2 Fitts and Posner’s Three Stage Model COGNITIVE STAGEASSOCIATIVE STAGEAUTONOMOUS STAGEDevelopment of basic movement patternRefinement of movement patternPerformance of movement virtually automaticPractice
3 Cognitive Stage High degree of cognitive activity Attentional demands high, limited to movement productionMovements lack synchronization and appear choppy and deliberateNumerous errors, typically gross in natureLacks capability to determine cause of errors or correct them
4 Associative Stage More consistent Attentional demands for movement production decreaseFewer, less gross errorsBetter at detecting cause of errorsBegin to develop appropriate error correction strategies
5 Autonomous Stage Highest level of proficiency Not all learners will reach this stageAttention reallocated to strategic decision-makingConsistentConfidentMake few errors and can generally detect and correct those errors that do occur
6 Practical Application Choose a skill and generate a list of practical tips practitioners could follow based on Fitts and Posner’s characteristics of learners across the three stages.See Cerebral Challenge #1 on page 100
7 Gentile’s Two-Stage Model GETTING THE IDEA OF THE MOVEMENTDevelopment of ability todiscriminate between regulatory and non-regulatory conditionsDevelopment of basicmovement patternClosed SkillFIXATIONRefinement of movement patternOpen SkillDIVERSIFICATIONAdaptation of movement to conform to ever-changing environmental demands
8 Getting the Idea of the Movement Goal is to develop an understanding of movement’s requirementsHave to learn to discriminate between regulatory and non-regulatory conditions
9 Fixation/Diversification Goal is refinementFixation – Closed skillsHow should skills be practiced?Diversification – Open skills
10 Practical Application Choose a skill and generate a list of practical tips practitioners could follow based on Gentile’s two stages of learning.See Cerebral Challenge #3 on page 103
11 Review QuestionsHow does the role of the practitioner shift as the learner progresses through Fitts & Posner’s stages of learning? Through Gentile’s two stage model?Explain the relationship of fixation/ diversification to closed and open skills.
12 Inferring Progress: Learner And Performance Changes Coordination and control; freezing degrees of freedomMuscle activity; reduction to only those neededEnergy expenditure; reduction as movement becomes more efficient and coordinatedConsistency;consistently correct motion or incorrect?Attention; less conscious attention; attention may be detrimental; visual attention on relevant stimuliKnowledge and memory; access information quicker, solve problems more quickly with fewer errors
13 Inferring Progress: Learner And Performance Changes continued Error detection and correction; better able to interpret sensory receptor info in recognition schema; may stop a performance to avoid an inefficient movementSelf-confidence; more success breed more motivation to continue; shoot for 80% success
14 Review QuestionsDescribe how a person’s capability of detecting and correcting error changes as a result of practice and moving from early to later stages of learning. Provide an example to illustrate this change.Describe how novices try to control the degrees of freedom of various limbs as they begin to learn a new skill. Give an example.Discuss how the muscles used change as a result of practice, and explain why this happens.
15 Assessing learning from coordination dynamics One observes stability and transitions of:Temporal movement coordination patternsSpatial movement coordination patternsThe stability or instability of performance across trials helps the observer characterize learning
16 Performance CurvesUsed to assess progress over time
17 Two performance characteristics can be observed with performance curves ImprovementConsistency
19 Linear CurvePerformanceoutcomeProportional increase in performance over timeTime or trials
20 Negatively Accelerated Curve PerformanceoutcomeEarly improvement but slows during latter practiceTime or trials
21 Positively Accelerated Curve Slight gain early but great improvement laterPerformanceoutcomeTime or trials
22 S-Shaped CurvePerformanceoutcomeCombination of performance curvesTime or trial
23 Typical Performance Curve Performance is erratic but improvingTime or trials
24 Practice performance may misrepresent learning Practice performance may overestimate or underestimate learningPractice artificially inflates performanceTransfer and retention test should be givenPerformance plateausPeriod when little or no improvement occurs
25 Performance PlateauPeriod of time during the learning process in which no overt changes in performance occurMay be transitional period in learning processNot always indicative of cessation of learningOther factors: fatigue, anxiety, lack of motivationLimited by performance measurement used
26 Retention and Transfer Tests Both measure persistence of improved skill performanceRetention testSkill performance test give following a period of no practiceTransfer testMeasurement of the adaptability of a response determined by testing learner’s ability to use a skill in a novel context or manner
27 Assessing learning by retention tests A common measure to assess the performance characteristic of improvementTypical administration of a retention testPerform the skill in practicePeriod of no practiceRetention test is administered to determine amount retained
28 Assessing learning by transfer tests Assess the performance characteristics of adaptabilityPerforming a practiced skill in:Novel context that changesWithout augmented feedbackPhysical environmentPersonal characteristicsNovel skill variations
29 Review QuestionsWhy aren’t performance plateaus indicative that a person has quit learning?What characteristics may be represented on a learning curve?Compare and contrast retention and transfer tests.
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