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Intermediate 1 / 2 Physical Education

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1 Intermediate 1 / 2 Physical Education
Skills and Techniques Revision Materials October 2011

2 For your prelim, you MUST answer any Skills and Techniques Question on….

3 Know what you are going to answer on, and DO NOT stray from this!!!!!

4 Important Theory Concepts
Methods of Practice Stages of Learning Methods of Data Collection Classification of Skills Motivation/Concentration/Feedback Model Performance Goal/Target Setting Progression of Training Information Processing Model (Intermediate 2) In No particular order – you need to brush up on your knowledge of ALL of these areas!!!

5 To Become a Better performer by becoming more skilful!
But 1st……… What is the Purpose of the Skills and Techniques block?? To Become a Better performer by becoming more skilful!

6 Cycle of Analysis Better Performer How do we achieve this?
Stage 1 - Investigate Cycle of Analysis Stage 4 - Evaluate Stage 2 - Analyse Better Performer Stage 3 - Develop

7 Cycle of Analysis Stage 1 - Investigate
Collection of Initial Data on your performance (Methods of Data Collection) Gathering Results

8 Cycle of Analysis Stage 2 - Analyse
Analysis of Data Collected Forward Planning (Goal/Target Setting) Model Performance

9 Cycle of Analysis Stage 3 – Develop (Training Programme)
Planning a purposeful Training Programme (Methods of Practice/ Stages of Learning Monitoring and Evaluating your training through use of your Training Diary (Motivation, Concentration and Feedback) Adapting/Progressing your training

10 Cycle of Analysis Stage 4 – Evaluate
Re-testing and contrasting (Pre and Post Training Data now available) Evaluating your goals/targets Where next??? Remember, the COA is an on-going process

11 What is a skill?? A movement with a purpose.
For example, a Headstand, a forward Roll, a Handspring,. Non Gymnastics Related – passing, dribbling, shooting, forehand.

12 What is a technique then?
A technique is a way of carrying out a particular school (DO NOT CONFUSE THE TWO) For example – Bent leg headstand, straight leg handstand, forward roll to straddle, bent arm handspring Non Gymnastic related examples – driven shot, chipped pass, instep pass, driven pass, topspin forehand, driven forehand, sliced forehand. Skill – What you do Technique – how you do it

13 It is important to understand what you are doing, and the process you have gone through to get to it Right – lets get started!

14 Methods of Practice These are different methods we use when we are practicing a specific skill. Each will be used depending on what Stage of Learning you are at (We will come back to this!!)

15 Solo Practice Working on Your own
Helps you understand the pattern of movements Under no Pressure when working individually E.g - Headstand against wall

16 Partner Practice Working cooperatively with a partner
Only works if you are both working on the same skill/technique Can motivate each other Copy each others successes Gives natural W:R intervals Can be used to support, count, encourage, provide feedback etc Partner support Headstand

17 Gradual Build Up Used when learning skills which are complex and/or carry a degree of risk (Heavily used in Gymnastics) Start with the basics, then gradually make the practices more demanding . Allows you to develop high levels of confidence Challenges need to be achievable, meaningful and realistic to your level of performance E.g elephant balance, triangle base to kick up, headstand against wall, with support, full headstand.

18 Imagine I asked you to perform me this on our 1st gymnastics lesson…..

19 Repetition Drills Used to ‘Groove’ the technique
Can be used to develop the whole skill or particular parts of technique The more often you practice something correctly, you will improve E.g Forward Roll down a slope

20 What method of practice is Andy using?

21 Stages of Learning As a performer, you will find yourself at a stage of learning. There are three stages, and the stage a person is at is very much individual to them. As you become more skilled, you will pass through the stages.

22 Planning / Cognitive Stage Stage 1
Beginner Stage Deep thought about the individual parts of the skill and how they follow on in sequence. Errors are high, success Low In the very early stages, levels of Motivation, Concentration should be high as you are just starting out and wanting to improve. Need a lot of positive and constructive feedback which is accurate.

23 Practice / Associative Stage Stage 2
Focus is on practicing the correct technique Technique beginning to be more refined, through time large errors begin to become less frequent. Consistency gradually increasing, errors gradually lessening. May be in this stage for some time Able to start analysing your own performance and look at improvements

24 Automatic/Autonomous Stage Stage 3
Perform with a high level of efficiency, accuracy and speed Don’t need to think too hard about the actions Can begin thinking about strategies and systems of the activity, what comes next. High level of self analysis Little/no errors, high percentage of success. Model Performer

25 Model Performers?

26 There is a very important relationship between your Stage of Learning and the methods of practice you will use! Planning/Cognitive Solo Shadow Partner Gradual Build Up Practice / Associative Partner Group Repetition Gradual Build Up Automatic / Autonomous Conditioned Games Small Sided Games Full Games Whole Part Whole

27 Past Paper Questions Intermediate 1
Name a method of practice __________ Describe this method of practice. Select one method of feedback you received during the practice described in part (c) Method of feedback (ii) Describe how you used this feedback to develop your weak skill/technique. Intermediate 2 1) How did you ensure that the practices you used in your programme of work were effective? (4) 2(a) Describe, in detail, what you know about each of the stages of learning listed below. (4) Preparation Stage (Cognitive) Practice Stage (Associative) Automatic Stage (b) Describe two different methods of practice you used for one of the stages listed in (a) (5)

28 Methods of Data Collection
We used a number of different methods to collect data on our current levels of performance. Specific Observation Schedule Personal Reflection General Observation Schedule Skills Test

29 Personal Reflection Your own opinion A good starting point
Highlights what you think your Strengths and Weaknesses are based on previous experience. Provides Subjective Data Must have prior knowledge of what makes successful performance

30 General (Basic) Observation Schedule
Looks at the whole performance (every skill of the activity) Partner observes you, tally successful or unsuccessful based on success criteria. (What = successful completion) Highlights skills you are strong at, and ones you are weak at Objective Data which can confirm or contradict Personal Reflection

31 Specific Observation Schedule
Observer watching you during a performance Watches 1 particular skill Observing each subroutine (Preparation, Action, Recovery) and marks success/failure. Gives specific (objective) information regarding what part of the skill is letting you down. Guides you to a specific development need.

32 Skills Test (Movement Analysis)
Specific Practice designed to test your ability to perform the whole skill with appropriate accuracy/power. Clear indication of Success/Failure.

33 Past Paper Questions Intermediate 1
Choose one activity from your course. Name of activity (a) Describe a method you used to gather information about your performance. (2) (b) Describe one skill/technique from your performance which was a strength.(3) (c) Describe one skill/technique from your performance which was a weakness.(3) Intermediate 2 Describe how you gathered information on your selected skill or technique. (4) Why were the method(s) used to gather information appropriate? (3) Select a skill or technique which was a weakness in your performance. How did you gather information on this skill or technique?(4)

34 Classification of Skills

35 Open Closed Open Skills Closed Skills
Movement Patterns Change due to the Nature of Performance Never the same situation Can be impacted by an external factor eg team mates or opponents E.g – Pass, Shooting, Dribbling, Overhead Clear, Spike, Dig Movement Patterns always the same. You are fully in control of the execution of that skill Cannot be impacted by external factors such as your team mates or your opponents E.g Headstand, Forward Roll, High Serve, Golf Drive, Tennis Serve

36 Simple Complex Simple Skills Closed Skills
Very few (1 or 2) Subroutines Simple to learn Easy to master E.g – Pencil Roll, Teddy Bear Roll, Arabesque, Lots of Subroutines. Difficult Skill to Learn Takes a long time to achieve mastery E.g Headstand, Forward Roll, Handspring, Front Somersault

37 Quick Questions From one activity in your course, classify open and closed skills involved. Explain the Complexity involved in the different skills from one activity in your course

38 Monitoring, Reviewing and Evaluating Progress during Training

39 3 Important Factors Motivation Concentration Feedback

40 Motivation Your level of desire to succeed
Important in Learning all skills Essential if you want to progress If you are motivated, you are far more likely to progress and succeed. Motivation can come in 2 forms Internal Motivation External Motivation

41 Internal Motivation Your own level of desire
Essential if training schedule is heavy (swimming) Internal Motivation will have helped you choose your activity already Comes from inside

42 External Motivation Occurs when your involvement in an activity comes for reasons about more than participation. For example, earning money through participation Wanting to do well in PE to get a good grade, access university or college may be an example of external motivation.

43 Concentration Focus Paying attention to the various “cues”
Ability to focus your attention to the most important parts of your performance E.g a beginner would pay very close attention to the most basic points of technique

44 Concentration

45 Feedback Information you collect about your performance
Essential for performance improvement Helps you plan improvements and provides reinforcements of success. Encourages work towards further improvement Comes in 2 forms Internal Feedback External Feedback

46 Internal Feedback Also known as intrinsic feedback
Comes from inside you Comes through body movements Must have a feeling and awareness of what a good performance is though

47 External Feedback Comes from a video, coach, team mate, opponent.
Comes from an external source Those offering the feedback must have an understanding of what makes a successful performance.

48 Past Paper Questions – Int 1
Select one method of feedback you received during the practice described in part (c). Method of feedback (ii) Describe how you used this feedback to develop your weak skill/ technique (2) Circle one of the following. • Motivation • Concentration Describe how it was used in either of your practices to help you make progress. (2)

49 Past Paper Questions Int 2
Select two of the factors listed below. Motivation Concentration Feedback Explain why they were important when carrying out your methods of practice. (4)

50 What is a model performer?
An example of how the skill should look Someone who executes the skill in question every time with a high degree of success What any performer should be aspiring to When target setting, you should be aiming to be closer to this level of performance Can be used to assess where you are at present by making comparison

51 Model Performer?

52 What makes a skilled performance?
Maximum efficiency and a minimum of effort Fluency Control Selecting Correct Options Ability and Experience Consistency Successful

53 Skilled Performer?

54 Principles of Effective Practice
Clear Objectives Focussed on weakness Practice choice aimed at appropriate stage of learning Practice choice aimed at current level of ability Work to Rest Ratio Progression of practices – why and how Target setting – challenging but achievable/realistic Why each of these make a successful practice session/programme WE APPLIED THESE PRINCIPLES THROUGHOUT EVERY ACTIVITY – THIS IS A MUST IF YOU WANT TO PROGRESS

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