7 What is Social Cognition? Social Psychology:The scientific study of how people think and feel about, influence, and relate to one anotherCognitive Psychology: The scientific study of basic mental abilities such as perception, learning, and memorySOCIAL COGNITION: Social cognition studies how people think about themselves and the social world – how they select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgments and decisions
8 Social Cognition is Related to process Related to what is in our head Our cognitive representations or schemasAbout people (it is social)
9 Social Cognition strives to examine how we take information from the outside world and encode it (select)how this interpretation of the information is stored in memory (interpret)how this information is retrieved from memory and used (remember and use)In general, social cognition is the use of cognitive methodologies (and theories) to understand people and social situations.
12 Memory Test ADVENTUROUS RECKLESS SELF-CONFIDENT CONCEITED INDEPENDENT ALOOFPERSISTENT STUBBORN
13 SchemasSchemas are mental structures that represent knowledge about a concept or type of stimuli, they often include attributes and the relationship among those attributes
14 Types of SchemasRole Schemas: expectations about people in particular roles and social categories (e.g., the role of a social psychologist, student, doctor, Blacks)Self-Schemas: expectations about the self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant informationPerson Schemas: expectations based on personality traits. What we associate with a certain type of person (e.g., introvert, warm person)Event Schemas: expectations about sequences of events in social situations. What we associate with certain situations (e.g., restaurant schemas)
15 Why are schemas important? They reduce the amount of information to processThey reduce ambiguityThey guide our:Attention and encodingHow quick we noticeWhat we noticeHow we interpret what we notice
16 Schemas Influence Attention and Encoding/Categorization
17 Why are schemas important? They reduce the amount of information to processThey reduce ambiguityThey guide our:Attention and encodingHow quick we noticeWhat we noticeHow we interpret what we noticeOur memoryOur judgments
18 When do we use schemas?Accessibility X Fit (Higgins, Rholes, & Jones, 1977)Accessibilitythe extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s minds (and therefore are likely to be used when making judgments about the social world) So how available the schema is in our head.Fit (applicable, representative, similar)the degree to which the accessible construct fits the object/person under judgment.
19 When do we use schemas? Applicable Nonapplicable ADVENTUROUS OBEDIENT SELF-CONFIDENT NEATINDEPENDENT SATIRICALPERSISTENT GRATEFULRECKLESS DISRESPECTFULCONCEITED LISTLESSALOOF CLUMSYSTUBBORN SHY
20 The problem with schemas… Schemas can distort reality and memoriesSchemas can persist, even when discredited- Belief perseveranceSchemas can be self-fulfilling- People often live up to our expectations because we treat them in ways that make them act in accordance with these expectations
21 Self-fulfilling Prophecies We have expectations (schemas) about other people.These expectations can influence how we act toward these people.These actions can cause these people to act in ways that are consistent with our expectations.
22 Self-fulfilling Prophecies Academic Success:Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) - Pygmalion effectTeenage Drinking Behavior:Madon, Willard, Guyl, Trudeau, and Spoth (2006)
23 Teenage Drinking Behavior: Asked mothers to rate the likelihood that their child would drink at 4 different times - when the same child was in grade 6, grade 7, grade 8, grade 10, and grade 12.How likely do you think that your child will drink alcohol regularly as a teenager?Certain this will Certain this willnot happen happenIf your child was at a party and one of his or her friends offered him/her an alcoholic beverage, how likely would your child be to drink?Certain this will Certain this willnot happen happen
24 Teenage Drinking Behavior: They also measured the child’s alcohol use in grade 7, grade 8, grade 10 and grade 12 with open-ended questions.During the past month, how many times have you had beer, wine, wine coolers, or other liquor?During the past month, how many times have you had three or more drinks?They also controlled for important predictors such as:Parents drinkingAccessibility to alcoholPerceived norms about teenage drinkingAttitudes toward alcohol use
25 Children’s Alcohol Use The process of accumulation of expectations over time for mothers who consistently overestimated their child’s alcohol use.
26 Children’s Alcohol Use The additive effects of expectations over time worsen an initial difference in alcohol use between mothers who overestimate and underestimate their child’s alcohol use.
27 Schemas influence Our attention and encoding Our memory Our judgments Our behaviourwhich can in turn influence our social environment
32 How much do you like this letter? 1/14/02How much do you like this letter?___really dislike really like34
33 Name Letter Task How much they like each letter of the alphabet F 1/14/02Name Letter TaskHow much they like each letter of the alphabetFreally dislike really likeCCompare mean ratings of own first and last initials to overall liking across all subjects of those first and last initials34
34 Self-EsteemA person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth.
35 How is the Name Letter Task Automatic? An Automatic Process is:unintentional/spontaneousefficientfastimplicit/nonconsciousuncontrollable
40 How is the IAT Automatic? An Automatic Process is:unintentional/spontaneousefficientfastimplicit/nonconsciousuncontrollable
41 Subtle and Nonverbal Behaviours What are subtle and nonverbal behaviors?What is an example of this type of behaviour related to self-esteem?How are these effects automatic?Are they intentional? Controlled? Are participants aware that they are making these types of responses?Nonverbal “leakage”Definition: the unintentional transmission of information through nonverbal channels of communication.Might occur becausedon’t think to control nonverbalsaren’t able to control nonverbals
42 Dual Processes – Automatic vs Controlled Processing A Controlled Process isintentional/deliberativecapacity consuming/inefficientgenerally slowerexplicit/consciouscontrollable2. How do I measure this type of process?
43 Controlled/Explicit Measures Self-Report MeasuresStandard Personality Measures/Attitude Measures (e.g., surveys, questionnaires, interviews)Explicit BehavioursWhat say, how act, who choose, etc. when able to deliberate and control responses
44 Self-EsteemA person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth.
45 Examples of Explicit Measures of Self-Esteem overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worthRosenberg (1965) Trait Self-Esteem ScalePennebaker (1997) Writing Task
46 Rosenberg (1965) Trait Self-Esteem Scale 10 itemsI feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others.Strongly disagree Strongly agree
47 Pennebaker (1997) Writing Task Instruct participants to write about their deepest thoughts and feelings about themselves.
48 Explicit and Deliberative Behaviours What are explicit, controlled, deliberative behaviors?What is an example of this type of behaviour related to self-esteem?How are these effects controlled/explicit?Are they intentional? Are participants aware that they are making these types of responses? Are they controlled?
49 Self-Esteem A person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth. Is high self-esteem good or bad?good – it protects us from depression, drugabuse, some types of delinquencybad – terrorists and gang leaders have high self-esteem,if we reject people with high self-esteem they can become ugly and abusiveThe answer may be related to dual processing theories.
50 Jordan, Spencer, Zanna, Hoshino-Browne, & Correll (2003) Measured Explicit Self-Esteem (Rosenberg scale)conscious and deliberately reasoned evaluations of selfMeasured Implicit Self-Esteem (IAT)automatic evaluations of self that occur unintentionally and outside of awareness
51 Jordan, Spencer, Zanna, Hoshino-Browne, & Correll (2003) Examined relationship of Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem with NarcissismNarcissists have grandiose self-views (potentially concealing unacknowledged self-doubt)“I really like to be the center of attention.”“I like to look at myself in the mirror.”“I am more capable than other people.”
52 Jordan, Spencer, Zanna, Hoshino-Browne, & Correll (2003) Explicit Self-EsteemLow HighReal lowSelf-esteemDefensiveSelf-Esteem?Real high (secure)LowHighImplicitSelf-EsteemSo which group would be high in narcissism (i.e., Who would have agrandiose self-view (potentially concealing unacknowledged self-doubt)?
53 Jordan, Spencer, Zanna, Hoshino-Browne, & Correll (2003) Explicit Self-EsteemLow HighHigh levels of Narcissism -Low levels of NarcissismLowHighImplicitSelf-EsteemThese findings suggest that we may need to re-conceptualize the way we think about and measure self-esteem and the importance of taking these dual processes into account.
54 Gut Feelings vs. Analysis: Dual Attitudes Wilson (1989) - datingAttitudesBehaviors?How happy are you in your relationship?This predicts (in general)whether a couple will be dating a few months later.
55 Gut Feelings vs. Analysis: Dual Attitudes Dijksterhuis (2004) – Apartment StudyInformation about 4 apartments in AmsterdamDescribed each with 12 different attributesApt. A: sizeable, bad neighbourhood, cheap, bay window, etc ****Apt. B: nice area, far from stores, expensive, subway, etcApt. C: cheap, nice neighbours, ugly, small bedrooms, etcApt D: unfriendly landlord, no fireplace, small kitchen, poor condition, etc *One apartment was more desirable and one less desirable than others.
56 Gut Feelings vs. Analysis: Dual Attitudes Dijksterhuis (2004)All subjects asked to evaluate each apartment1/3 did so immediately1/3 given 3 minutes to think about it consciously1/3 told that they would have to choose later but they were distracted for 3 minutes to prevent them from conscious thought (2-back task)
57 Gut Feelings vs. Analysis: Dual Attitudes Dijksterhuis & van Olden (2006) - Poster StudySubjects were allowed to choose 1 of 5 poster to take home1/3 look briefly at poster and choose1/3 look at poster briefly and allowed to think about choice for 9 minutes1/3 look briefly at poster and then distracted for 9 minutes
58 Gut Feelings vs. Analysis: Dual Attitudes Dijksterhuis & van Olden (2006) - Poster StudyExperimenter called them a few weeks laterGuess who was happiest with their poster?Also asked how much money they needed to sell the poster back
60 Next Class Class 3: Social Perception and Self-Perceptions Reading material:Chapter 4: Social Perception:How We Come to Understand Other People,ppChapter 5: Self-Knowledge and the Need to Maintain Self-Esteem,pp