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7: Designing the Questionnaire ESSENTIALS OF MARKETING RESEARCH Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush.

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Presentation on theme: "7: Designing the Questionnaire ESSENTIALS OF MARKETING RESEARCH Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush."— Presentation transcript:

1 7: Designing the Questionnaire ESSENTIALS OF MARKETING RESEARCH Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush

2 9-2 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Learning Objectives  Describe the steps in questionnaire design  Discuss the questionnaire development process  Summarize the characteristics of good questionnaires  Understand the role of cover letters  Explain the importance of other documents used with questionnaires

3 9-3 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Value of Questionnaires in Marketing Research  A questionnaire is a formal framework consisting of a set of questions/scales designed to generate primary data  Questionnaire construction involves using a process that takes established sets of question/scale measurements and formats them into a complete instrument

4 9-4 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Steps in Questionnaire Design  1: Confirm research objectives  2: Select appropriate data collection method  3: Develop questions and scaling  4: Determine layout and evaluate questionnaire  5: Pretest, revise, and finalize questionnaire  6: Implement survey

5 9-5 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Quality of Question oBad Questions Õ Unanswerable. Õ Leading or loaded. Õ Double-barreled questions. Quality of Question oBad Questions Õ Unanswerable. Õ Leading or loaded. Õ Double-barreled questions. Type of Question Format o Unstructured Questions ÕOpen-ended format where respondent replies in their own words. o Structured Questions ÕClosed-ended format where respondent responds from a set of possible responses. Type of Question Format o Unstructured Questions ÕOpen-ended format where respondent replies in their own words. o Structured Questions ÕClosed-ended format where respondent responds from a set of possible responses. Questions and Scaling

6 9-6 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Guidelines for Evaluating the Adequacy of Questions  Use simple words, avoiding technical words  Avoid qualifying phrases  Ensure response categories are mutually exclusive  Ensure question and scale statements are meaningful to the respondents  Avoid arranging response categories in a manner that may bias responses  Do not double-barrel questions or response items

7 9-7 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Considerations in Questionnaire Design_1  Confirm the research objectives before designing the questionnaire  Determine data requirements to complete each research objective  Include a general description of the study in the introduction section  Ensure instructions are clear  Arrange questions in a logical order

8 9-8 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Considerations in Questionnaire Design_2  Begin with simple questions and then progress to more difficult ones  Ask person questions at the end  Place sensitive questions towards the end  Avoid asking questions using a different measurement format in the same section of the questionnaire  End with a thank-you statement

9 9-9 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales Four Basic Scale Levels

10 9-10 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Nominal Scales Nominal scales focus on only requiring a respondent to provide some type of descriptor as the raw response Nominal scales focus on only requiring a respondent to provide some type of descriptor as the raw response Example. Please indicate your current martial status. __Married __ Single __ Single, never married __ Widowed

11 9-11 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Ordinal Scales Ordinal scales allow the respondent to express “relative magnitude” between the raw responses to a question Example. Which one statement best describes your opinion of an Intel PC processor? __ Higher than AMD’s PC processor __ About the same as AMD’s PC processor __ Lower than AMD’s PC processor

12 9-12 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Interval Scales Interval scales demonstrate the absolute differences between each scale point Example. How likely are you to recommend the Santa Fe Grill to a friend? Definitely will not Definitely will

13 9-13 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Ratio Scales Ratio scales allow for the identification of absolute differences between each scale point, and absolute comparisons between raw responses Example 1. Please circle the number of children under 18 years of age currently living in your household (if more than 7, please specify ___.)

14 9-14 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Encourage Participation Improve Response Rates Initial Contacting Device Provide Study Information Communicate Study’s Legitimacy Communicate Study’s Legitimacy Role of a Cover Letter

15 9-15 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Guidelines for Developing Cover Letters_1  Personalize letter  Identify sponsoring organization  State purpose and importance clearly  Promise anonymity or confidentiality  Clarify the general time frame of doing study

16 9-16 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Guidelines for Developing Cover Letters_2  Reinforce importance of participation  Acknowledge reasons for nonparticipation  Provide time requirements and any compensation  Explain completion date and where and how to return survey  Offer advance thank you statement

17 9-17 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Other Documents Used in Collecting Data  Supervisor instructions  Interviewer instructions  Screening forms  Quota sheets  Rating cards  Call record sheets

18 9-18 Copyright © 2008 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush, Essentials of Marketing Research 1e © McGraw-Hill/Irwin2008 Sample Rating Card


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