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7: Designing the Questionnaire

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1 7: Designing the Questionnaire

2 Learning Objectives Describe the steps in questionnaire design
Discuss the questionnaire development process Summarize the characteristics of good questionnaires Understand the role of cover letters Explain the importance of other documents used with questionnaires

3 Value of Questionnaires in Marketing Research
A questionnaire is a formal framework consisting of a set of questions/scales designed to generate primary data Questionnaire construction involves using a process that takes established sets of question/scale measurements and formats them into a complete instrument

4 Steps in Questionnaire Design
1: Confirm research objectives 2: Select appropriate data collection method 3: Develop questions and scaling 4: Determine layout and evaluate questionnaire 5: Pretest, revise, and finalize questionnaire 6: Implement survey

5 Questions and Scaling Type of Question Format Quality of Question
Unstructured Questions Open-ended format where respondent replies in their own words. Structured Questions Closed-ended format where respondent responds from a set of possible responses. Quality of Question Bad Questions Unanswerable. Leading or loaded. Double-barreled questions.

6 Guidelines for Evaluating the Adequacy of Questions
Use simple words, avoiding technical words Avoid qualifying phrases Ensure response categories are mutually exclusive Ensure question and scale statements are meaningful to the respondents Avoid arranging response categories in a manner that may bias responses Do not double-barrel questions or response items

7 Considerations in Questionnaire Design_1
Confirm the research objectives before designing the questionnaire Determine data requirements to complete each research objective Include a general description of the study in the introduction section Ensure instructions are clear Arrange questions in a logical order

8 Considerations in Questionnaire Design_2
Begin with simple questions and then progress to more difficult ones Ask person questions at the end Place sensitive questions towards the end Avoid asking questions using a different measurement format in the same section of the questionnaire End with a thank-you statement

9 Four Basic Scale Levels
Nominal Scales Four Basic Scale Levels Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales

10 Nominal Scales Nominal scales focus on only requiring a
respondent to provide some type of descriptor as the raw response Example. Please indicate your current martial status. __Married __ Single __ Single, never married __ Widowed

11 Ordinal Scales Ordinal scales allow the respondent to express “relative magnitude” between the raw responses to a question Example. Which one statement best describes your opinion of an Intel PC processor? __ Higher than AMD’s PC processor __ About the same as AMD’s PC processor __ Lower than AMD’s PC processor

12 Interval Scales Interval scales demonstrate the absolute differences between each scale point Example. How likely are you to recommend the Santa Fe Grill to a friend? Definitely will not Definitely will

13 Ratio Scales Ratio scales allow for the identification of absolute differences between each scale point, and absolute comparisons between raw responses Example 1. Please circle the number of children under 18 years of age currently living in your household. (if more than 7, please specify ___.)

14 Role of a Cover Letter Initial Contacting Device
Encourage Participation Provide Study Information Communicate Study’s Legitimacy Improve Response Rates

15 Guidelines for Developing Cover Letters_1
Personalize letter Identify sponsoring organization State purpose and importance clearly Promise anonymity or confidentiality Clarify the general time frame of doing study

16 Guidelines for Developing Cover Letters_2
Reinforce importance of participation Acknowledge reasons for nonparticipation Provide time requirements and any compensation Explain completion date and where and how to return survey Offer advance thank you statement

17 Other Documents Used in Collecting Data
Supervisor instructions Interviewer instructions Screening forms Quota sheets Rating cards Call record sheets

18 Sample Rating Card

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