Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 information processing. Information processing Recap: – Black box model – Welfords model CNS feedback."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 5 information processing
Information processing Recap: – Black box model – Welfords model CNS feedback
Information processing Sensation/sensory input – EXTEROCEPTORS: provide information from outside of the body; - vision & auditory – INTEROCEPTORS: provide information within the body; vestibular apparatus (balance), joint receptors, muscle spindles etc
Information processing Signal detection: – We receive over 100,000 pieces of information per second – background noise = non essential information – Signal detection will depend on the intensity of the signal compared to the background noise. – Depends on interaction of 2 variables
Signal detection Criterion (C) – The effect of a persons bias on detection. Dependant on arousal; if low a signal may be missed. d-prime (d) – Represents the individuals sensitivity to a particular signal. (sensitivity of senses, experience)
MEMORY the capacity that permit organisms to benefit from their past experiences. Sensory information store (SIS): – all incoming information held here for a brief time. – Information is only retained if its attended to.
MEMORY Short term memory (STM): – Information rehearsed from the SIS is passed onto the STM – 90% of information lost within the first 10 seconds. – STM has a limited capacity (7±2) Long term memory(LTM): – No capacity limitations – Yet often we have difficulty in remembering things!
MEMORY Selective attention-memory interaction – Our STM has a limited capacity – We overcome this by using selective attention. – Focusing on relevant information & ignoring irrelevant information. – Past experience helps with signal attention http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/brainsmart/ games/numbers/
RESPONSE TIME The time from the introduction of a stimulus to the completion of an action to deal with the problem. Reaction time & movement time Factors affecting it: – Gets faster during childhood/adolescence – Gest slower as we get older – Movement time depends on fitness – Number of choices to be made
Psychological refractory period Reaction time to stimulus 1 (S1) is expected A second stimulus (S2) will have a slower than normal reaction time Processing of S2 can not take place until S1 processing is complete This gap is the psychological refractory period.
Psychological RP http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C QLMRusBAko http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C QLMRusBAko The feint is S1 and the actual movement is S2 The defender will be slow in reacting to the real movement.
Motor Programmes A set of muscle commands that allow movement to be performed without any peripheral feedback. – Example: catch or hit a ball Executive motor programme: – A number of motor programmes put together – Example: a gymnastic routine or playing the piano
Motor Programmes Open loop: – performance of a skill without recourse to feedback – Very fast movements – Hitting a baseball coming in at 100kph – No time for feedback to alter the movement
Motor Programmes Closed loop: – Altering a movement during its execution – Example: returning a slow tennis serve – Perceptual trace – memory for the feel of successful past experiences/movements
TO DO by 20/2 What is Schmidts schema theory? What is intrinsic feedback? What is extrinsic feedback? What is knowledge of results? What is knowledge of performance? – Give examples Explain the difference between positive and negative feedback. What are the advantages of feedback?
Schema theory Schema = a set of generalized rules or rules that are generic to a group of movements Recall Schema = memory with regard to the choice and initiation of action Recognition Schema = memory for the feel of a movement, allows for changes in action Both schemas require LTM recall
Feedback Information resulting from an action or response Intrinsic Feedback: available to a player without outside help. The feel of a movement. Extrinsic Feedback: provided by someone or something else (coach, stopwatch). Can be given during (concurrent) or after (terminal) performance.
Feedback Knowledge of Results (KR): – post-response information about the outcome of an action. – Mostly visual, or a time, or a distance.
Feedback Knowledge of Performance (KP): – post-response information concerning the nature of the movement. – The feel of a movement – Knowledge of sensory consequences – Concurrent or terminal
Feedback Positive feedback: – What you did well – Prescriptive feedback (how to improve) Negative feedback: – Concentrates on errors – Should be followed with prescriptive feedback – Can be demotivating esp with beginners
Feedback & learning Summarise this section of your text on page 121 in your words & with your opinion on negative feedback – – does it have a place in sport? – Should it be used with beginners, experienced athletes or neither? Why/why not…