Presentation on theme: "Delivering and Receiving Feedback. Feedback Information about performance or behaviour that leads to action to affirm or develop that performance or behaviour."— Presentation transcript:
Feedback Information about performance or behaviour that leads to action to affirm or develop that performance or behaviour
Purpose of feedback Enables the receiver to recognise what they do well so they can continue doing it Enables the receiver to understand where he/she needs to develop and change
Does feedback work? Black and William 1998 – meta analysis of >250 studies of formative assessment with feedback since 1988 from all educational sectors Feedback resulted in positive benefits on learning and achievement across all areas, knowledge and skill types and levels of education
Conditions for successful feedback For students to benefit from feedback, the student must 1.possess a concept of the goal/standard or reference level being aimed for 2.compare the actual (or current) level of performance with that goal or standard 3.engage in appropriate action which leads to some closure of the gap Sadler 1989
Conditions for successful feedback Often point 2 is the focus of feedback and falls short on point 3
7 principles of good feedback practice 1. facilitates the development of self-assessment (reflection) in learning 2. encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning 3. helps clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, expected standards) 4. provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance
7 principles of good feedback practice 5. delivers high quality information to students about their learning 6. encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem 7. provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape the teaching Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick 2004
Tips – Before giving feedback always ask yourself: What is my intention behind giving this person feedback? How am I feeling about giving it? How is the other person feeling; if they have had a stressful day, might be best left for another occasion. It is important they are in the right frame of mind to accept it BOTH PEOPLE SHOULD FEEL CALM
Tips –Feedback rules timely: given as close to the event as possible (taking account of the persons readiness etc) selective: addressing one or two key issues rather than too many at once balanced: good and the bad suggestions: not prescriptions
Tips –Feedback rules descriptive, non-judgemental, based on behaviour not personality "I notice that you dont look at people when they are talking to you. You said you couldnt understand why people dont listen to you. Do you think this might have something to do with it? "I think youre selfish in that you dont listen to anyone else".
Tips –Feedback rules specific or focussed, in order to focus developmental feedback avoid personal comments/avoid mixed messages/avoid diffusion
Tips –Examples you fool! Cant you remember that I needed these accounts for the meeting yesterday? Shirley, I need the accounts for 2pm on Friday for the management meeting later in the afternoon. I would like you to take more care of your appearance in orders to make a better impression on patients You always look like you have just got out of bed but your work is good on the whole Some of you are not achieving your performance goals. You have to improve. Richard, you have not achieved your performance goals this week. Can we talk about it & work out some plans to improve?
Tips –Feedback rules directed towards behaviour that can be changed I really dont like your face/your height/the fact that you are bald etc It would help me if you smiled more or looked at me when you speak
The Impact of Feedback The person receiving the feedback can react with: anger – Ive had enough of this denial – this reaction often accompanies the initial shock of feedback I cant see any problem with that blame – Its not my fault. What can you expect when the patient wont listen? rationalisation – finding excuses to try and justify their behaviour Ive had a particularly bad week Doesnt everyone do this? acceptance renewed action
Feedback formats written/verbal individualised eg a particular assignment written/verbal general feedback to a group eg on most common errors/successes on an exam paper checklists/proforma eg headings of assessment criteria, with comments below
Feedback formats assessment criteria grid, showing where student is placed against each criteria model answers computerised eg multiple-choice questions "Off the cuff" comments from others eg "You're really good at
Record verbal feedback Ensure it is written down IRCP comments Student takes notes for PDP
Receiving feedback listen carefully to what is being said people should be receptive to feedback and see it as helpful. dont reject it! accept positive feedback…dont reject it! accept negative feedback...dont reject it! avoid arguing or being defensive.
Receiving feedback ask questions to clarify fully and seek examples is useful. acknowledge the giver of feedback and show his or her appreciation. The feedback may not have been easy to give. involve mutual good will receiver should feel that the giver isnt their enemy giver needs to want to help receiver develop
Receiving feedback it is up to the receiver what they do with feedback read or listen understand; clarification: examples and alternatives; keep notes try to keep feedback sheets/information together give it time to sink in and get into perspective and reflect address areas for improvement try not to feel devastated by small criticisms and try not to be defensive and make excuses
References Black, P. & William, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education. 5(1),7-74. Nicol, D. & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2004) Rethinking Formative Assessment in HE: a theoretical model and seven principles of good feedback practice. http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assessment/ASS051D_SE NLEF_model.doc http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assessment/ASS051D_SE NLEF_model.doc Sadler, D. R. (1989). Formative assessment5 and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science. 18, 119-144.
Acknowledgements Many thanks to Dr Ramesh Mehay at Bradford VTS for much of the material contained in this presentation http://www.bradfordvts.co.uk