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Chapter 5 information processing

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 information processing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 information processing

2 Information processing
Recap: Black box model Welford’s model CNS feedback

3 Information processing
Sensation/sensory input EXTEROCEPTORS: provide information from outside of the body; - vision & auditory INTEROCEPTORS: provide information within the body; vestibular apparatus (balance), joint receptors, muscle spindles etc

4 Information processing
Signal detection: We receive over 100,000 pieces of information per second “background noise” = non essential information Signal detection will depend on the intensity of the signal compared to the background noise. Depends on interaction of 2 variables

5 Signal detection Criterion (C) d-prime (d’)
The effect of a person’s bias on detection. Dependant on arousal; if low a signal may be missed. d-prime (d’) Represents the individual’s sensitivity to a particular signal. (sensitivity of senses, experience)

6 MEMORY “the capacity that permit organisms to benefit from their past experiences.” Sensory information store (SIS): all incoming information held here for a brief time. Information is only retained if it’s attended to.

7 MEMORY Short term memory (STM): Long term memory(LTM):
Information rehearsed from the SIS is passed onto the STM 90% of information lost within the first 10 seconds. STM has a limited capacity (7±2) Long term memory(LTM): No capacity limitations Yet often we have difficulty in remembering things!

8 MEMORY Selective attention-memory interaction
Our STM has a limited capacity We overcome this by using selective attention. Focusing on relevant information & ignoring irrelevant information. Past experience helps with signal attention

9 RESPONSE TIME The time from the introduction of a stimulus to the completion of an action to deal with the problem. Reaction time & movement time Factors affecting it: Gets faster during childhood/adolescence Gest slower as we get older Movement time depends on fitness Number of choices to be made

10 Psychological refractory period
Reaction time to stimulus 1 (S1) is expected A second stimulus (S2) will have a slower than normal reaction time Processing of S2 can not take place until S1 processing is complete This gap is the psychological refractory period.

11 Psychological RP
The feint is S1 and the actual movement is S2 The defender will be slow in reacting to the real movement.

12 Motor Programmes A set of muscle commands that allow movement to be performed without any peripheral feedback. Example: catch or hit a ball Executive motor programme: A number of motor programmes put together Example: a gymnastic routine or playing the piano

13 Motor Programmes Open loop:
performance of a skill without recourse to feedback Very fast movements Hitting a baseball coming in at 100kph No time for feedback to alter the movement

14 Motor Programmes Closed loop: Altering a movement during its execution
Example: returning a slow tennis serve Perceptual trace – memory for the feel of successful past experiences/movements

15 TO DO by 20/2 What is Schmidt’s schema theory?
What is intrinsic feedback? What is extrinsic feedback? What is knowledge of results? What is knowledge of performance? Give examples Explain the difference between positive and negative feedback. What are the advantages of feedback?

16 Schema theory Schema = a set of generalized rules or rules that are generic to a group of movements Recall Schema = memory with regard to the choice and initiation of action Recognition Schema = memory for the feel of a movement, allows for changes in action Both schema’s require LTM recall

17 Information resulting from
Feedback Information resulting from an action or response Intrinsic Feedback: available to a player without outside help. The feel of a movement. Extrinsic Feedback: provided by someone or something else (coach, stopwatch). Can be given during (concurrent) or after (terminal) performance.

18 Feedback Knowledge of Results (KR):
post-response information about the outcome of an action. Mostly visual, or a time, or a distance.

19 Feedback Knowledge of Performance (KP):
post-response information concerning the nature of the movement. The ‘feel’ of a movement Knowledge of sensory consequences Concurrent or terminal

20 Feedback Positive feedback: Negative feedback: What you did well
Prescriptive feedback (how to improve) Negative feedback: Concentrates on errors Should be followed with prescriptive feedback Can be demotivating esp with beginners

21 Feedback & learning Summarise this section of your text on page 121 in your words & with your opinion on negative feedback – does it have a place in sport? Should it be used with beginners, experienced athletes or neither? Why/why not…

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