Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIES"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIES The American Nation3/31/2017CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIESSection 1: The North and the MidwestSection 2: The Cotton KingdomSection 3: The Slave SystemCHAPTER 8--REGIONAL SOCIETIES
2Objectives: Section 1: The North and the Midwest What were the differences between the lifestyles of wealthy, poor, and middle-class families?What innovations transformed industrial and farm production and domestic life in the early 1800s?What were the major issues concerning trade unions, and what actions did unions take in the early to mid-1800s?What groups immigrated to the United States in the mid-1800s, and how did some Americans respond to this immigration?How did life in the Midwest change in the early 1800s?
3Wealthy families Section 1: The North and the Midwest headed by bankers, manufacturers, and merchantslavish homes; often concerned about social status
4Middle-class families Section 1: The North and the MidwestMiddle-class familiesheaded by lawyers, artisans, ministers, and shopkeepersmodest homes; emphasized education
5Poor families Section 1: The North and the Midwest small apartments, attics, or cellarshigh levels of crime and disease
6Innovations Section 1: The North and the Midwest The factory system allowed all aspects of manufacturing to take place under one roof.Power looms enabled factory production of cloth.Lighter, stronger plows required less strength to operate.The mechanical reaper allowed greater harvests in less time.Sewing machines saved labor in the home.
7Issues of trade unions Section 1: The North and the Midwest rising working hoursincreased production demandschild laborpoverty of workerssafety standards
8Actions of unions Section 1: The North and the Midwest went on strike organized political associationspushed for reforms
9Immigrants in the mid-1800s Section 1: The North and the MidwestImmigrants in the mid-1800smany Irishmany Germansmany Roman Catholics
10Nativist response Section 1: The North and the Midwest favoritism toward native-borndesire to restrict immigrants’ voting and political rightscreation of nativist organizationsanti-Catholic riotsviolence against the foreign-born
11Life in the Midwest Section 1: The North and the Midwest increased demand for cropsincreasing crop specializationnew agricultural technologyshift from home-produced goods to store-bought goods
12Objectives: Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom What were the major elements of the southern economy?How did planters differ from yeoman farmers and poor white farmers?What cultural traits did white southerners of different classes share?What was life like for most free African Americans in the South?
13Elements of the southern economy Section 2: The Cotton KingdomElements of the southern economyhigh-demand agricultural goods such as cotton, corn, and tobaccoslave labormanufacturing of bricks, textiles, and tobacco productsgood portsfew factory workersinsufficient taxes to pay for improvementslittle purchasing power in the hands of the majority
14Planters Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom large, sometimes elaborate houses20 or more slaves
15Yeoman farmers Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom in the majority small, modest homesgrew own food
16Poor whites Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom lived on unproductive land struggled to provide for themselves
17Cultural traits of white southerners Section 2: The Cotton KingdomCultural traits of white southernersdiet included corn, pork, and coffeesimilar housingmusic, stories, arts and crafts influenced by British and African heritagecommon religion interpreted to support slavery
18Life for free African Americans Section 2: The Cotton KingdomLife for free African Americansusually required to register with local authoritiesrequired to carry identification passesnot allowed to votenot allowed to hold meetingsnot allowed to bear weaponsnot allowed to testify in court against whites
19Objectives: Section 3: The Slave System How did critics and supporters of slavery explain their positions?What were the living conditions of enslaved African Americans like?What was the cultural life of slaves like?What types of resistance did slaves practice?
20Arguments against slavery Section 3: The Slave SystemArguments against slaverycontradicted the values of freedom and libertyless profitable than basing economy on wage labor
21Arguments for slavery Section 3: The Slave System only way to provide an adequate supply of laborslaves provided with adequate food and clothingslaves cared for in old age
22Living conditions of slaves Section 3: The Slave SystemLiving conditions of slavespoor housinglimited foodviolent punishmentsthreats of being soldfamilies divided
23Cultural life of slaves Section 3: The Slave SystemCultural life of slavesstruggle to maintain family tiesnot allowed to learn to read, so became skilled storytellersanimal tales used to veil discussion of ownersAfrican heritage reflected in rhythms and communal singing in musicwoodcarvings, pottery, woven baskets as folk artreligion a blend of Christian elements and traditional African beliefs
24Resistance of slaves Section 3: The Slave System revolts work shutdowns and slowdownsrunning away