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Identify the differences between Analytical Decision Making and Intuitive Decision Making Demonstrate basic design and delivery requirements for Tactical.

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Presentation on theme: "Identify the differences between Analytical Decision Making and Intuitive Decision Making Demonstrate basic design and delivery requirements for Tactical."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Identify the differences between Analytical Decision Making and Intuitive Decision Making Demonstrate basic design and delivery requirements for Tactical Decision Games (TDGS) Explain how Sand Table Exercises (STEX) can be used to deliver TDGS.

3 How We Decide

4 Observation #1 Decision making skills are developed through practice

5 Observation #2 The lower the echelon of command the simpler, faster, more direct and accelerated the decision process

6 Observation #3 The ability to rapidly develop solutions to new problems is based on pattern recognition

7 Intuitive Decision Making (reactive) Pattern recognition based on previous experience Analytical Decision Making (planned) Calculated selection of alternatives

8 Rely on experience to recognize the essence of a given situation or problem Utilize pattern recognition from previous actions, observations, and training to develop the solution

9 Best way to improve decision making is to improve pattern recognition, the best way to improve pattern recognition is to improve... Situational Awareness

10 Rarely is there only one right answer A good plan executed now is better than the perfect plan executed too late

11 Identify possible options Analyze all options according to a set criteria Calculate a value for all criteria of each option Choose the option with highest total criteria values

12 In Theory..... The highest value option will provide the most optimal solution

13 In Reality..... The environment is constantly changing and information can quickly become outdated Lack of time can hamper the ability to conduct an accurate analysis

14 Situation Awareness Hazard Assessment And Control Decision Point Evaluate

15 Decision Point Evaluate Situation Awareness Hazard Assessment And Control Decision Point Evaluate D.P.S.A. Hazard D.P. Evaluate S.A. Hazard D.P. Evaluate S.A. Hazard D.P. Evaluate S.A. Hazard

16 So why spend time playing games when there is work to do...

17 TDGS and STEX provide a simple, adaptable, and repeatable method of challenging a firefighter to make decisions in situations they will face on the fireground

18 Practice making decisions Practice communicating those decisions

19 Both analytical and intuitive decision making are used on the fireground Firefighters at the tactical level rely primarily on intuitive decision making TDGS and STEX build pattern recognition and situational awareness skills while providing opportunities to practice intuitive decision making

20 Designing Tactical Decision Games

21 Typically a paper and pencil exercise Small amount of text describing a situation Play the role of a commander in a dilemma requiring a decision Time constraints Uncertainty

22 Utilizes a 3-D terrain model to help visually develop and present a TDGS Ideally suited for group learning Develops decision making skills by placing multiple individuals in fireground roles and running them through a dynamic scenario

23 TDGS are simple... Keep them simple Put participants in role-play situations Limit information Apply time constraints Face a dilemma Conduct an After Action Review (AAR)

24 Practice making decisions in a tactical context Practice communicating instructions Sit in the hot seat and build pattern recognitions skills in a positive environment See how the pieces of the puzzle fit into the big picture

25 Enforce a time limit so players feel some of the stress that would be present in a real fireground situation Require decisions be communicated in the the form of real time instructions There are no School Solutions

26 Takes place prior to designing a TDGS Facilitator identifies the goal of the TDGS It can be a very explicit objective… Or it can be a simple statement, for example Today lets work on initial attack operations

27 Training Objective – related to the facilitators specific training goal for the scenario Tactical (Scenario) Objective – related to the implementation of the players decided course of action

28 Tell a story –draw from your own experiences Design a problem, not a solution Start general, then get specific Build up to a dilemma that requires a decision

29 Generate decision points (Decision Tree) Create interaction between teams or subordinates Create uncertainty Create time pressure Allow several acceptable courses of action

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31 Scenario Direct Attack Air support RetardantHelicopter No Air support Mechanical Failure Indirect Attack Structure Protection Establish Separate Organization Highway closure

32 Ideally 4-12 participants Describe scenario and answer questions Enforce time limit Pick a player to present their decision as instructions Continue to select other players to present Facilitate discussion and question players about their decisions

33 Requires interactive two-way communication Adds pressure (Hot Seat) Learn from others by immediate feedback from facilitator and other players More fun…

34 Facilitating Tactical Decision Games

35 Tell me and I will forget, Show me and I may remember, but involve me and I will understand – Chinese proverb

36 Enthusiastic Tactically knowledgeable Respected Thinks quickly on feet Keeps it interesting Keeps it moving Able to summarize lessons Critiques without being critical Doesnt dominate discussion Doesnt provide all the answers

37 Respectful - identify good ideas Confrontational - keep the pressure on Try to achieve a balance!

38 Have players write down instructions that are complex Have players issue instructions verbally as they would on the fireground Have more than one player take the hot seat and issue instructions

39 Murphy invented TDGS Insert uncertainty and adversity into the game Be prepared to what-if Utilize IRPG, SOPs, and AAR

40 Offer honest feedback Focus on decision making Help the trainee explore alternative tactics Dont presume your ideas and solutions are the only right response (players shouldnt be trying to guess your thoughts)

41 As the facilitator, you should not be doing most of the talking Dont always offer immediate feedback, practice active listening Ask the players to think aloud – describe situational awareness, how decision was made, etc Avoid leading questions, ask open-ended questions

42 General form: Asking about X, where X is a specific subject and where there is more than one right way to answer. Examples: HOW would you have handled the situation? WHY is it important to _________? WHY NOT just simplify things and only __________? WHAT are some experiences youve had in the past that are similar to this situation? WHAT would you do IF _________?

43 Concentrate on decision making, NOT on tactics Emphasize effective communication Utilize standard local unit identifiers Utilize IPRG, SOPs, and other job aids Create a level of positive stress Stick with the training objectives Conduct an After Action Review


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