Presentation on theme: "SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES INFORMATION PACK"— Presentation transcript:
1 SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES INFORMATION PACK INTERMEDIATE 1PHYSICAL EDUCATIONSKILLS AND TECHNIQUESINFORMATION PACKName : _____________________________________Class : _________ Year : ______ -- ______
2 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES AIMS To improve your Performance. To improve your Understanding of Skills and Techniques.PROCESS1.You will develop an understanding about Skill and Skilled Performance by learning about :How basic skills and techniques are learned before more complex skills and techniques.How skills and techniques are refined through practice.How model performances can be used to develop performance.2.You will develop an understanding of how to Analyse and Develop Performance in relation to skills and techniques by learning about :Movement Analysis.A Technique improvement Training Programme.The importance of reviewing and monitoring progress.3.You will develop an understanding of how to improve your performance by developing your skills and refining your techniques by learning about :Principles of Effective Practice.Methods of Practice.Stages of Learning.The importance of Feedback, Concentration and Motivation.OUTCOMESImproved Performance.Improved Understanding of Skills and Techniques.
3 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES CLOSED OPEN SIMPLE COMPLEX DISCRETE SERIAL SKILL and SKILLED PERFORMANCEA SKILL is a “MOVEMENT WITH A PURPOSE”.You can become more Skilled if you are prepared to build on your own ability by practising and showing a willingness to learn.Ability + Learning + Practise = SKILL (A.L.P.S.)Skills can be placed in the following categories :CLOSEDOPENThis describes the movement patterns.If they are always identical it is a “CLOSED” skill.If they change due to the nature of performance it is an “OPEN” skill.SIMPLECOMPLEXThis describes the number of parts (subroutines) within skills.If there is only 1 movement the skill is “SIMPLE”.If the skill requires a series of linked movements it is “COMPLEX”.DISCRETESERIALThis describes how easily you can identify the “start” and “finishing” points of the skill.
4 SKILL and SKILLED PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESSKILL and SKILLED PERFORMANCEFor example : In TABLE TENNISSKILLSKILL CLASSIFICATIONServeclosedsimplediscretePushopencomplexDriveBlockSmashFor example : In GYMNASTICSSKILLSKILL CLASSIFICATIONRollsclosedsimple to complexdiscreteJumpsTurnsBalancesAgilitiesFor example : In VOLLEYBALLSKILLSKILL CLASSIFICATIONServeclosedsimplediscreteDigopencomplexVolleySpikeBlock
5 DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUEA TECHNIQUE is the “way in which a skill is performed”In Volleyball the “SKILL” is Serving.One “TECHNIQUE” is the under arm serve.Another “TECHNIQUE” is the over arm serve.In Gymnastics the “SKILL” is Rolling.One “TECHNIQUE” is the forward roll.Another “TECHNIQUE” is the backward roll.
6 DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUEFor example :TABLE TENNISGYMNASTICSVOLLEYBALLSKILLServeRollsTECHNIQUESForehand (top spin)Backhand (side spin)Forward (tuck)Backward (straddle)ExtendedCircleUnderarmOverarmDriveAgilitiesDigForehandBackhandHeadspringHandspringStraddle VaultThrough VaultDig receptionDig setDig attackReverse DigBlockBalancesVolleyHeadstand (tucked)Headstand (piked)HandstandSplit Leg HandstandVolley receptionVolley setVolley attackReverse VolleySmashTurnsSpikeQuarterHalfThree QuartersFullOn hand (down the line)Off hand (diagonal)
7 DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUETo DEVELOP EFFECTIVELY you need to know :How you perform skills (INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL).What skills and techniques you can, and can’t, perform (STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES).Exactly what specific aspect of your performance you want to improve (TECHNIQUE).What the technique should look like (MODEL PERFORMANCE).The effects that improving this technique will have on your overall performance (BENEFITS).What you hope to achieve by the end of your training programme (LONG TERM GOAL / TARGET).What you hope to achieve by the end of each training session(SHORT TERM GOALS / TARGETS).That success breeds success (ACHIEVABLE PROGRESSIVE STAGES).How long your training programme, and how long each training session, will last (DURATION).How often you will practise (FREQUENCY).How hard you will practise (INTENSITY).How to keep your practices challenging and interesting (PROGRESSION / BOREDOM / FATIGUE).What type of training is best suited to you (METHODS OF PRACTICE).What level you are currently performing at (STAGES OF LEARNING).How different factors can affect your practice (MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION & FEEDBACK).How you are doing (MONITOR, REVIEW AND EVALUATE PROGRESS).
8 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE INFORMATION PROCESSING MODELThe INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL is a theory about how you perform skills. In this theory your brain is a computer. Information comes to your brain from your senses. You use this information, together with your sporting experience, to help you make decisions. You then take action. Feedback is information which tells you whether or not your actions have been successful. You use feedback to guide your next movement.INPUTDECISION MAKINGOUTPUTFEEDBACKYour senses tell you what is happeningYour brain decides what to doYour body carries out the actionYou find out whether or not you have been successfulFor example :TABLE TENNISGYMNASTICSVOLLEYBALLINPUTHow fast is the ball coming towards you?Does the ball have spin on it?Is the ball moving to your right or left?Where is your opponent standing?What distance are you from the springboard?What height is the apparatus?Will the ball drop short or long?Where is your setter standing?DECISION MAKINGWhich technique will you use?Where will you direct it?How hard will you hit it?Which skill / technique will you use?How fast do you have to approach the apparatus?How powerfully do you have to contact the springboard?Where do you have to place your hands?OUTPUTMuscles work together to play the shot you chose.Muscles work together to perform the action you chose.FEEDBACKDid you choose the correct technique?Was your placement of the shot accurate?Did you play the shot with the correct strength / weight?Was your run up correct?Did you take off correctly?Did you land correctly?How could you improve?
9 ANALYSING AND DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESANALYSING AND DEVELOPING PERFORMANCECYCLE OF ANALYSISSTAGE 1 : INVESTIGATEWhere you explain how a specific aspect of performance was investigated through gathering and analysing information. You will do this by observing your performance and then gathering data and collating the results of these observations.STAGE 4 : EVALUATEWhere you reflect on your planning, effectiveness and benefits of your programme of work completed and discuss your future development needs. You will do this by re-observing and then evaluating your performance.STAGE 2 : ANALYSEWhere you explain how knowledge acquired from the study of relevant concepts has helped you to analyse your performance and plan a development programme. You will do this by comparing your performance with a model performance using agreed criteria and then identifying your strengths and weaknesses.STAGE 3 : DEVELOPWhere you explain how both the content and suitability of your programme of work were monitored over the period of your training. You will do this by preparing your plan of action and then completing your training programme.
10 INVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESINVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCESTRENGTHS and WEAKNESSESTo develop effectively, in order that your performances can improve, you need to know what skills and techniques you can, and can’t, perform. You need to know what you are good at, and what you are not good at, when taking part in an activity.When gathering information about your performance in order to identify strengths and weaknesses, it is important to know the effect that being good or poor, in a particular skill or technique, has on your overall performance in the activity.When describing how you gathered information, it is important that you describe the context (conditions) of the information gathering. E.G. 10 min long games of Table Tennis singles, 20 min long 3 v 3 games of Volleyball, 1 min 30 sec Gymnastics floor / apparatus routine.When deciding which area of weakness to develop first, you don’t necessarily have to choose your poorest statistic. You must examine all your data and decide which skill / technique, if it was to be developed and improved, would make the biggest difference to your performance in the activity.Initial results from information gathered before training can be compared to results gathered after training, provided the context (conditions) of the results gathering process is the same before and after. Comparisons help to measure changes in your performance.You can gather information on your performance in several ways :PERSONAL REFLECTION (What you think about your performance) This involves you taking part in the activity and judging for yourself how skilful you think you are. This judgement is based solely on your opinion and requires a degree of understanding about what a skilful performance in the activity should look like.This type of information gathering is very subjective. It’s purpose is to give you an indication of your strengths and weaknesses.You can reflect on your ability during and / or after your performance.BASIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS) This involves an observer watching your performance during the activity. The observer watches you carefully as you perform the basic SKILLS of the activity. The observer judges your performance against pre-set performance criteria for each of these SKILLS and records your success or failure accordingly.This type of information gathering is very objective. It is relatively simple to use, it is inexpensive, and it gives you a permanent record to refer back to at any time. It can also contradict or confirm your own Personal Reflections. It’s purpose is to objectively identify your strengths and weaknesses.Results from a B.O.S. will guide you to a SPECIFIC SKILL that requires attention (development need).
11 INVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESINVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCESTRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES (continued)SPECIFIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS)This involves an observer watching your performance during the activity. The observer watches you carefully as you perform the different TECHNIQUES of a chosen SKILL. The observer judges your performance against pre-set performance criteria for each of these TECHNIQUES and records your success or failure accordingly.This type of information gathering is very objective. It is relatively simple to use, it is inexpensive, and it gives you a permanent record to refer back to at any time. It can also contradict or confirm your own Personal Reflections. It’s purpose is to objectively focus in on which technique needs most attention.Results from a S.O.S. will guide you to a SPECIFIC TECHNIQUE that requires attention (development need).VERY SPECIFIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS)This involves an observer watching you perform a SPECIFIC TECHNIQUE, in or out, of the activity. The observer watches you carefully as you perform the chosen TECHNIQUE.The TECHNIQUE is broken down into 3 main parts i.e. the Preparation, Action and Recovery. The observer judges your performance against pre-set performance criteria for each part of the TECHNIQUE and records your success or failure accordingly.This type of information gathering is very objective. It is relatively simple to use, it is inexpensive, and it gives you a permanent record to refer back to at any time. It’s purpose is to help you plan meaningful training.Results from a V.S.O.S. will guide you to specific parts (sub-routines) of a TECHNIQUE that require attention (development needs) during your training programme.SKILLS TEST (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS)This involves designing a specific practice which tests your ability to perform a specific TECHNIQUE with appropriate accuracy / power. A decision is taken as to how many times you will perform the technique and an observer records whether each attempt has satisfied the success criteria or not.All these methods of collecting data will help you to understand your current level of ability. This in turn will allow you to plan a suitable training programme specific to your needs.
12 ANALYSING and DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESANALYSING and DEVELOPING PERFORMANCEWHICH TECHNIQUE REQUIRES TO BE DEVELOPED ?Having gathered appropriate information about your performance you should be in a position to identify the SPECIFIC ASPECT OF PERFORMANCE (TECHNIQUE) you want to improve.WHAT IS THE CORRECT WAY TO PERFORM THIS TECHNIQUE ?If you hope to improve your performance, you must know what you are aiming for. You must know what a MODEL PERFORMANCE of the technique looks like. If you know what the technique should look like, you can continually compare your own performance to that of the MODEL PERFORMER and gauge your progress.HOW FAR CAN I DEVELOP MY TECHNIQUE BY THE END OF MY TRAINING PROGRAMME ?You may not be able to reach total perfection by the end of your training programme, and you may need more time to further develop your technique, but you should set yourself a LONG TERM GOAL / TARGET that you hope to reach by the end of your programme. This goal or target should be challenging, but realistically achievable. It should also help to take you closer to the MODEL PERFORMANCE.HOW DO I KNOW I AM PROGRESSING TOWARDS MY LONG TERM GOAL ?If you can go from your present level to your target level within the first week of your training then you have not set yourself a very ambitious long term goal. However, if your long term goal is some distance away you need check points along the way to ensure that you are on the right track. These check points are called SHORT TERM GOALS / TARGETS and should be seen as smaller, achievable, but progressive stages in your development.WHAT WILL BE DIFFERENT ABOUT MY PERFORMANCES IF I IMPROVE THIS TECHNIQUE ?You must be very aware of the BENEFITS to be gained by improving your technique. You must be able to describe the positive effects this improvement will bring to your OVERALL performance in the activity.
13 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPING PERFORMANCEPrinciples of Effective Practice for Designing Training ProgrammesWhen designing your own personal DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, you must give careful consideration to the following :DURATIONThis refers to the length of planned time spent training.You must know HOW LONG your development programme will last. i.e. how many training sessions spread out over how many weeks do you plan to use ?Duration also applies to the length of individual training sessions within a development programme.You must know HOW LONG each training session will last. i.e. how many minutes will you spend warming up, practising on your own / with a partner / with a group, playing games and cooling down ?FREQUENCYThis refers to the regularity and routine of your training sessions.You must know HOW OFTEN you are going to train per week.HOW OFTEN you train will vary depending on the time you have available and the demands of your activity.
14 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPING PERFORMANCEPrinciples of Effective Practice for Designing Training ProgrammesINTENSITYThis refers to the relative demands of your training sessions and will vary depending on the demands of your activity.You must know HOW HARD you are going to train during each training session.HOW HARD you train will be determined by :Your level of practical ability.Your stage of learning / previous experience in the activity.The complexity of the skill involved.Time spent working compared to time spent resting (Work : Rest ratio).How many repetitions and sets you complete of a certain drill / practice / routine, etc.The pace you choose to work at during drills / practices / routines / games, etc.PROGRESSION / BOREDOM / FATIGUEYou must make sure that your practices are meaningful to your stage of learning and PROGRESS to more challenging practices when you are ready. Don’t take it easy. Make sure you are working at a suitably demanding level at all times. Apply the principle of progression to all your practices.PROGRESSION can be achieved by INCREASING Duration, Frequency and Intensity.HIGH QUALITY PRACTICE for a SHORT TIME is better than repetitive, low quality practice over a long time. This will ensure that your performance does not suffer from the adverse effects of BOREDOM and FATIGUE. If you become bored or tired your levels of motivation and concentration will fall resulting in a drop in performance level.
15 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPING PERFORMANCEMETHODS of PRACTICEWhen developing skills and techniques you will use different METHODS OF PRACTICE.The most common methods are :Solo / Shadow / Partner / Group.Opposed / Unopposed.Gradual Build-UpRepetition / Drills practices.Conditioned games / Small-Sided games / Coached games.Whole / Part / Whole.SOLOWorking on your own is useful in helping you understand the pattern and routine of the practice, as well as helping you become familiar with the changes of direction and body position required. You should not be under any pressure when using this type of practice.SHADOWShadow work is useful when you want to mirror the exact movements of a technique. This can be done at full speed and in slow motion. It often involves mirroring the technique without actually hitting a shuttlecock, serving a volleyball, shooting a basketball, etc. This method allows you to focus on every little part of the technique.PARTNERWorking cooperatively with a partner is useful when both of you are working on the same thing. It helps motivate both performers as they try to copy each other’s successes. Partner practice gives each player natural working and resting intervals. One works, one rests, swap over. A partner is also useful for feeding, timing, counting, recording, commenting on performance, supporting, encouraging, etc.GROUPWorking cooperatively as a group is useful when you want to include a combination of skills or techniques i.e. someone serving, someone else digging, someone else volleying, etc. It can also help for things like receiving feeds from different areas, directing shots to different areas, supporting, providing pressure / opposition, creating natural work and rest periods, creating motivation through competition between group members, etc.
16 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPING PERFORMANCEMETHODS of PRACTICE (continued)OPPOSED / UNOPPOSEDSometimes you need to practise WITHOUT OPPOSITION especially in the early stages of your development. This allows you to practise the technique without any pressure. It also helps to increase your confidence.Sometimes you need to practise WITH SOME OPPOSITION (PASSIVE OPPOSITION) especially when you start to make progress. This allows you to be put under a little more pressure which means you have to concentrate harder in order to still meet with success when you perform the technique.Sometimes you need to practise WITH FULL OPPOSITION (ACTIVE OPPOSITION) especially when you are performing to a good standard. This allows you to get used to full activity situations and to deal with pressure situations while still maintaining good form.When working with PASSIVE and ACTIVE levels of opposition, it is important that the opposition is clear about the level of opposition they are expected to apply to the practice.GRADUAL BUILD-UPThis is useful for learning skills / techniques that are COMPLEX or have an element of RISK.Using GRADUAL BUILD-UP allows you to gradually make the practice more demanding. It also allows you to develop high levels of confidence.When using this method your practices must be challenging, but achievable, and they must also be meaningful and realistic to your stage of learning and level of performance.REPETITION / DRILLS PRACTICESSetting up training drills that REPEAT particular parts of a technique or the whole technique itself can be very useful. This allows you to practise very small parts of the technique (SUB-ROUTINES) REPEATEDLY.The idea of REPETITION is to GROOVE THE TECHNIQUE so that all the parts of the technique work well together.DRILLS PRACTICES are useful when both REPETITION and different degrees of PRESSURE are involved.Pressure may take the form of a public performance, time restriction, target size or through introducing opponent (s).
17 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPING PERFORMANCEMETHODS of PRACTICE (continued)CONDITIONED GAMESThese are useful for developing OPEN skills in situations that reflect the demands of the activity.Sometimes a CONDITION is put on an activity to provide a player or a team with an advantage. This makes achieving tasks easier.Sometimes a CONDITION is put on an activity in the form of a RULE CHANGE. This allows the skill / technique that you have been developing to be emphasised through the activity.SMALL-SIDED GAMESReducing the number of players in a team gives EACH player a chance to practise skills and techniques in a game-like setting. Reducing the number of players in a team normally allows players to INCREASE their level of involvement and time in possession of the ball.COACHED GAMESThese are useful if you are focussing on achieving certain things which your teacher thinks are vital for improving your PERFORMANCE IN THE GAME. Your teacher might have “FREEZE MOMENTS” during your games to show situations that highlight the benefits that earlier practice has had on your game performance.WHOLE / PART / WHOLEThis is a useful method to use if you already have some experience of the activity and you can already perform a version of the WHOLE skill / technique.It involves performing the WHOLE skill / technique in the full activity, recognising a problem within the skill / technique, practising that PART of the skill / technique in isolation (on its own), then returning to the full activity to use the WHOLE skill / technique again, hopefully with more success than before.Skills / Techniques which allow PARTS of the performance to be separated easily from the WHOLE performance work best.
18 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPING PERFORMANCEMETHODS of PRACTICE (continued)for example :METHOD OF PRACTICETABLE TENNISGYMNASTICSVOLLEYBALLSOLOForehand shots against upright half tableForward Roll to standThrow against wall and dig into airSHADOWForehand top spin technique-Sinking into dig positionPARTNERPartner feed for forehand returnPartner pulls you up as you come out of forward rollPartner feed for dig returnGROUP4 person rally pattern for forehandOne person feeds, one digs to 3rd person who catchesOPPOSEDForehand rallies attempting to win pointTrying to deal with full spike by digging to setterUNOPPOSEDPartner continually feeding to forehandThrow to self to dig to setterGRADUAL BUILD-UPShadow forehandDrop ball for forehand across netPartner feed for forehand across netForehand ralliesCrouch position to hands on floorRoll down slopeRoll for partner to assist standing upFull rollThrow to self and catch in dig positionThrow to self and dig into airPartner feed and bump dig backPartner feed for high dig returnPartner feeds into space. Move to ball and play high dig to targetREPETITION / DRILLSPartner feeds continuously for forehand returnForward roll down slopePartner feeds to space. Move to play high dig returnsCONDITIONED GAMESOnly win point with forehand drive as final shotOnly digs allowed in rear courtSMALL-SIDED GAMES1v1 games2v2, 3v3, 4v4 gamesWHOLE / PART / WHOLEFull gameForward RollRocking practice to standingForward rollPartner feeds for dig returns to setter
19 DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUESTAGES of LEARNINGWhen you have worked out the demands of the skills / techniques involved in an activity and you have checked your level of practical experience in the activity, you are in a good position to learn and develop these skills / techniques.Everybody learns new skills / techniques at different rates. Some people find some skills / techniques easy to grasp and master, while other people struggle to make the same progress.There are 3 important STAGES OF LEARNING involved in developing skills / techniques. These are :PLANNING (Cognitive) STAGEPRACTICE (Associative) STAGEAUTOMATIC (Autonomous) STAGEThere are also 3 important FACTORS to take into consideration when you are training to develop skills / techniques. These are :MOTIVATIONCONCENTRATIONFEEDBACKThe influence that these 3 FACTORS will have on your development will be slightly different at each STAGE OF LEARNING.The METHODS OF PRACTICE you choose to use in your development programme will also be different at each STAGE OF LEARNING.
20 DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUESTAGES of LEARNINGSTAGE PLANNING or COGNITIVE STAGEDuring this stage you are a beginner and you need a clear mental picture of the movements you need to make. This means finding out what the technique involves. You need to establish what all the parts (sub-routines) of the technique are and you make your first attempts at learning each part. Errors are likely to be common at this stage.METHODS OF PRACTICEMOTIVATION(The DRIVE to do well)CONCENTRATION(The ability to FOCUS)FEEDBACK(INFO about ABILITY)SoloShadowPartnerGradualBuild-UpShould be high since you are starting to learn a new technique properly to benefit your play.Practices will be quite basic and can be boring. The temptation is to move on too quickly before you are ready. You must have a strong desire to persevere through these basic practices so that all sub-routines are learned correctly.Errors are common so it is important you can motivate yourself to keep trying hard.Should be very high as you will be thinking very hard, and focussing very carefully, on every single part of the technique.Errors are common so it is important to focus as hard as you can to get rid of these errors as quickly as possible.Needs to be positive to make sure your confidence and motivation levels remain high.Needs to be accurate so that you can make appropriate adjustments to the sub-routines of the technique.Will be external at this stage, coming from your teacher, coach or training partner. Their observations will be vital as they will see things that you will not be aware of.
21 DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUESTAGES of LEARNINGSTAGE PRACTICE or ASSOCIATIVE STAGEDuring this stage you must concentrate on practising the technique. The technique is refined and large errors are eliminated through repeated practice helping you to become a consistent performer. You are able to start analysing your own performance and make corrections accordingly. Although your performance will improve a lot, you can be in this second stage for quite some time.METHODS OF PRACTICEMOTIVATION(The DRIVE to do well)CONCENTRATION(The ability to FOCUS)FEEDBACK(INFO about ABILITY)PartnerGroupRepetitionDrills practicesOpposedUnopposedGradualBuild-UpConditioned gamesSmall-Sided gamesWill be high if your practices are well planned.If practices are too difficult, your success rate and your confidence will be low, resulting in a drop in motivation.You need to stay motivated as there will still be quite a lot of mistakes being made at this stage.A high desire to succeed will help you focus for longer periods of time.At this stage you do not have to focus on every single part of the technique as many of the sub-routines will now be in your “movement memory”. This allows you to focus only on the parts that are still causing you difficulty.Practices will gradually become more complex, therefore greater concentration levels are required.There will be a mixture of internal and external feedback at this stage.You are more experienced and your awareness of how the technique should “feel” will have increased. Therefore, you can give yourself some feedback about your performance, as well as still getting information from your teacher, coach or training partner(s).Feedback must still be positive and accurate if you are to progress through this stage.
22 DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE SKILLS and TECHNIQUESDEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUESTAGES of LEARNINGSTAGE AUTOMATIC or AUTONOMOUS STAGEBy this stage you can perform skilled actions with increased efficiency, accuracy and speed without thinking too hard about the actual technique itself. You can start to give more attention to decisions you have to make about strategies and tactics. You have a greater ability to analyse your own actions and make corrections and adjustments.METHODS OF PRACTICEMOTIVATION(The DRIVE to do well)CONCENTRATION(The ability to FOCUS)FEEDBACK(INFO about ABILITY)Conditioned gamesSmall-Sided gamesFull gamesWhole / Part / WholeShould be very high as a result of a high success rate in performing the technique automatically in games and practices.Confidence will be high so you should be motivated to use the technique in a competitive situation.Motivation must be kept high to keep practising the technique during training sessions in order to keep performing it automatically.There should be no need to focus on any of the sub-routines of the technique as these have all been learned and are automatic.You can now focus on other aspects of your performance and also the performance of your opponent(s) so that better, quicker decisions are made in competitive situations.You are now very experienced.You can detect and deal with your own errors.You only depend on your teacher’s feedback for the finer details of the technique as well as for advice on tactics and help with your mental preparation.
23 MONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESS SKILLS and TECHNIQUESMONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESSWhen you have identified a technique you want to develop, and have then gone on to design and complete a training programme to help with that development, you hope the result is a positive one in that your performance in the activity has improved.To ensure that your training is meaningful, and that progress is being made, you must MONITOR, REVIEW and EVALUATE your progress.You can do this in 2 ways :During your development programme.After your development programme.DURING YOUR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEAs you plan each training session it is worthwhile keeping a TRAINING DIARY to record your thoughts on how each training session goes. This should help you to plan the next session more easily. This type of PERSONAL REFLECTION would include questions like :What progress did I make today?What things went well today?Did I struggle with anything today?Were my practices too difficult / easy?How was my motivation and concentration today?What kind of comments did my teacher / training partner make about my work today?Do I need to change anything for my next training session?You should know WHEN, WHY and HOW you made changes to your training.
24 MONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESS SKILLS and TECHNIQUESMONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESSAFTER YOUR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEWhen your development programme has ended it is important for you to know if you have improved, and by how much.By COMPARING your performance results on a BEFORE (PRE) and AFTER (POST) TRAINING basis, you will be able to judge how successful, and beneficial, your development programme has been.COMPARISONS can be made between the following PERSONAL OPINIONS (SUBJECTIVE):PRE and POST training PERSONAL REFLECTION about your overall performance in the activity.COMPARISONS can also be made between the following FACTUAL (OBJECTIVE) data :PRE and POST training SKILLS TEST results.PRE and POST training VERY SPECIFIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE results.PRE and POST training comparisons to a MODEL PERFORMER.At the end of your Skills and Techniques Development Programme you should be able to answer the following questions :What level were you performing at before you started training?What level are you performing at now?How has your performance changed? What are you doing now that you were not doing before?What effect have these changes had on your overall performance in the activity?What do you plan to do next to further improve your overall effectiveness in the activity?