIGN – Types Research Design Alternatives – Purpose:(1) Exploratory – to formulate the problem, develop hypotheses, identify constructs, establish priorities for research, refine ideas, clarify concepts, etc.(2) Descriptive – to describe characteristics of certain groups, estimate proportion of people in a population who behave in a given way, and to make directional predictions.(3) Causal – to provide evidence of the relationships between variables, the sequence in which events occur, and/or to eliminate other possible explanations.
30Research Design – Approaches Two Broad Approaches:Qualitative.Quantitative.
31Role of Qualitative Research: RESEARCH DESIGNRole of Qualitative Research:Search of academic, trade and professionalliterature (both traditional & Internet).Use of interviews, brainstorming, focus groups.Internalization of how others have undertakenboth qualitative and quantitative research.Use of existing questionnaires/constructs.Outcome of Qualitative Research:Improve conceptualization.Clarify research design, including data collectionapproach.Draft questionnaire.
32Role of Quantitative Research: RESEARCH DESIGNRole of Quantitative Research:Quantify data and generalize results fromsample to population.Facilitates examination of large number ofrepresentative cases.Structured approach to data collection.Enables extensive statistical analysis.Outcome of Quantitative Research:Validation of qualitative research findings.Confirmation of hypotheses, theories, etc.Recommend final course of action.
33RESEARCH PROCESSIdentify and Define Research ProblemTheory / PracticeHypotheses / ConceptualizationResearch DesignData collectionData AnalysisFindings
37PRIMARY DATA Primary Data Sources: Informal discussions; brainstorming Focus groupsObservational MethodsStructured & Unstructured SurveysExperiments
38Primary Data – Focus Groups Focus Groups = bring a small group of people (10-12) together for an interactive, spontaneous discussion of a particular topic or concept. Discussion is led by a trained moderator and usually lasts 1 ½ hours.Typical Objectives:To identify and define problems.To generate new ideas about products, services, delivery methods, etc.To test advertising themes, positioning statements, company and product names, etc.To discover new constructs and measurement methods.To understand customer needs, wants, attitudes, behaviors, preferences and motives.
39Primary Data Factors Influencing Overall Mobile Phone Satisfaction Features 27% 21%Durability 23% 16%Physical Design 19% 28%Battery Function 16% 16%Operation 15% 19%2004 Wireless Retail Sales Satisfaction StudySales Staff 44%Price/Promotion 28%Store Display 14%Store Facility 14%Source: J.D. Power and Associates, 2002, 2003 & 2004.These percentages typically are determined in quantitative surveys (descriptive research).These factors typically are identified in qualitative focus groups (exploratory research).
40Primary DataHotel Selection Factors: Location Past Experience Recommendations or Friends and Family Brand Reputation Guest Satisfaction Factors: Guest Room Departure Process Pre-Arrival/Arrival Experiences Hotel Services Food & Beverage services Note: the first three factors account for more than 70 percent of guest satisfaction ratings. Source: J.D. Power & Associates, August 21, 2001.
41What is the construct in this study? Primary DataOriginal Equipment Tire Satisfaction Study: Product Quality % - Number of tires with a problem - Number of problems experienced - Number of original tires replaced Long-Term Performance 22% - Wear ability - Length of warranty - Overall reliability & dependability - Freedom from pull to left or right Situational Performance 19% - Traction on wet roads - Traction at fast starts - Holds road well in emergencies - Lack of vibration at highway speeds - Overall safety - Overall ride at highway speeds Design % - Road quietness - Style & appearance of sidewalls - Tread design - Size of tire matches size of vehicle Winter Traction % Source: J.D. Power & Associates, August 27, 2001.
42PRIMARY DATA – Focus Groups Some of my “best” experiences?Some of my “worst” experiences?
43PRIMARY DATA – Observations CONSIDERATIONS:Methods – human/mechanical/electronic.Useful where respondent cannot or will notarticulate the answer.Cannot be used to measure thoughts, feelings,attitudes, opinions, etc.
44Purpose of Questionnaires: PRIMARY DATA – QUESTIONNAIRESPurpose of Questionnaires:To obtain information that cannot be easily observed or is not already available inwritten or electronic form.Questionnaires enable researchers to measure concepts/constructs.
45QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Steps in Questionnaire Design: Initial Considerations – problem, objectives, target population, sampling, etc.Clarification of Concepts – select variables, constructs, measurement approach, etc.Developing the QuestionnaireLength and sequence.Types of questions.Sources of questions.Wording, coding, layout and instructions.Pre-testing the Questionnaire.Questionnaire Administration Planning.
46QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Two Types of Questions: Open-ended Closed-ended Open-ended Questions = place no constraints on respondents; i.e., they are free to answer in their own words and to give whatever thoughts come to mind. Closed-ended Questions = respondent is given the option of choosing from a number of predetermined answers.
47QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGNExamples of Open-ended Questions: · How do you typically decide which restaurant you will eat at? · Which mutual funds have you been investing in for the past year? · How are your investment funds performing? · Do you think airport security is better now than it was six months ago?
48QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Open-ended Questions Typically used in exploratory/qualitative studies.Typically used in personal interview surveys involving small samples.Allows respondent freedom of response.Respondent must be articulate and willing to spend time giving a full answer.Data is in narrative form which can be time consuming and difficult to code and analyze.Possible researcher bias in interpretation.Narrative is analyzed using of content analysis. Software is available (e.g., NUD*IST).
49Content Analysis Software: TextSmart is a software package that enables users to view, manipulate and automate the coding or categorization of responses to narative data. The ability to automate the examination and organization of narrative data is particularly helpful when a ‘large scale’ survey is undertaken. It can be used to analyze any textual data, and its output can be exported to SPSS for further analysis. For example, you can do correspondence analysis* on a contingency table from a TextSmart analysis. For more information about TextSmart and related SPSS products visit the WWW siteQSR NUD*IST stands for Non-Numerical Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing. It is a popular computer software package used by researchers to analyze text from focus group or interview transcripts, literary documents and so on. It examines non-textual data such as photographs, tape recordings, films and so on. Users can us it to index and link several documents in a structured way to produce categorical data in a form amenable to further analysis. NUD*IST output can be exported to software programs such as SPSS and Excel. For more information about QSR NUD*IST and its related product NVIVO visit their website(http://www.scolari.co.uk/qsr/qsr_n4.htm).
51Examples of Closed-end Questions: Did you check your this morning? __ Yes __ NoDo you believe Enron senior executives should be put in jail? __ Yes __ NoShould the U.K. adopt the Euro or keep the Pound? __ Adopt the Euro __ Keep the PoundWhich countries in Europe have you traveled to in the last six months? __ Belgium __ Germany __ France __ Holland __ Italy __ Switzerland __ Spain __ Other (please specify) _____________How often do you eat at Samouel’s Greek Cuisine restaurant? __ Never __ 1 – 4 times per year __ 5 – 8 times per year __ 9 – 12 times per year __ More than 12 times per year
52QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Closed-end Questions Typically used in quantitative studies.Assumption is researcher has knowledge to pre-specify response categories.Data can be pre-coded and therefore in a form amenable for use with statistical packages (e.g., SPSS, SAS) – data capture therefore easier.More difficult to design but simplifies analysis.Used in studies involving large samples.Limited range of response options.
53QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Broad Considerations Sequencing of questions. Identification of concepts.How many questions are required to capture each concept.Question wording.Overall length of questionnaire.Placing of sensitive questions.Ability of respondents.Level of measurement.Open-ended versus closed-end questions.
55Screening or Filter Questions: QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN – Opening QuestionsScreening or Filter Questions:are used to ensure respondents included in the study are those that meet the pre-determined criteria of the target population.“Tonight we are talking with individuals who are 18 years of age or older and have 50 percent or more of the responsibility for banking decisions in your household. Are you that person?” __ Yes __ No
56QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN – Opening Questions Rapport Questions:are used to establish rapport with the respondent by gaining their attention and stimulating their interest in the topic.“Have you seen any good movies in the last month?”__ Yes __ No“What is your favorite seafood restaurant?”
57QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN – Research Topic Questions Concept/construct = an abstract idea formed in the mind. The idea is a combination of a number of similar characteristics/variables that collectively define the concept and are used to measure it. Constructs are abstract/intangible and cannot be directly observed or measured because they are the mental images a person attaches to an object, such as attitudes, feelings, perceptions, expectations, or expressions of future actions (e.g., purchase intentions).Example Concept: “Customer Service” issues for a B-to-B situationReliable deliveryTechnical sales SupportInside sales representativesField sales representativesComplaint resolutionOrdering/InvoicingWebsite design
58QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Concepts Concept Identification Conceptual definition – e.g., Service Quality.As perceived by customers, it is the difference between customers’ expectations or desires of a vendor and their perceptions of the actual situation (their experiences).Working Definition for ConceptDecompose definition into components.Search for items that are measurable.
59Service Quality Construct: QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGNService Quality Construct:Research has shown the service quality construct can be indirectly represented by the following measurable components:“ The service provider’s ability to “communicate and listen to consumers;sincerely empathize with customers in interpreting their needs and wants;be tactful in responding to customers’ questions, objections, and problems;create an impression of reliability in performing services;create an image of credibility by keeping promises;demonstrate sufficient technical knowledge and competence;exhibit strong interpersonal skills in dealing with customers.
60Concept Development Exercise: QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGNConcept Development Exercise:Concept = “Restaurant Service Quality”What are the components of service quality as they relate to a restaurant?How do you measure these components?
61Preparing Good Questions: QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGNPreparing Good Questions:Use Simple Words.Be brief.Avoid Ambiguity.Avoid Leading Questions.Avoid Double-Barreled Questions.Check Questionnaire Layout.Prepare Clear Instructions.Watch Question Sequence.
62QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGNRecently a survey was conducted by the United Nations using a sample from several different countries. The question asked was:" Would you please give your opinion about the food shortage in the rest of the world?"The survey was a huge failure. Why?In Africa they did not know what 'food' meant.In Western Europe, they did not know what 'shortage' meant.In Eastern Europe they did not know what 'opinion' meant.In South America they did not know what 'please' meant.And in the U.S., they did not know what 'the rest of theworld' meant.
63QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Avoid Position Bias: Position Bias: “How important are flexible hours in evaluatingjob alternatives?”“What factors are important in evaluatingNo Position Bias:
64QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Double-Barreled Questions: Double-Barreled Questions:To what extent do you agree or disagree with thefollowing statements?“Harrod’s employees are friendly and helpful.”“Harrod’s employees are courteous and knowledgeable.”
65QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Branching Questions: Branching Questions:are used to direct respondents to answer the rightquestions as well as questions in the proper sequence.“Have you seen or heard any advertisements for wirelesstelephone service in the past 30 days?”“If ‘No’, go to question #10.“If ‘Yes’ , were the advertisements on radio or TV or both?”“If the advertisements were on TV or on both radio andTV, then go to question #6?“If the advertisements were on radio, then go toquestion #8.”Following questions #6 and #8 the next question would be:“Were any of the advertisements for ‘Sprint PCS’?”
66QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Issues – Self-Completion Instructions: Issues – Self-Completion Instructions:Introducing and explaining how to answer a series ofquestions on a particular topic.Transition statements from one section (topic) of thequestionnaire to another.Which question to go to next (branching or skipping).How many answers are acceptable, e.g., “Check onlyone response” or “Check as many as apply.”Whether respondents are supposed to answer thequestion by themselves, or can consult anotherperson or reference materials.What to do when the questionnaire is completed, e.g.,“When finished, place this in the postage paidenvelope and mail it.”
67QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Issues – Interviewer-Assisted Instructions: Issues – Interviewer-Assisted Instructions:How to increase respondent participation.How to screen out respondents that are not wanted andstill keep them happy.What to say when respondents ask how to answer aparticular question.When concepts may not be easily understood, how todefine them.When answer alternatives are to be read to respondents(aided response) or not to be read (unaided response).How to follow branching or skip patterns.When and how to probe.How to end the interview.
68Identify response bias for below questions: QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGNIdentify response bias for below questions:“Do you advocate a lower speed limit to save human lives?”“When you visited the museum, how many times did you read the plaques that explain what the exhibit contained?”“About what time do you ordinarily eat dinner?”“How important is it for stores to carry a large variety of different brands of this product?”“Would you favor increasing taxes to cope with the current fiscal crisis?”“Don’t you see some danger in the new policy?”“What small appliance, such as countertop appliances, have you purchased in the past month?”“When you buy ‘fast food,’ what percentage of the time do you order each of the following types of food?”“Do you like orange juice?”
69Comments on Questions: QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGNComments on Questions:A loaded question because everyone wants to save lives. Also, it presumes that lower speed limits saves lives.Too specific because respondents likely cannot remember the exact number of times.Ambiguous because don’t know if dinner is lunch or evening.Not specific enough about types of stores.Overemphasis because refers to crisis.Leading question because uses “danger” in sentence.Answers likely to relate only to countertop appliances and not all small appliances.Over generalization because does not specify time period.Ambiguous because may like orange juice for themselves, or for their kids, but really do not know.
70QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Pre-testing Questionnaires: Objective: to identify possible shortcomings of questionnaire.Approaches – informal or formal.Can assess:No hard and fast rules.clarity of instructionscover letterclarity of questionsadequacy of codes and categories for pre-coded questionsquality of responseslikely response rateability to perform meaningful analysestime to complete the questionnairecost of data collectionwhich questions are relevantwhether key questions have been overlookedsources of bias
71Scales = the approach used to measure concepts (constructs). Scale DevelopmentScales = the approach used to measure concepts (constructs).Two Options:Use published scales.Develop original scales.
72Sources of Published Scales Organizational Behavior and Management Price, James L., Handbook of Organizational Measurement, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 18, Number 4/5/6, 1997, ISSN , Has 28 chapters with constructs measuring organizational behavior. Management Information Systems (MIS) www.misq.org/archivist/home.html. Marketing Bearden, William O. and Richard Netemeyer, Handbook of Marketing Scales, Sage Publications, 2nd ed., Summarizes over 130 marketing related scales. Bruner, Gordon Paul Hensel, Marketing Scales Handbook, Chicago, Ill., American Marketing Association, Includes almost 600 scales. General Robinson, John P., Phillip R. Shaver and Lawrence S. Wrightsman, Measures of Personal and Social Psychological Attitudes, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Contains over 150 published scales in 11 different areas. Buros Institute of Mental Measurement’s website – has reviews of published tests and measurements.
74MEASUREMENT SCALES Types of Scales: Metric (interval & ratio) Likert-typeSummated-Ratings (Likert)NumericalSemantic DifferentialGraphic-RatingsNonmetric (nominal & ordinal)CategoricalConstant Sum MethodPaired ComparisonsRank OrderSorting
75Examples of Likert-Type Scales: MEASUREMENT SCALES – MetricExamples of Likert-Type Scales:“When I hear about a new restaurant , I eat there to see what it is like.”Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree StronglyAgree Somewhat or Disagree Somewhat Disagree“When I hear about a new restaurant , I eat there to see what it is like.”Strongly Strongly Agree Disagree
76Summated Ratings Scales: MEASUREMENT SCALES – MetricSummated Ratings Scales:A scaling technique in which respondents are asked to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a number of statements. A subject’s attitude score (summated rating) is the total obtained by summing over the items in the scale and dividing by the number of items to get the average.Example:“My sales representative is “SD D N A SACourteous ___ ___ ___ ___ ___Friendly ___ ___ ___ ___ ___Helpful ___ ___ ___ ___ ___Knowledgeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
77MEASUREMENT SCALES – Metric Alternative Approach to Summated Ratings scales:“When I hear about a new restaurant , I eat there to see what it is like.”Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree StronglyAgree Somewhat or Disagree Somewhat Disagree“I always eat at new restaurants when someone tells me they are good.”Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree StronglyAgree Somewhat or Disagree Somewhat DisagreeThis approach includes a separate labeled Likert scale with each item (statement). The summated rating is a total of the responses for all the items divided by the number of items.
78MEASUREMENT SCALES – Metric Numerical Scales:Example:“Using a 10-point scale, where ‘1’ is ‘not at all important’ and ’10’ is ‘very important,’ how important is ______ in your decision to do business with a particular vendor.”Note: you fill in the blank with an attribute, such as reliable delivery, product quality, complaint resolution, and so forth.
79Semantic Differential Scales: MEASUREMENT SCALES – MetricSemantic Differential Scales:A scaling technique in which respondents are asked to check which space between a set of bipolar adjectives or phrases best describes their feelings toward the stimulus object.Example:“My sales representative is “Courteous ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ DiscourteousFriendly ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ UnfriendlyHelpful ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ UnhelpfulHonest ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Dishonest
80Graphic-Ratings Scales: MEASUREMENT SCALES – MetricGraphic-Ratings Scales:A scaling technique in which respondents are asked to indicate theirratings of an attribute by placing a check at the appropriate pointon a line that runs from one extreme of the attribute to the other.“Please evaluate each attribute in terms of how important the attribute is to you personally (your company) by placing an “X”at the position on the horizontal line that most reflects your feelings.”Not Important Very ImportantCourteousness _____________________________________Friendliness _____________________________________Helpfulness _____________________________________Knowledgeable _____________________________________
81MEASUREMENT SCALES – Nonmetric Categorical scale:Categorical scales are nominally measured opinion scales that have two or more response categories.“How satisfied are you with your current job?”[ ] Very Satisfied[ ] Somewhat Satisfied[ ] Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied[ ] Somewhat Dissatisfied[ ] Very DissatisfiedNote: Some researchers consider this a metric scale when coded 1 – 5 .
82MEASUREMENT SCALES – Nonmetric Constant-Sum Method:A scaling technique in which respondents are asked to dividesome given sum among two or more attributes on the basis oftheir importance to them.“Please divide 100 points among the following attributes interms of the relative importance of each attribute to you.”Courteous Service ____Friendly Service ____Helpful Service ____Knowledgeable Service ____Total
83Paired Comparison Method: MEASUREMENT SCALES – NonmetricPaired Comparison Method:A scaling technique in which respondents are given pairs of stimulus objects and asked which object in a pair they prefer most.“Please circle the attribute describing a sales representative which you consider most desirable.”Courteous versus KnowledgeableFriendly versus HelpfulHelpful versus Courteous
84Sorting: MEASUREMENT SCALES – Nonmetric A scaling technique in which respondents areasked to indicate their beliefs or opinions byarranging objects (items) on the basis ofperceived importance, similarity, preferenceor some other attribute.
85MEASUREMENT SCALES – Nonmetric Rank Order Method:A scaling technique in which respondents are presentedwith several stimulus objects simultaneously and askedto order or rank them with respect to a specificcharacteristic.“Please rank the following attributes on how important each is to you in relation to a sales representative. Place a “1” beside the attribute which is most important, a “2” next to the attribute that is second in importance, and so on.”Courteous Service ___Friendly Service ___Helpful Service ___Knowledgeable Service ___
86Practical Decisions When Developing Scales: Scale DevelopmentPractical Decisions When Developing Scales:Number of items (indicators) to measure a concept?Number of scale categories?Odd or even number of categories?(Include neutral point ?)Balanced or unbalanced scales?Forced or non-forced choice?(Include Don’t Know ?)Category labels for scales?Scale reliability and validity?
87Balanced vs. Unbalanced Scales? Scale DevelopmentBalanced vs. Unbalanced Scales?Balanced:“To what extent do you consider TV shows with sex andviolence to be acceptable for teenagers to view?” __ Very Acceptable__ Somewhat Acceptable__ Neither Acceptable or Unacceptable__ Somewhat Unacceptable__ Very UnacceptableUnbalanced:__ Very Acceptable__ Unacceptable
88Scale Development Forced or Non-Forced? “How likely are you to purchase a laptop PC in the next six months?”Very VeryUnlikely Likely__ No Opinion
89Category Labels for Scales? Scale DevelopmentCategory Labels for Scales?Verbal Label:“How important is the size of the hard drive in selecting a laptop PC to purchase?”Very Somewhat Neither Important Somewhat VeryUnimportant Unimportant or Unimportant Important ImportantNumerical Label:“How likely are you to purchase a laptop PC in the next six months?”Very VeryUnlikely LikelyUnlabeled:“How important is the weight of the laptop PC in deciding which brandto purchase?”Very VeryUnimportant Important___ ___ ___ ___ ___
90Choosing a Measurement Scale: MEASUREMENT SCALESChoosing a Measurement Scale:Capabilities of Respondents.Context of Scale Application.Data Analysis Approach.Validity and Reliability.
91Assessing Measurement Scales: ValidityReliabilityMeasurement Error = occurs when the values obtained in a survey (observed values) are not the same as the true values (population values).
92RESEARCH DESIGN Types of Errors: Nonresponse = problem definition, refusal, sampling, etc.Response = respondent or interviewer.Data Collection Instrument:Construct Development.Scaling Measurement.Questionnaire Design/Sequence, etc.Data Analysis.Interpretation.
93SECONDARY DATAData that has been gathered previously for other purposes.
94SECONDARY DATA Secondary Data Issues: Availability Relevance Accuracy Sufficiency
95RESEARCH PROCESSIdentify and Define Research ProblemTheory / PracticeHypotheses / ConceptualizationResearch DesignData collectionData AnalysisFindings
97Research Design & Data Collection Learning Checkpoint:Define a research problem to be studied.Identify the topics /concepts that will be coveredto answer research questions.Identify the types of questions and/or scalingyou will use.How will you evaluate the questions/scales you use?Determine the best way to collect the data.Present group suggestions; defend.