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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIES Section 1: The North and the Midwest Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom Section.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIES Section 1: The North and the Midwest Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom Section."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIES Section 1: The North and the Midwest Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom Section 3: The Slave System

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 2 Objectives: What were the differences between the lifestyles of wealthy, poor, and middle-class families? What were the differences between the lifestyles of wealthy, poor, and middle-class families? What innovations transformed industrial and farm production and domestic life in the early 1800s? What innovations transformed industrial and farm production and domestic life in the early 1800s? What were the major issues concerning trade unions, and what actions did unions take in the early to mid-1800s? What were the major issues concerning trade unions, and what actions did unions take in the early to mid-1800s? What groups immigrated to the United States in the mid-1800s, and how did some Americans respond to this immigration? What groups immigrated to the United States in the mid-1800s, and how did some Americans respond to this immigration? How did life in the Midwest change in the early 1800s? How did life in the Midwest change in the early 1800s? Section 1: The North and the Midwest

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 3 Wealthy families headed by bankers, manufacturers, and merchants headed by bankers, manufacturers, and merchants lavish homes; often concerned about social status lavish homes; often concerned about social status Section 1: The North and the Midwest

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 4 Middle-class families headed by lawyers, artisans, ministers, and shopkeepers headed by lawyers, artisans, ministers, and shopkeepers modest homes; emphasized education modest homes; emphasized education Section 1: The North and the Midwest

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 5 Poor families small apartments, attics, or cellars small apartments, attics, or cellars high levels of crime and disease high levels of crime and disease Section 1: The North and the Midwest

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 6 Innovations The factory system allowed all aspects of manufacturing to take place under one roof. The factory system allowed all aspects of manufacturing to take place under one roof. Power looms enabled factory production of cloth. Power looms enabled factory production of cloth. Lighter, stronger plows required less strength to operate. Lighter, stronger plows required less strength to operate. The mechanical reaper allowed greater harvests in less time. The mechanical reaper allowed greater harvests in less time. Sewing machines saved labor in the home. Sewing machines saved labor in the home. Section 1: The North and the Midwest

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 7 Issues of trade unions rising working hours rising working hours increased production demands increased production demands child labor child labor poverty of workers poverty of workers safety standards safety standards Section 1: The North and the Midwest

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 8 Actions of unions went on strike went on strike organized political associations organized political associations pushed for reforms pushed for reforms Section 1: The North and the Midwest

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 9 Immigrants in the mid-1800s many Irish many Irish many Germans many Germans many Roman Catholics many Roman Catholics Section 1: The North and the Midwest

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 10 Nativist response favoritism toward native-born favoritism toward native-born desire to restrict immigrants voting and political rights desire to restrict immigrants voting and political rights creation of nativist organizations creation of nativist organizations anti-Catholic riots anti-Catholic riots violence against the foreign-born violence against the foreign-born Section 1: The North and the Midwest

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 11 Life in the Midwest increased demand for crops increased demand for crops increasing crop specialization increasing crop specialization new agricultural technology new agricultural technology shift from home-produced goods to store-bought goods shift from home-produced goods to store-bought goods Section 1: The North and the Midwest

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 12 Objectives: What were the major elements of the southern economy? What were the major elements of the southern economy? How did planters differ from yeoman farmers and poor white farmers? How did planters differ from yeoman farmers and poor white farmers? What cultural traits did white southerners of different classes share? What cultural traits did white southerners of different classes share? What was life like for most free African Americans in the South? What was life like for most free African Americans in the South? Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 13 Elements of the southern economy high-demand agricultural goods such as cotton, corn, and tobacco high-demand agricultural goods such as cotton, corn, and tobacco slave labor slave labor manufacturing of bricks, textiles, and tobacco products manufacturing of bricks, textiles, and tobacco products good ports good ports few factory workers few factory workers insufficient taxes to pay for improvements insufficient taxes to pay for improvements little purchasing power in the hands of the majority little purchasing power in the hands of the majority Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 14 Planters large, sometimes elaborate houses large, sometimes elaborate houses 20 or more slaves 20 or more slaves Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 15 Yeoman farmers in the majority in the majority small, modest homes small, modest homes grew own food grew own food Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 16 Poor whites lived on unproductive land lived on unproductive land struggled to provide for themselves struggled to provide for themselves Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 17 Cultural traits of white southerners diet included corn, pork, and coffee diet included corn, pork, and coffee similar housing similar housing music, stories, arts and crafts influenced by British and African heritage music, stories, arts and crafts influenced by British and African heritage common religion interpreted to support slavery common religion interpreted to support slavery Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 18 Life for free African Americans usually required to register with local authorities usually required to register with local authorities required to carry identification passes required to carry identification passes not allowed to vote not allowed to vote not allowed to hold meetings not allowed to hold meetings not allowed to bear weapons not allowed to bear weapons not allowed to testify in court against whites not allowed to testify in court against whites Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 19 Objectives: How did critics and supporters of slavery explain their positions? How did critics and supporters of slavery explain their positions? What were the living conditions of enslaved African Americans like? What were the living conditions of enslaved African Americans like? What was the cultural life of slaves like? What was the cultural life of slaves like? What types of resistance did slaves practice? What types of resistance did slaves practice? Section 3: The Slave System

20 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 20 Arguments against slavery contradicted the values of freedom and liberty contradicted the values of freedom and liberty less profitable than basing economy on wage labor less profitable than basing economy on wage labor Section 3: The Slave System

21 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 21 Arguments for slavery only way to provide an adequate supply of labor only way to provide an adequate supply of labor slaves provided with adequate food and clothing slaves provided with adequate food and clothing slaves cared for in old age slaves cared for in old age Section 3: The Slave System

22 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 22 Living conditions of slaves poor housing poor housing limited food limited food violent punishments violent punishments threats of being sold threats of being sold families divided families divided Section 3: The Slave System

23 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 23 Cultural life of slaves struggle to maintain family ties struggle to maintain family ties not allowed to learn to read, so became skilled storytellers not allowed to learn to read, so became skilled storytellers animal tales used to veil discussion of owners animal tales used to veil discussion of owners African heritage reflected in rhythms and communal singing in music African heritage reflected in rhythms and communal singing in music woodcarvings, pottery, woven baskets as folk art woodcarvings, pottery, woven baskets as folk art religion a blend of Christian elements and traditional African beliefs religion a blend of Christian elements and traditional African beliefs Section 3: The Slave System

24 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 24 Resistance of slaves revolts revolts work shutdowns and slowdowns work shutdowns and slowdowns running away running away Section 3: The Slave System


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