3Information processing Sensation/sensory inputEXTEROCEPTORS: provide information from outside of the body;- vision & auditoryINTEROCEPTORS: provide information within the body; vestibular apparatus (balance), joint receptors, muscle spindles etc
4Information processing Signal detection:We receive over 100,000 pieces of information per second“background noise” = non essential informationSignal detection will depend on the intensity of the signal compared to the background noise.Depends on interaction of 2 variables
5Signal detection Criterion (C) d-prime (d’) The effect of a person’s bias on detection. Dependant on arousal; if low a signal may be missed.d-prime (d’)Represents the individual’s sensitivity to a particular signal. (sensitivity of senses, experience)
6MEMORY“the capacity that permit organisms to benefit from their past experiences.”Sensory information store (SIS):all incoming information held here for a brief time.Information is only retained if it’s attended to.
7MEMORY Short term memory (STM): Long term memory(LTM): Information rehearsed from the SIS is passed onto the STM90% of information lost within the first 10 seconds.STM has a limited capacity (7±2)Long term memory(LTM):No capacity limitationsYet often we have difficulty in remembering things!
8MEMORY Selective attention-memory interaction Our STM has a limited capacityWe overcome this by using selective attention.Focusing on relevant information & ignoring irrelevant information.Past experience helps with signal attention
9RESPONSE TIMEThe time from the introduction of a stimulus to the completion of an action to deal with the problem.Reaction time & movement timeFactors affecting it:Gets faster during childhood/adolescenceGest slower as we get olderMovement time depends on fitnessNumber of choices to be made
10Psychological refractory period Reaction time to stimulus 1 (S1) is expectedA second stimulus (S2) will have a slower than normal reaction timeProcessing of S2 can not take place until S1 processing is completeThis gap is the psychological refractory period.
11Psychological RP http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQLMRusBAko The feint is S1 and the actual movement is S2The defender will be slow in reacting to the real movement.
12Motor ProgrammesA set of muscle commands that allow movement to be performed without any peripheral feedback.Example: catch or hit a ballExecutive motor programme:A number of motor programmes put togetherExample: a gymnasticroutine or playing the piano
13Motor Programmes Open loop: performance of a skill without recourse to feedbackVery fast movementsHitting a baseball coming in at 100kphNo time for feedback to alter the movement
14Motor Programmes Closed loop: Altering a movement during its execution Example: returning a slow tennis servePerceptual trace – memory for the feel of successful past experiences/movements
15TO DO by 20/2 What is Schmidt’s schema theory? What is intrinsic feedback?What is extrinsic feedback?What is knowledge of results?What is knowledge of performance?Give examplesExplain the difference between positive and negative feedback.What are the advantages of feedback?
16Schema theorySchema = a set of generalized rules or rules that are generic to a group of movementsRecall Schema = memory with regard to the choice and initiation of actionRecognition Schema = memory for the feel of a movement, allows for changes in actionBoth schema’s require LTM recall
17Information resulting from FeedbackInformation resulting froman action or responseIntrinsic Feedback: available to a player without outside help. The feel of a movement.Extrinsic Feedback: provided by someone or something else (coach, stopwatch). Can be given during (concurrent) or after (terminal) performance.
18Feedback Knowledge of Results (KR): post-response information about the outcome of an action.Mostly visual, or a time, or a distance.
19Feedback Knowledge of Performance (KP): post-response information concerning the nature of the movement.The ‘feel’ of a movementKnowledge of sensory consequencesConcurrent or terminal
20Feedback Positive feedback: Negative feedback: What you did well Prescriptive feedback (how to improve)Negative feedback:Concentrates on errorsShould be followed with prescriptive feedbackCan be demotivating esp with beginners
21Feedback & learningSummarise this section of your text on page 121 in your words & with your opinion on negative feedback –does it have a place in sport?Should it be used with beginners, experienced athletes or neither? Why/why not…