2For your prelim, you MUST answer any Skills and Techniques Question on…. Gymnastics
3Know what you are going to answer on, and DO NOT stray from this!!!!!
4Important Theory Concepts Methods of PracticeStages of LearningMethods of Data CollectionClassification of SkillsMotivation/Concentration/FeedbackModel PerformanceGoal/Target SettingProgression of TrainingInformation Processing Model (Intermediate 2)In No particular order – you need to brush up on your knowledge of ALL of these areas!!!
5To Become a Better performer by becoming more skilful! But 1st………What is the Purpose of the Skills and Techniques block??To Become a Better performer by becoming more skilful!
6Cycle of Analysis Better Performer How do we achieve this? Stage 1 - InvestigateCycle of AnalysisStage 4 - EvaluateStage 2 - AnalyseBetter PerformerStage 3 - Develop
7Cycle of Analysis Stage 1 - Investigate Collection of Initial Data on your performance (Methods of Data Collection)Gathering Results
8Cycle of Analysis Stage 2 - Analyse Analysis of Data CollectedForward Planning (Goal/Target Setting)Model Performance
9Cycle of Analysis Stage 3 – Develop (Training Programme) Planning a purposeful Training Programme (Methods of Practice/ Stages of LearningMonitoring and Evaluating your training through use of your Training Diary (Motivation, Concentration and Feedback)Adapting/Progressing your training
10Cycle of Analysis Stage 4 – Evaluate Re-testing and contrasting (Pre and Post Training Data now available)Evaluating your goals/targetsWhere next???Remember, the COA is an on-going process
11What is a skill?? A movement with a purpose. For example, a Headstand, a forward Roll, a Handspring,.Non Gymnastics Related – passing, dribbling, shooting, forehand.
12What is a technique then? A technique is a way of carrying out a particular school (DO NOT CONFUSE THE TWO)For example – Bent leg headstand, straight leg handstand, forward roll to straddle, bent arm handspringNon Gymnastic related examples – driven shot, chipped pass, instep pass, driven pass, topspin forehand, driven forehand, sliced forehand.Skill – What you doTechnique – how you do it
13It is important to understand what you are doing, and the process you have gone through to get to it Right – lets get started!
14Methods of PracticeThese are different methods we use when we are practicing a specific skill. Each will be used depending on what Stage of Learning you are at (We will come back to this!!)
15Solo Practice Working on Your own Helps you understand the pattern of movementsUnder no Pressure when working individuallyE.g - Headstand against wall
16Partner Practice Working cooperatively with a partner Only works if you are both working on the same skill/techniqueCan motivate each otherCopy each others successesGives natural W:R intervalsCan be used to support, count, encourage, provide feedback etcPartner support Headstand
17Gradual Build UpUsed when learning skills which are complex and/or carry a degree of risk (Heavily used in Gymnastics)Start with the basics, then gradually make the practices more demanding .Allows you to develop high levels of confidenceChallenges need to be achievable, meaningful and realistic to your level of performanceE.g elephant balance, triangle base to kick up, headstand against wall, with support, full headstand.
18Imagine I asked you to perform me this on our 1st gymnastics lesson…..
19Repetition Drills Used to ‘Groove’ the technique Can be used to develop the whole skill or particular parts of techniqueThe more often you practice something correctly, you will improveE.g Forward Roll down a slope
21Stages of LearningAs a performer, you will find yourself at a stage of learning.There are three stages, and the stage a person is at is very much individual to them.As you become more skilled, you will pass through the stages.
22Planning / Cognitive Stage Stage 1 Beginner StageDeep thought about the individual parts of the skill and how they follow on in sequence.Errors are high, success LowIn the very early stages, levels of Motivation, Concentration should be high as you are just starting out and wanting to improve.Need a lot of positive and constructive feedback which is accurate.
23Practice / Associative Stage Stage 2 Focus is on practicing the correct techniqueTechnique beginning to be more refined, through time large errors begin to become less frequent.Consistency gradually increasing, errors gradually lessening.May be in this stage for some timeAble to start analysing your own performance and look at improvements
24Automatic/Autonomous Stage Stage 3 Perform with a high level of efficiency, accuracy and speedDon’t need to think too hard about the actionsCan begin thinking about strategies and systems of the activity, what comes next.High level of self analysisLittle/no errors, high percentage of success.Model Performer
26There is a very important relationship between your Stage of Learning and the methods of practice you will use!Planning/CognitiveSoloShadowPartnerGradual Build UpPractice / AssociativePartnerGroupRepetitionGradual Build UpAutomatic / AutonomousConditioned GamesSmall Sided GamesFull GamesWhole Part Whole
27Past Paper Questions Intermediate 1 Name a method of practice __________Describe this method of practice.Select one method of feedback you received during the practice described in part (c)Method of feedback(ii) Describe how you used this feedback to develop your weak skill/technique.Intermediate 21) How did you ensure that the practices you used in your programme of work were effective? (4)2(a) Describe, in detail, what you know about each of the stages of learning listed below. (4)Preparation Stage (Cognitive) Practice Stage (Associative) Automatic Stage(b) Describe two different methods of practice you used for one of the stages listed in (a) (5)
28Methods of Data Collection We used a number of different methods to collect data on our current levels of performance.Specific Observation SchedulePersonal ReflectionGeneral Observation ScheduleSkills Test
29Personal Reflection Your own opinion A good starting point Highlights what you think your Strengths and Weaknesses are based on previous experience.Provides Subjective DataMust have prior knowledge of what makes successful performance
30General (Basic) Observation Schedule Looks at the whole performance (every skill of the activity)Partner observes you, tally successful or unsuccessful based on success criteria. (What = successful completion)Highlights skills you are strong at, and ones you are weak atObjective Data which can confirm or contradict Personal Reflection
31Specific Observation Schedule Observer watching you during a performanceWatches 1 particular skillObserving each subroutine (Preparation, Action, Recovery) and marks success/failure.Gives specific (objective) information regarding what part of the skill is letting you down.Guides you to a specific development need.
32Skills Test (Movement Analysis) Specific Practice designed to test your ability to perform the whole skill with appropriate accuracy/power.Clear indication of Success/Failure.
33Past Paper Questions Intermediate 1 Choose one activity from your course.Name of activity(a) Describe a method you used to gather information about your performance. (2)(b) Describe one skill/technique from your performance which was a strength.(3)(c) Describe one skill/technique from your performance which was a weakness.(3)Intermediate 2Describe how you gathered information on your selected skill or technique. (4)Why were the method(s) used to gather information appropriate? (3)Select a skill or technique which was a weakness in your performance. How did you gather information on this skill or technique?(4)
35Open Closed Open Skills Closed Skills Movement Patterns Change due to the Nature of PerformanceNever the same situationCan be impacted by an external factor eg team mates or opponentsE.g – Pass, Shooting, Dribbling, Overhead Clear, Spike, DigMovement Patterns always the same.You are fully in control of the execution of that skillCannot be impacted by external factors such as your team mates or your opponentsE.g Headstand, Forward Roll, High Serve, Golf Drive, Tennis Serve
36Simple Complex Simple Skills Closed Skills Very few (1 or 2) SubroutinesSimple to learnEasy to masterE.g – Pencil Roll, Teddy Bear Roll, Arabesque,Lots of Subroutines.Difficult Skill to LearnTakes a long time to achieve masteryE.g Headstand, Forward Roll, Handspring, Front Somersault
37Quick QuestionsFrom one activity in your course, classify open and closed skills involved.Explain the Complexity involved in the different skills from one activity in your course
38Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating Progress during Training
393 Important FactorsMotivationConcentrationFeedback
40Motivation Your level of desire to succeed Important in Learning all skillsEssential if you want to progressIf you are motivated, you are far more likely to progress and succeed.Motivation can come in 2 formsInternal MotivationExternal Motivation
41Internal Motivation Your own level of desire Essential if training schedule is heavy (swimming)Internal Motivation will have helped you choose your activity alreadyComes from inside
42External MotivationOccurs when your involvement in an activity comes for reasons about more than participation.For example, earning money through participationWanting to do well in PE to get a good grade, access university or college may be an example of external motivation.
43Concentration Focus Paying attention to the various “cues” Ability to focus your attention to the most important parts of your performanceE.g a beginner would pay very close attention to the most basic points of technique
45Feedback Information you collect about your performance Essential for performance improvementHelps you plan improvements and provides reinforcements of success.Encourages work towards further improvementComes in 2 formsInternal FeedbackExternal Feedback
46Internal Feedback Also known as intrinsic feedback Comes from inside youComes through body movementsMust have a feeling and awareness of what a good performance is though
47External Feedback Comes from a video, coach, team mate, opponent. Comes from an external sourceThose offering the feedback must have an understanding of what makes a successful performance.
48Past Paper Questions – Int 1 Select one method of feedback you received during the practice described in part (c).Method of feedback(ii) Describe how you used this feedback to develop your weak skill/ technique (2)Circle one of the following.• Motivation• ConcentrationDescribe how it was used in either of your practices to help you make progress. (2)
49Past Paper Questions Int 2 Select two of the factors listed below.Motivation Concentration FeedbackExplain why they were important when carrying out your methods of practice. (4)
50What is a model performer? An example of how the skill should lookSomeone who executes the skill in question every time with a high degree of successWhat any performer should be aspiring toWhen target setting, you should be aiming to be closer to this level of performanceCan be used to assess where you are at present by making comparison
54Principles of Effective Practice Clear ObjectivesFocussed on weaknessPractice choice aimed at appropriate stage of learningPractice choice aimed at current level of abilityWork to Rest RatioProgression of practices – why and howTarget setting – challenging but achievable/realisticWhy each of these make a successful practice session/programmeWE APPLIED THESE PRINCIPLES THROUGHOUT EVERY ACTIVITY – THIS IS A MUST IF YOU WANT TO PROGRESS