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INTERMEDIATE 1 PHYSICAL EDUCATION SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES INFORMATION PACK Name : _____________________________________ Class : _________ Year : ______ --

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Presentation on theme: "INTERMEDIATE 1 PHYSICAL EDUCATION SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES INFORMATION PACK Name : _____________________________________ Class : _________ Year : ______ --"— Presentation transcript:

1 INTERMEDIATE 1 PHYSICAL EDUCATION SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES INFORMATION PACK Name : _____________________________________ Class : _________ Year : ______ -- ______

2 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES AIMS 1.You will develop an understanding about Skill and Skilled Performance by learning about : How basic skills and techniques are learned before more complex skills and techniques. 2.You will develop an understanding of how to Analyse and Develop Performance in relation to skills and techniques by learning about : Movement Analysis. 3.You will develop an understanding of how to improve your performance by developing your skills and refining your techniques by learning about : Stages of Learning. To improve your Performance. OUTCOMES Improved Performance. PROCESS To improve your Understanding of Skills and Techniques. Methods of Practice. Principles of Effective Practice. The importance of Feedback, Concentration and Motivation. Improved Understanding of Skills and Techniques. How skills and techniques are refined through practice. How model performances can be used to develop performance. A Technique improvement Training Programme. The importance of reviewing and monitoring progress.

3 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES SKILL and SKILLED PERFORMANCE A SKILL is a MOVEMENT WITH A PURPOSE. You can become more Skilled if you are prepared to build on your own ability by practising and showing a willingness to learn. Ability + Learning + Practise = SKILL (A.L.P.S.) Skills can be placed in the following categories : CLOSEDOPEN SIMPLECOMPLEX DISCRETESERIAL This describes the movement patterns. If they are always identical it is a CLOSED skill. If they change due to the nature of performance it is an OPEN skill. This describes the number of parts (subroutines) within skills. If there is only 1 movement the skill is SIMPLE. If the skill requires a series of linked movements it is COMPLEX. This describes how easily you can identify the start and finishing points of the skill.

4 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES SKILL and SKILLED PERFORMANCE SKILLSKILL CLASSIFICATION Serve closedsimplediscrete Dig opencomplexdiscrete Volley opencomplexdiscrete Spike opencomplexdiscrete Block opencomplexdiscrete For example : In VOLLEYBALL SKILLSKILL CLASSIFICATION Rolls closedsimple to complexdiscrete Jumps closedsimple to complexdiscrete Turns closedsimple to complexdiscrete Balances closedsimple to complexdiscrete Agilities closedsimple to complexdiscrete For example : In GYMNASTICS SKILLSKILL CLASSIFICATION Serve closedsimplediscrete Push opencomplexdiscrete Drive opencomplexdiscrete Block opencomplexdiscrete Smash opencomplexdiscrete For example : In TABLE TENNIS

5 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES A TECHNIQUE is the way in which a skill is performed In Volleyball the SKILL is Serving. One TECHNIQUE is the under arm serve. Another TECHNIQUE is the over arm serve. In Gymnastics the SKILL is Rolling. One TECHNIQUE is the forward roll. Another TECHNIQUE is the backward roll. DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE

6 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES TABLE TENNISGYMNASTICSVOLLEYBALL SKILLServeRollsServe TECHNIQUES Forehand (top spin) Backhand (side spin) Forward (tuck) Backward (straddle) Extended Circle Underarm Overarm SKILL DriveAgilitiesDig TECHNIQUES Forehand Backhand Headspring Handspring Straddle Vault Through Vault Dig reception Dig set Dig attack Reverse Dig SKILL BlockBalancesVolley TECHNIQUES Forehand Backhand Headstand (tucked) Headstand (piked) Handstand Split Leg Handstand Volley reception Volley set Volley attack Reverse Volley SKILL SmashTurnsSpike TECHNIQUES Forehand Backhand Quarter Half Three Quarters Full On hand (down the line) Off hand (diagonal) For example : DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE

7 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE To DEVELOP EFFECTIVELY you need to know : Exactly what specific aspect of your performance you want to improve (TECHNIQUE). What skills and techniques you can, and cant, perform (STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES). The effects that improving this technique will have on your overall performance (BENEFITS). What the technique should look like (MODEL PERFORMANCE). What you hope to achieve by the end of your training programme (LONG TERM GOAL / TARGET). What you hope to achieve by the end of each training session(SHORT TERM GOALS / TARGETS). How long your training programme, and how long each training session, will last (DURATION). How often you will practise (FREQUENCY). How hard you will practise (INTENSITY). How to keep your practices challenging and interesting (PROGRESSION / BOREDOM / FATIGUE). What type of training is best suited to you (METHODS OF PRACTICE). What level you are currently performing at (STAGES OF LEARNING). How different factors can affect your practice (MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION & FEEDBACK). That success breeds success (ACHIEVABLE PROGRESSIVE STAGES). How you are doing (MONITOR, REVIEW AND EVALUATE PROGRESS). How you perform skills (INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL).

8 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL The INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL is a theory about how you perform skills. In this theory your brain is a computer. Information comes to your brain from your senses. You use this information, together with your sporting experience, to help you make decisions. You then take action. Feedback is information which tells you whether or not your actions have been successful. You use feedback to guide your next movement. INPUT DECISION MAKING OUTPUT FEEDBACK Your senses tell you what is happening Your brain decides what to do Your body carries out the action You find out whether or not you have been successful For example : TABLE TENNISGYMNASTICSVOLLEYBALL INPUT How fast is the ball coming towards you? Does the ball have spin on it? Is the ball moving to your right or left? Where is your opponent standing? What distance are you from the springboard? What height is the apparatus? How fast is the ball coming towards you? Will the ball drop short or long? Is the ball moving to your right or left? Where is your setter standing? DECISION MAKING Which technique will you use? Where will you direct it? How hard will you hit it? Which skill / technique will you use? How fast do you have to approach the apparatus? How powerfully do you have to contact the springboard? Where do you have to place your hands? Which technique will you use? Where will you direct it? How hard will you hit it? OUTPUT Muscles work together to play the shot you chose. Muscles work together to perform the action you chose. Muscles work together to play the shot you chose. FEEDBACK Did you choose the correct technique? Was your placement of the shot accurate? Did you play the shot with the correct strength / weight? Was your run up correct? Did you take off correctly? Did you land correctly? How could you improve? Did you choose the correct technique? Was your placement of the shot accurate? Did you play the shot with the correct strength / weight?

9 CYCLE OF ANALYSIS STAGE 1 : INVESTIGATE Where you explain how a specific aspect of performance was investigated through gathering and analysing information. You will do this by observing your performance and then gathering data and collating the results of these observations. STAGE 2 : ANALYSE Where you explain how knowledge acquired from the study of relevant concepts has helped you to analyse your performance and plan a development programme. You will do this by comparing your performance with a model performance using agreed criteria and then identifying your strengths and weaknesses. STAGE 3 : DEVELOP Where you explain how both the content and suitability of your programme of work were monitored over the period of your training. You will do this by preparing your plan of action and then completing your training programme. STAGE 4 : EVALUATE Where you reflect on your planning, effectiveness and benefits of your programme of work completed and discuss your future development needs. You will do this by re-observing and then evaluating your performance. SKILLS and TECHNIQUES ANALYSING AND DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE

10 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES INVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCE STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES To develop effectively, in order that your performances can improve, you need to know what skills and techniques you can, and cant, perform. You need to know what you are good at, and what you are not good at, when taking part in an activity. You can gather information on your performance in several ways : PERSONAL REFLECTION (What you think about your performance). This involves you taking part in the activity and judging for yourself how skilful you think you are. This judgement is based solely on your opinion and requires a degree of understanding about what a skilful performance in the activity should look like. This type of information gathering is very subjective. Its purpose is to give you an indication of your strengths and weaknesses. You can reflect on your ability during and / or after your performance. BASIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS) This involves an observer watching your performance during the activity. The observer watches you carefully as you perform the basic SKILLS of the activity. The observer judges your performance against pre-set performance criteria for each of these SKILLS and records your success or failure accordingly. This type of information gathering is very objective. It is relatively simple to use, it is inexpensive, and it gives you a permanent record to refer back to at any time. It can also contradict or confirm your own Personal Reflections. Its purpose is to objectively identify your strengths and weaknesses. Results from a B.O.S. will guide you to a SPECIFIC SKILL that requires attention (development need). When gathering information about your performance in order to identify strengths and weaknesses, it is important to know the effect that being good or poor, in a particular skill or technique, has on your overall performance in the activity. When describing how you gathered information, it is important that you describe the context (conditions) of the information gathering. E.G. 10 min long games of Table Tennis singles, 20 min long 3 v 3 games of Volleyball, 1 min 30 sec Gymnastics floor / apparatus routine. When deciding which area of weakness to develop first, you dont necessarily have to choose your poorest statistic. You must examine all your data and decide which skill / technique, if it was to be developed and improved, would make the biggest difference to your performance in the activity. Initial results from information gathered before training can be compared to results gathered after training, provided the context (conditions) of the results gathering process is the same before and after. Comparisons help to measure changes in your performance.

11 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES INVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCE STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES (continued) SPECIFIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS) This involves an observer watching your performance during the activity. The observer watches you carefully as you perform the different TECHNIQUES of a chosen SKILL. The observer judges your performance against pre-set performance criteria for each of these TECHNIQUES and records your success or failure accordingly. This type of information gathering is very objective. It is relatively simple to use, it is inexpensive, and it gives you a permanent record to refer back to at any time. It can also contradict or confirm your own Personal Reflections. Its purpose is to objectively focus in on which technique needs most attention. Results from a S.O.S. will guide you to a SPECIFIC TECHNIQUE that requires attention (development need). VERY SPECIFIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS) This involves an observer watching you perform a SPECIFIC TECHNIQUE, in or out, of the activity. The observer watches you carefully as you perform the chosen TECHNIQUE. The TECHNIQUE is broken down into 3 main parts i.e. the Preparation, Action and Recovery. The observer judges your performance against pre-set performance criteria for each part of the TECHNIQUE and records your success or failure accordingly. This type of information gathering is very objective. It is relatively simple to use, it is inexpensive, and it gives you a permanent record to refer back to at any time. Its purpose is to help you plan meaningful training. Results from a V.S.O.S. will guide you to specific parts (sub-routines) of a TECHNIQUE that require attention (development needs) during your training programme. SKILLS TEST (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS) This involves designing a specific practice which tests your ability to perform a specific TECHNIQUE with appropriate accuracy / power. A decision is taken as to how many times you will perform the technique and an observer records whether each attempt has satisfied the success criteria or not. All these methods of collecting data will help you to understand your current level of ability. This in turn will allow you to plan a suitable training programme specific to your needs.

12 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES ANALYSING and DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE WHICH TECHNIQUE REQUIRES TO BE DEVELOPED ? Having gathered appropriate information about your performance you should be in a position to identify the SPECIFIC ASPECT OF PERFORMANCE (TECHNIQUE) you want to improve. WHAT IS THE CORRECT WAY TO PERFORM THIS TECHNIQUE ? If you hope to improve your performance, you must know what you are aiming for. You must know what a MODEL PERFORMANCE of the technique looks like. If you know what the technique should look like, you can continually compare your own performance to that of the MODEL PERFORMER and gauge your progress. HOW FAR CAN I DEVELOP MY TECHNIQUE BY THE END OF MY TRAINING PROGRAMME ? You may not be able to reach total perfection by the end of your training programme, and you may need more time to further develop your technique, but you should set yourself a LONG TERM GOAL / TARGET that you hope to reach by the end of your programme. This goal or target should be challenging, but realistically achievable. It should also help to take you closer to the MODEL PERFORMANCE. HOW DO I KNOW I AM PROGRESSING TOWARDS MY LONG TERM GOAL ? If you can go from your present level to your target level within the first week of your training then you have not set yourself a very ambitious long term goal. However, if your long term goal is some distance away you need check points along the way to ensure that you are on the right track. These check points are called SHORT TERM GOALS / TARGETS and should be seen as smaller, achievable, but progressive stages in your development. WHAT WILL BE DIFFERENT ABOUT MY PERFORMANCES IF I IMPROVE THIS TECHNIQUE ? You must be very aware of the BENEFITS to be gained by improving your technique. You must be able to describe the positive effects this improvement will bring to your OVERALL performance in the activity.

13 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE Principles of Effective Practice for Designing Training Programmes When designing your own personal DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, you must give careful consideration to the following : DURATION This refers to the length of planned time spent training. You must know HOW LONG your development programme will last. i.e. how many training sessions spread out over how many weeks do you plan to use ? Duration also applies to the length of individual training sessions within a development programme. You must know HOW LONG each training session will last. i.e. how many minutes will you spend warming up, practising on your own / with a partner / with a group, playing games and cooling down ? FREQUENCY This refers to the regularity and routine of your training sessions. You must know HOW OFTEN you are going to train per week. HOW OFTEN you train will vary depending on the time you have available and the demands of your activity.

14 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE Principles of Effective Practice for Designing Training Programmes INTENSITY This refers to the relative demands of your training sessions and will vary depending on the demands of your activity. You must know HOW HARD you are going to train during each training session. HOW HARD you train will be determined by : Your level of practical ability. Your stage of learning / previous experience in the activity. The complexity of the skill involved. Time spent working compared to time spent resting (Work : Rest ratio). How many repetitions and sets you complete of a certain drill / practice / routine, etc. The pace you choose to work at during drills / practices / routines / games, etc. PROGRESSION / BOREDOM / FATIGUE You must make sure that your practices are meaningful to your stage of learning and PROGRESS to more challenging practices when you are ready. Dont take it easy. Make sure you are working at a suitably demanding level at all times. Apply the principle of progression to all your practices. PROGRESSION can be achieved by INCREASING Duration, Frequency and Intensity. HIGH QUALITY PRACTICE for a SHORT TIME is better than repetitive, low quality practice over a long time. This will ensure that your performance does not suffer from the adverse effects of BOREDOM and FATIGUE. If you become bored or tired your levels of motivation and concentration will fall resulting in a drop in performance level.

15 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE METHODS of PRACTICE When developing skills and techniques you will use different METHODS OF PRACTICE. The most common methods are : Solo / Shadow / Partner / Group. Opposed / Unopposed. Gradual Build-Up Repetition / Drills practices. Conditioned games / Small-Sided games / Coached games. Whole / Part / Whole. SOLO Working on your own is useful in helping you understand the pattern and routine of the practice, as well as helping you become familiar with the changes of direction and body position required. You should not be under any pressure when using this type of practice. SHADOW Shadow work is useful when you want to mirror the exact movements of a technique. This can be done at full speed and in slow motion. It often involves mirroring the technique without actually hitting a shuttlecock, serving a volleyball, shooting a basketball, etc. This method allows you to focus on every little part of the technique. PARTNER Working cooperatively with a partner is useful when both of you are working on the same thing. It helps motivate both performers as they try to copy each others successes. Partner practice gives each player natural working and resting intervals. One works, one rests, swap over. A partner is also useful for feeding, timing, counting, recording, commenting on performance, supporting, encouraging, etc. GROUP Working cooperatively as a group is useful when you want to include a combination of skills or techniques i.e. someone serving, someone else digging, someone else volleying, etc. It can also help for things like receiving feeds from different areas, directing shots to different areas, supporting, providing pressure / opposition, creating natural work and rest periods, creating motivation through competition between group members, etc.

16 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE METHODS of PRACTICE (continued) OPPOSED / UNOPPOSED Sometimes you need to practise WITHOUT OPPOSITION especially in the early stages of your development. This allows you to practise the technique without any pressure. It also helps to increase your confidence. Sometimes you need to practise WITH SOME OPPOSITION (PASSIVE OPPOSITION) especially when you start to make progress. This allows you to be put under a little more pressure which means you have to concentrate harder in order to still meet with success when you perform the technique. Sometimes you need to practise WITH FULL OPPOSITION (ACTIVE OPPOSITION) especially when you are performing to a good standard. This allows you to get used to full activity situations and to deal with pressure situations while still maintaining good form. When working with PASSIVE and ACTIVE levels of opposition, it is important that the opposition is clear about the level of opposition they are expected to apply to the practice. GRADUAL BUILD-UP This is useful for learning skills / techniques that are COMPLEX or have an element of RISK. Using GRADUAL BUILD-UP allows you to gradually make the practice more demanding. It also allows you to develop high levels of confidence. When using this method your practices must be challenging, but achievable, and they must also be meaningful and realistic to your stage of learning and level of performance. REPETITION / DRILLS PRACTICES Setting up training drills that REPEAT particular parts of a technique or the whole technique itself can be very useful. This allows you to practise very small parts of the technique (SUB- ROUTINES) REPEATEDLY. The idea of REPETITION is to GROOVE THE TECHNIQUE so that all the parts of the technique work well together. DRILLS PRACTICES are useful when both REPETITION and different degrees of PRESSURE are involved. Pressure may take the form of a public performance, time restriction, target size or through introducing opponent (s).

17 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE METHODS of PRACTICE (continued) CONDITIONED GAMES These are useful for developing OPEN skills in situations that reflect the demands of the activity. Sometimes a CONDITION is put on an activity to provide a player or a team with an advantage. This makes achieving tasks easier. Sometimes a CONDITION is put on an activity in the form of a RULE CHANGE. This allows the skill / technique that you have been developing to be emphasised through the activity. SMALL-SIDED GAMES Reducing the number of players in a team gives EACH player a chance to practise skills and techniques in a game-like setting. Reducing the number of players in a team normally allows players to INCREASE their level of involvement and time in possession of the ball. COACHED GAMES These are useful if you are focussing on achieving certain things which your teacher thinks are vital for improving your PERFORMANCE IN THE GAME. Your teacher might have FREEZE MOMENTS during your games to show situations that highlight the benefits that earlier practice has had on your game performance. WHOLE / PART / WHOLE This is a useful method to use if you already have some experience of the activity and you can already perform a version of the WHOLE skill / technique. It involves performing the WHOLE skill / technique in the full activity, recognising a problem within the skill / technique, practising that PART of the skill / technique in isolation (on its own), then returning to the full activity to use the WHOLE skill / technique again, hopefully with more success than before. Skills / Techniques which allow PARTS of the performance to be separated easily from the WHOLE performance work best.

18 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE METHODS of PRACTICE (continued) for example : METHOD OF PRACTICE TABLE TENNIS GYMNASTICS VOLLEYBALL SOLO Forehand shots against upright half table Forward Roll to standThrow against wall and dig into air SHADOW Forehand top spin technique -Sinking into dig position PARTNER Partner feed for forehand return Partner pulls you up as you come out of forward roll Partner feed for dig return GROUP 4 person rally pattern for forehand -One person feeds, one digs to 3 rd person who catches OPPOSED Forehand rallies attempting to win point -Trying to deal with full spike by digging to setter UNOPPOSED Partner continually feeding to forehand -Throw to self to dig to setter GRADUAL BUILD-UP Shadow forehand Drop ball for forehand across net Partner feed for forehand across net Forehand rallies Crouch position to hands on floor Roll down slope Roll for partner to assist standing up Full roll Throw to self and catch in dig position Throw to self and dig into air Partner feed and bump dig back Partner feed for high dig return Partner feeds into space. Move to ball and play high dig to target REPETITION / DRILLS Partner feeds continuously for forehand return Forward roll down slope Partner feeds to space. Move to play high dig returns CONDITIONED GAMES Only win point with forehand drive as final shot -Only digs allowed in rear court SMALL-SIDED GAMES 1v1 games-2v2, 3v3, 4v4 games WHOLE / PART / WHOLE Full game Forehand rallies Full game Forward Roll Rocking practice to standing Forward roll Full game Partner feeds for dig returns to setter Full game

19 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE STAGES of LEARNING When you have worked out the demands of the skills / techniques involved in an activity and you have checked your level of practical experience in the activity, you are in a good position to learn and develop these skills / techniques. Everybody learns new skills / techniques at different rates. Some people find some skills / techniques easy to grasp and master, while other people struggle to make the same progress. There are 3 important STAGES OF LEARNING involved in developing skills / techniques. These are : PLANNING (Cognitive) STAGE PRACTICE (Associative) STAGE AUTOMATIC (Autonomous) STAGE There are also 3 important FACTORS to take into consideration when you are training to develop skills / techniques. These are : MOTIVATION CONCENTRATION FEEDBACK The influence that these 3 FACTORS will have on your development will be slightly different at each STAGE OF LEARNING. The METHODS OF PRACTICE you choose to use in your development programme will also be different at each STAGE OF LEARNING.

20 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE STAGES of LEARNING STAGE 1 PLANNING or COGNITIVE STAGE During this stage you are a beginner and you need a clear mental picture of the movements you need to make. This means finding out what the technique involves. You need to establish what all the parts (sub-routines) of the technique are and you make your first attempts at learning each part. Errors are likely to be common at this stage. METHODS OF PRACTICE MOTIVATION (The DRIVE to do well) CONCENTRATION (The ability to FOCUS) FEEDBACK (INFO about ABILITY) Solo Shadow Partner Gradual Build-Up Should be high since you are starting to learn a new technique properly to benefit your play. Practices will be quite basic and can be boring. The temptation is to move on too quickly before you are ready. You must have a strong desire to persevere through these basic practices so that all sub-routines are learned correctly. Errors are common so it is important you can motivate yourself to keep trying hard. Should be very high as you will be thinking very hard, and focussing very carefully, on every single part of the technique. Errors are common so it is important to focus as hard as you can to get rid of these errors as quickly as possible. Needs to be positive to make sure your confidence and motivation levels remain high. Needs to be accurate so that you can make appropriate adjustments to the sub-routines of the technique. Will be external at this stage, coming from your teacher, coach or training partner. Their observations will be vital as they will see things that you will not be aware of.

21 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE STAGES of LEARNING STAGE 2 PRACTICE or ASSOCIATIVE STAGE During this stage you must concentrate on practising the technique. The technique is refined and large errors are eliminated through repeated practice helping you to become a consistent performer. You are able to start analysing your own performance and make corrections accordingly. Although your performance will improve a lot, you can be in this second stage for quite some time. METHODS OF PRACTICE MOTIVATION (The DRIVE to do well) CONCENTRATION (The ability to FOCUS) FEEDBACK (INFO about ABILITY) Partner Group Repetition Drills practices Opposed Unopposed Gradual Build-Up Conditioned games Small-Sided games Will be high if your practices are well planned. If practices are too difficult, your success rate and your confidence will be low, resulting in a drop in motivation. You need to stay motivated as there will still be quite a lot of mistakes being made at this stage. A high desire to succeed will help you focus for longer periods of time. At this stage you do not have to focus on every single part of the technique as many of the sub- routines will now be in your movement memory. This allows you to focus only on the parts that are still causing you difficulty. Practices will gradually become more complex, therefore greater concentration levels are required. There will be a mixture of internal and external feedback at this stage. You are more experienced and your awareness of how the technique should feel will have increased. Therefore, you can give yourself some feedback about your performance, as well as still getting information from your teacher, coach or training partner(s). Feedback must still be positive and accurate if you are to progress through this stage.

22 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL and REFINEMENT OF TECHNIQUE STAGES of LEARNING STAGE 3 AUTOMATIC or AUTONOMOUS STAGE By this stage you can perform skilled actions with increased efficiency, accuracy and speed without thinking too hard about the actual technique itself. You can start to give more attention to decisions you have to make about strategies and tactics. You have a greater ability to analyse your own actions and make corrections and adjustments. METHODS OF PRACTICE MOTIVATION (The DRIVE to do well) CONCENTRATION (The ability to FOCUS) FEEDBACK (INFO about ABILITY) Conditioned games Small-Sided games Full games Whole / Part / Whole Should be very high as a result of a high success rate in performing the technique automatically in games and practices. Confidence will be high so you should be motivated to use the technique in a competitive situation. Motivation must be kept high to keep practising the technique during training sessions in order to keep performing it automatically. There should be no need to focus on any of the sub-routines of the technique as these have all been learned and are automatic. You can now focus on other aspects of your performance and also the performance of your opponent(s) so that better, quicker decisions are made in competitive situations. You are now very experienced. You can detect and deal with your own errors. You only depend on your teachers feedback for the finer details of the technique as well as for advice on tactics and help with your mental preparation.

23 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES When you have identified a technique you want to develop, and have then gone on to design and complete a training programme to help with that development, you hope the result is a positive one in that your performance in the activity has improved. To ensure that your training is meaningful, and that progress is being made, you must MONITOR, REVIEW and EVALUATE your progress. You can do this in 2 ways : During your development programme. After your development programme. DURING YOUR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME As you plan each training session it is worthwhile keeping a TRAINING DIARY to record your thoughts on how each training session goes. This should help you to plan the next session more easily. This type of PERSONAL REFLECTION would include questions like : What progress did I make today? What things went well today? Did I struggle with anything today? Were my practices too difficult / easy? How was my motivation and concentration today? What kind of comments did my teacher / training partner make about my work today? Do I need to change anything for my next training session? You should know WHEN, WHY and HOW you made changes to your training. MONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESS

24 SKILLS and TECHNIQUES AFTER YOUR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME When your development programme has ended it is important for you to know if you have improved, and by how much. By COMPARING your performance results on a BEFORE (PRE) and AFTER (POST) TRAINING basis, you will be able to judge how successful, and beneficial, your development programme has been. COMPARISONS can be made between the following PERSONAL OPINIONS (SUBJECTIVE): PRE and POST training PERSONAL REFLECTION about your overall performance in the activity. COMPARISONS can also be made between the following FACTUAL (OBJECTIVE) data : PRE and POST training SKILLS TEST results. PRE and POST training VERY SPECIFIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE results. PRE and POST training comparisons to a MODEL PERFORMER. At the end of your Skills and Techniques Development Programme you should be able to answer the following questions : What level were you performing at before you started training? What level are you performing at now? How has your performance changed? What are you doing now that you were not doing before? What effect have these changes had on your overall performance in the activity? What do you plan to do next to further improve your overall effectiveness in the activity? MONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESS

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