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Objectives Identify the differences between Analytical Decision Making and Intuitive Decision Making Demonstrate basic design and delivery requirements.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives Identify the differences between Analytical Decision Making and Intuitive Decision Making Demonstrate basic design and delivery requirements."— Presentation transcript:


2 Objectives Identify the differences between Analytical Decision Making and Intuitive Decision Making Demonstrate basic design and delivery requirements for Tactical Decision Games (TDGS) Explain how Sand Table Exercises (STEX) can be used to deliver TDGS.

3 Part I How We Decide

4 Observations on Decision Making
Decision making skills are developed through practice

5 Observations on Decision Making
The lower the echelon of command the simpler, faster, more direct and accelerated the decision process

6 Observations on Decision Making
The ability to rapidly develop solutions to new problems is based on pattern recognition

7 The Decision Making Process
Intuitive Decision Making (reactive) Pattern recognition based on previous experience Analytical Decision Making (planned) Calculated selection of alternatives

8 Intuitive Decison Making
Rely on experience to recognize the essence of a given situation or problem Utilize pattern recognition from previous actions, observations, and training to develop the solution

9 Intuitive Decison Making
Best way to improve decision making is to improve pattern recognition, the best way to improve pattern recognition is to improve. . . Situational Awareness

10 Intuitive Decision Making In the Fire Environment
Rarely is there only “one right” answer “A good plan executed now is better than the perfect plan executed too late”

11 Analytical Decision Making
Identify possible options Analyze all options according to a set criteria Calculate a value for all criteria of each option Choose the option with highest total criteria values

12 Analytical Decision Making
In Theory The highest value option will provide the most optimal solution

13 Analytical Decision Making In the Fire Environment
In Reality The environment is constantly changing and information can quickly become outdated Lack of time can hamper the ability to conduct an accurate analysis

14 Risk Management and Decision Making Process
Situation Awareness Hazard Assessment And Control Evaluate Decision Point

15 Decisions Effect Other Decisions
Point D.P. Evaluate S.A. Hazard Evaluate D.P. S.A. Hazard Evaluate Decision Point Situation Awareness SINGLE-BATTLE Fluidity -- One campaign…one battle…one river of action. Actions must flow easily to maintain TEMPO. How do you organize your staff to fight fluidly in support of the Joint Force Commander? Plans…Future Ops…Current Ops NEXT SLIDE -- Division Shaping Operations D.P. Evaluate S.A. Hazard Hazard Assessment And Control Evaluate S.A. Hazard

16 So why spend time playing games when there is work to do . . .

17 Why do TDGS / STEX ? TDGS and STEX provide a simple, adaptable, and repeatable method of challenging a firefighter to make decisions in situations they will face on the fireground

18 Practice making decisions Practice communicating those decisions
Why do TDGS / STEX ? Practice making decisions Practice communicating those decisions

19 Decision Making Summary
Both analytical and intuitive decision making are used on the fireground Firefighters at the tactical level rely primarily on intuitive decision making TDGS and STEX build pattern recognition and situational awareness skills while providing opportunities to practice intuitive decision making

20 Tactical Decision Games
Part II Designing Tactical Decision Games

21 What is a Tactical Decision Game
Typically a paper and pencil exercise Small amount of text describing a situation Play the role of a commander in a dilemma requiring a decision Time constraints Uncertainty What is a TDG? What is it for?

22 What is a Sand Table Exercise
Utilizes a 3-D terrain model to help visually develop and present a TDGS Ideally suited for group learning Develops decision making skills by placing multiple individuals in fireground roles and running them through a dynamic scenario

23 How TDGS Work TDGS are simple . . . Keep them simple
Put participants in role-play situations Limit information Apply time constraints Face a dilemma Conduct an After Action Review (AAR)

24 Intent of TDGS Practice making decisions in a tactical context
Practice communicating instructions Sit in the “hot seat” and build pattern recognitions skills in a positive environment See how the pieces of the puzzle fit into the “big picture”

25 Rules of TDGS Enforce a time limit so players feel some of the stress that would be present in a real fireground situation Require decisions be communicated in the the form of real time instructions There are no “School Solutions”

26 Develop a Training Objective
Takes place prior to designing a TDGS Facilitator identifies the goal of the TDGS It can be a very explicit objective… Or it can be a simple statement, for example “Today let’s work on initial attack operations”

27 Teach to the Objective Training Objective – related to the facilitator’s specific training goal for the scenario Tactical (Scenario) Objective – related to the implementation of the player’s decided course of action

28 Guidelines For Designing TDGS
Tell a story –draw from your own experiences Design a problem, not a solution Start general, then get specific Build up to a dilemma that requires a decision What does Schmitt recommend regarding the designing of TDGs? [Show guidelines slides]

29 Guidelines For Designing TDGS
Generate decision points (Decision Tree) Create interaction between teams or subordinates Create uncertainty Create time pressure Allow several acceptable courses of action What is the Crux? [Putting the student in a dilemma in which he must quickly make a decision wrapped in uncertainty. As Stolfi put it, “to develop a bias for action.”]

30 The Decision Tree

31 The Decision Tree

32 TDGS Seminar Format Ideally 4-12 participants
Describe scenario and answer questions Enforce time limit Pick a player to present their decision as instructions Continue to select other players to present Facilitate discussion and question players about their decisions Under what conditions is the TDG most effective? [Show seminar format slide]

33 Seminar Advantages Requires interactive two-way communication
Adds pressure (Hot Seat) Learn from others by immediate feedback from facilitator and other players More fun…

34 Tactical Decision Games
Part III Facilitating Tactical Decision Games

35 How We Learn “Tell me and I will forget, Show me and I may remember, but involve me and I will understand” – Chinese proverb

36 TDGS Facilitor Characteristics
Enthusiastic Tactically knowledgeable Respected Thinks quickly on feet Keeps it interesting Keeps it moving Able to summarize lessons Critiques without being critical Doesn’t dominate discussion Doesn’t provide all the answers

37 Try to achieve a balance!
TDGS Environment Respectful - identify good ideas Confrontational - keep the pressure on Try to achieve a balance! FACILITATING DMGs How about facilitating a TDG? What styles can you assume as the instructor? [show styles slide] [show qualities slide]

38 TDGS Facilitation Have players write down instructions that are complex Have players issue instructions verbally as they would on the fireground Have more than one player take the hot seat and issue instructions

39 TDGS Facilitation Murphy invented TDGS
Insert uncertainty and adversity into the game Be prepared to “what-if” Utilize IRPG, SOPs, and AAR

40 TDGS Facilitation Offer honest feedback Focus on decision making
Help the trainee explore alternative tactics Don’t presume your ideas and solutions are the only right response (players shouldn’t be trying to guess your thoughts)

41 TDGS Facilitation As the facilitator, you should not be doing most of the talking Don’t always offer immediate feedback, practice active listening Ask the players to think aloud – describe situational awareness, how decision was made, etc Avoid leading questions, ask open-ended questions have you seen any of these being used at TBS? -these are some that Dr Klein has collected, can we add any others to the list? -if you had to choose 2 of these to pass on to your Lts, which two would they be? (keep a tally, see what the two favorites are) -one of the most versatile to use at TBS is the use of the open-ended question (show question slide) -After observation of coaches and trainers in many different fields, Dr Klein's group noticed these similarities between most good coaches (show skilled coaches slide)

42 Open-Ended Questions General form: Asking about X, where X is a specific subject and where there is more than one “right way” to answer. Examples: HOW would you have handled the situation? WHY is it important to _________? WHY NOT just simplify things and only __________? WHAT are some experiences you’ve had in the past that are similar to this situation? WHAT would you do IF _________?

43 TDGS Summary Concentrate on decision making, NOT on tactics
Emphasize effective communication Utilize standard local unit identifiers Utilize IPRG, SOPs, and other job aids Create a level of positive stress Stick with the training objectives Conduct an After Action Review

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