Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 information processing. Information processing Recap: – Black box model – Welfords model CNS feedback."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 5 information processing
Information processing Recap: – Black box model – Welfords model CNS feedback
Information processing Sensation/sensory input – EXTEROCEPTORS: provide information from outside of the body; - vision & auditory – INTEROCEPTORS: provide information within the body; vestibular apparatus (balance), joint receptors, muscle spindles etc
Information processing Signal detection: – We receive over 100,000 pieces of information per second – background noise = non essential information – Signal detection will depend on the intensity of the signal compared to the background noise. – Depends on interaction of 2 variables
Signal detection Criterion (C) – The effect of a persons bias on detection. Dependant on arousal; if low a signal may be missed. d-prime (d) – Represents the individuals sensitivity to a particular signal. (sensitivity of senses, experience)
MEMORY the capacity that permit organisms to benefit from their past experiences. Sensory information store (SIS): – all incoming information held here for a brief time. – Information is only retained if its attended to.
MEMORY Short term memory (STM): – Information rehearsed from the SIS is passed onto the STM – 90% of information lost within the first 10 seconds. – STM has a limited capacity (7±2) Long term memory(LTM): – No capacity limitations – Yet often we have difficulty in remembering things!
MEMORY Selective attention-memory interaction – Our STM has a limited capacity – We overcome this by using selective attention. – Focusing on relevant information & ignoring irrelevant information. – Past experience helps with signal attention games/numbers/
RESPONSE TIME The time from the introduction of a stimulus to the completion of an action to deal with the problem. Reaction time & movement time Factors affecting it: – Gets faster during childhood/adolescence – Gest slower as we get older – Movement time depends on fitness – Number of choices to be made
Psychological refractory period Reaction time to stimulus 1 (S1) is expected A second stimulus (S2) will have a slower than normal reaction time Processing of S2 can not take place until S1 processing is complete This gap is the psychological refractory period.
Psychological RP QLMRusBAko QLMRusBAko The feint is S1 and the actual movement is S2 The defender will be slow in reacting to the real movement.
Motor Programmes A set of muscle commands that allow movement to be performed without any peripheral feedback. – Example: catch or hit a ball Executive motor programme: – A number of motor programmes put together – Example: a gymnastic routine or playing the piano
Motor Programmes Open loop: – performance of a skill without recourse to feedback – Very fast movements – Hitting a baseball coming in at 100kph – No time for feedback to alter the movement
Motor Programmes Closed loop: – Altering a movement during its execution – Example: returning a slow tennis serve – Perceptual trace – memory for the feel of successful past experiences/movements
TO DO by 20/2 What is Schmidts schema theory? What is intrinsic feedback? What is extrinsic feedback? What is knowledge of results? What is knowledge of performance? – Give examples Explain the difference between positive and negative feedback. What are the advantages of feedback?
Schema theory Schema = a set of generalized rules or rules that are generic to a group of movements Recall Schema = memory with regard to the choice and initiation of action Recognition Schema = memory for the feel of a movement, allows for changes in action Both schemas require LTM recall
Feedback Information resulting from an action or response Intrinsic Feedback: available to a player without outside help. The feel of a movement. Extrinsic Feedback: provided by someone or something else (coach, stopwatch). Can be given during (concurrent) or after (terminal) performance.
Feedback Knowledge of Results (KR): – post-response information about the outcome of an action. – Mostly visual, or a time, or a distance.
Feedback Knowledge of Performance (KP): – post-response information concerning the nature of the movement. – The feel of a movement – Knowledge of sensory consequences – Concurrent or terminal
Feedback Positive feedback: – What you did well – Prescriptive feedback (how to improve) Negative feedback: – Concentrates on errors – Should be followed with prescriptive feedback – Can be demotivating esp with beginners
Feedback & learning Summarise this section of your text on page 121 in your words & with your opinion on negative feedback – – does it have a place in sport? – Should it be used with beginners, experienced athletes or neither? Why/why not…