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Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment Susan M. Brookhart Presented February 27, 2008 At the University of Calgary Lecture Series International.

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Presentation on theme: "Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment Susan M. Brookhart Presented February 27, 2008 At the University of Calgary Lecture Series International."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment Susan M. Brookhart Presented February 27, 2008 At the University of Calgary Lecture Series International Perspectives on Student Assessment

2 What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment?

3 External Regulation Internal Regulation

4 Butler & Winne, 1995, p. 248

5 Greene & Azevedo, 2007

6 Teacher Feedback External Regulation Student Use of Feedback Internal Regulation

7 Role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment To provide information Relevant to the learning task Which the student perceives as information And uses for internal regulation of learning –Cognitively, taking the next steps for improvement –Motivationally, understanding his/her control over the learning

8 What kinds of feedback are most effective?

9 What kinds of feedback best… Provide information Relevant to the learning task Which the student perceives as information And uses for internal regulation of learning –Cognitively, taking the next steps for improvement –Motivationally, understanding his/her control over the learning

10 Feedback Strategies Feedback strategies can vary in… In these ways… Timing When given How often Amount How many points made How much about each point Mode Oral Written Visual/demonstration Audience Individual Group/class

11 Timing Immediate feedback for knowledge of facts (right/wrong) Slight delay for more comprehensive reviews of student thinking and processing Never delay feedback beyond when it would make a difference to students As often as is practical, for all major assignments

12 Timing Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, & Kulik (1991)

13 Amount Prioritize – pick the most important point(s) Choose points that relate to major learning goals Consider students developmental level

14 Amount Kluger & DeNisi (1996) Sadler (1989)

15 Mode Best mode for the message – would a comment in passing the students desk suffice? Conference needed? Interactive feedback (talking with the student) is best when possible Written feedback on written work or on assignment cover sheets Use demonstration if how to do something is an issue or if student needs an example

16 Mode Evaluation vs. grading studies about written feedback Modeling and social learning theory for demonstrations

17 Audience Individual feedback says The teacher values my learning Group/class feedback works if most of the class missed the same concept on an assignment – becomes an opportunity for reteaching

18 Audience Classroom management and differentiated instruction literature Johnston (2004) Bloom (1984)

19 Feedback Content (1) Feedback content can vary in… In these ways… Focus The work itself The process the student used The students self-regulation The student personally Function Description Evaluation/judgment Comparison To criteria for good work (criterion-referenced) To other students (norm- referenced) To students own past performance (self-referenced)

20 Feedback Content (2) Feedback content can vary in… In these ways… Valence Positive Negative Clarity Clear to the student Unclear Specificity Nit-picky Just right Overly general Tone Implications What the student will hear

21 Focus When possible, describe both the work and the process – and their relationship Comment on students self-regulation if the comment will foster self-efficacy Avoid personal comments

22 Focus Hattie & Timperley (2007)

23 Function Describe Dont judge

24 Function Ryan, Connell, & Deci (1985) Butler & Nisan (1986) Crooks (1988) Tunstall & Gipps (1996) Black & Wiliam (1998)

25 Comparison Use criterion-referenced feedback for giving information about the work itself Use self-referenced feedback for giving information about student processes or effort Use self-referenced feedback for unsuccessful learners who need to see how they are making progress, not how far they are from the goal

26 Comparison Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan (1991) Sadler (1989) Classroom environment or classroom structure studies Covington (1992) Ames & Archer (1988)

27 Valence Use positive comments that describe what is well done Accompany negative descriptions of the work with positive suggestions for improvement

28 Valence Typology of Teacher Feedback (Tunstall & Gipps, 1996, p. 394)

29 Type AType BType CType D RewardingApprovingSpecifying attainment Constructing achievement RewardsPositive personal expression Specific acknowledgeme nt of attainment Mutual articulation of achievement 1 Positive Feedback Warm expression of feeling Use of criteria in relation to work behavior; teacher models Additional use of emerging criteria; child role in presentation 1 Achievement feedback General praiseMore specific praise Praise integral to description Positive non- verbal feedback PunishingDisapprovingSpecifying improvement Constructing the way forward 2 PunishmentsNegative personal expression Correction of errors Mutual critical appraisal 2 Negative Feedback Reprimands; negative generalisations More practice given; training in self-checking Provision of strategies Improvement feedback Negative non- verbal feedback EvaluativeDescriptive

30 Clarity Use vocabulary and concepts the student will understand Tailor amount and content of feedback to students developmental level

31 Clarity Sadler (1989)

32 Specificity How specific depends on the student and the task Feedback should be specific enough that the student knows what to do, but not so specific that its done for him/her Identify errors or types of errors, but correcting every one (e.g., copyediting or supplying right answers) doesnt leave the student anything to do

33 Specificity Kluger & DeNisi (1996) Sadler (1989)

34 Tone Choose words that communicate respect for the student and the work Choose words that position the student as the agent Choose words that cause students to think or wonder

35 Tone Johnston (2004) Covington (1992)

36 Conclusion What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment? –Part of the external regulation of learning –Feedback is what the teacher does but in the end what matters is what the student does –The role of feedback is to present students with the means, motive, and opportunity for internal regulation of learning.

37 Conclusion What kinds of feedback are most effective? –Discussion of research on feedback (including some major reviews) and other relevant literature in light of the realities of classroom practice –Classify findings into choices for teachers about feedback strategies and feedback content

38 Conclusion How to Give Good Feedback, coming out in September, 2008, ASCD Academic literature review, this lecture


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