2 What is Science?A. A way of learning about the natural world1. Want to know why & how something occurred2. To do this, one must ask questionsB. Asking questions1. Science can answer a lot of questions but it can’t answer things about art, politics, morality, right or wrong, good or bad or personal preferences
3 Possible Explanations 1 Possible Explanations 1. With science any answer is uncertain because people will never know everything about the world around them2. With new knowledge they might realize that some old explanations no longer fit new information
4 Explanation still possible ModifiedNew Info.QuestionExperimentDiscardedStill Possible – solar system: learn about a new planet/solar system---doesn’t take away from what we know about existing planetsModified – solar system: made up of 9 planets—made up of 8 planets (w/o Pluto)cooking: still add parsley but also basilDiscarded – solar system: Earth is not the center of solar system----Pluto is not a planetcooking: don’t cook at 400 for 30 minNew Explanation – solar system: Sun is the center of the solar system----Pluto is a dwarf planetcooking: cook at 325 for 1 hourNew explanation possible
5 Scientific Theories1. Is an attempt to explain a pattern that is observed repeatedly in the natural worldEx: The Sun rises in the East and sets in the West as a result of the counterclockwise rotation of the Earth.2. Theories are the best explanations but they can change3. Theories explain why something happens
6 Scientific Laws1. Is a rule that describes a pattern in natureEx: The Sun rises in the East and sets in West2. To become a law it must be observed repeatedly3. A law does not attempt to explain why something happens, it just describes the pattern
7 B. Systems are found everywhere Systems in ScienceA. A system is a collection of structures, cycles and processes that relate and interact with each otherEx: solar system, body systems, ecosystems,life cycles, water cycle etc.B. Systems are found everywhereC. All systems are made up of other systemsEx: Human body system made of smaller systems;Our school system part of larger systems
8 Branches of ScienceA. There are 3 main categories or branches:1. Life Science2. Earth Science3. Physical Science
9 Life Science1. The study of living systems and the ways in which they interact2. Biology, Zoology, Botany, Anatomy etc.
10 Earth Science1. The study of Earth systems and the systems in space. It includes nonliving things such as rocks, soil, clouds, rivers, oceans, stars, weather, etc.2. Astronomy, Geology, Meteorology etc.
11 Physical Science1. The study of matter & energya) Matter – anything that has mass and takes up spaceb) Energy – the ability to change matter2. EVERYTHING (living and nonliving systems) is made of matterex: plants, animals, water, air/ atmosphere, clouds
12 3. Physical science is divided into 2 general categories: 3. Physical science is divided into 2 general categories: a) Chemistry – the study of matter and the interactions of matter b) Physics – the study of energy and its ability to change matter
13 A. Jobs that are science related CareersA. Jobs that are science related1. Medical – doctors, nurses, ultrasound & x-ray technicians, sports medicine, physical therapists2. Research – chemists, physicists, biologists3. EngineeringB. Technology – practical use of science or applied science
14 1. State the problem/question Science in ActionA. Scientists have a huge collection of skills that they use to solve problemsB. Scientific Method1. State the problem/question2. Collect information/Research3. Hypothesize4. Experiment5. Record Data6. Draw a conclusion7. Repeat
15 C. Infer – to draw a conclusion based on an observation
16 D. Experiments 1. Are means to test hypotheses 2. Controlled Experiment – a test where only one factor is changed at a time to observe how it affects another factor
17 3. Factors that can be changed in an experiment are called variables. a) Independent variable – the factor that is changed/ thing you are testingb) Dependent variable – a factor that changes as a result of the independent variablec) Constants – factors that are NOT changed in an experiment
18 E. Lab Safety. 1. The #1 rule: Think before you act. 2 E. Lab Safety The #1 rule: Think before you act Know the location of equipment Have good safety habits*Draw and learn lab safety symbols – p.19
19 Models in ScienceA. A model is any representation of an object or an event used as a tool for understanding the natural world1. Models help visualize something that is difficult to seeex: something that is too big, too small, no longer exists etc.
20 B. Types of Models. 1. Physical Models. a) can see & touch B. Types of Models Physical Models a) can see & touch ex: pictures or 3-D, maps, globes b) shows how parts relate to one another c) used to show how things appear or react when an outside force acts on them
21 2. Computer Models. a) use software – can see but not touch 2. Computer Models a) use software – can see but not touch b) used for events too slow or too fast to actually see ex: weather models, plate tectonics etc Weather.com - US map radar Rose Bloom Flowers blooming, Clouds & Water drop
22 3. Idea Models. a) concepts that describe how someone 3. Idea Models a) concepts that describe how someone thinks about something in the natural world ex: Einstein's theory of relativity E=mc2Theory of Relativity: Under right conditions mass (matter) and energy can be interchangeableSmall amount of mass X the speed of light (how fast energy moves) =/turns into a huge amount of energy (a walnut has enough energy stored to power a city)
23 C. Using Models. 1. Not all models used for scientific purposes. 2 C. Using Models Not all models used for scientific purposes Other uses: a) Communication – to relay information and ideas to people ex: globes, blueprints, recipes
24 b) Test predictions ex: wind tunnels to duplicate flight conditions
25 c) Save time, money & lives ex: crash test dummies
26 D. Evaluating Scientific Explanation. 1. Critical Thinking – combining D. Evaluating Scientific Explanation Critical Thinking – combining knowledge that you already have with new facts that you are given in order to decide for yourself if you should agree with something
27 2. Data – the observations and information gathered in an experiment; it can be recorded in the form of a written description, table, chart or drawinga) must consider if the data is specific and exact ex: how many people were involved in a study – are exact #’s used?
28 b) scientists must be able to back up b) scientists must be able to back up their statements with specific data and it must be able to be repeated by other scientists3. Good Notes – write down every observation because you can easily forget something in a few hours