Presentation on theme: "1 AFRICAN PEER REVIEW MECHANISM : PROGRESS SO FAR AND LESSONS LEARNT NEPAD/ OECD ROUNDTABLE, BRAZZAVILLE, CONGO 12 DECEMBER 2006 Bernard Kouassi and Afeikhena."— Presentation transcript:
1 AFRICAN PEER REVIEW MECHANISM : PROGRESS SO FAR AND LESSONS LEARNT NEPAD/ OECD ROUNDTABLE, BRAZZAVILLE, CONGO 12 DECEMBER 2006 Bernard Kouassi and Afeikhena Jerome APRM SECRETARIAT, MIDRAND
2 Overview of the APRM The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) is a self- monitoring instrument voluntarily agreed to by member states of the African Union. Its primary purpose is: To foster the adoption of policies, standards and practices that lead to political stability, high economic growth, sustainable development and accelerated sub- regional and continental economic integration through sharing of experiences and reinforcement of successful and best practice, including identifying deficiencies and assessing the needs of capacity building. It is unprecedented in scope. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
3 Overview of the APRM The APR processes entail periodic reviews of the policies and practices of participating countries to ascertain progress being made towards achieving the mutually agreed goals and compliance in the four focus areas, namely: Democracy and Political Governance; Economic Governance and Management; Corporate Governance; and Socio-Economic Development. Details on the Standards and Codes and Objectives of each thematic area are contained in the 88- page Questionnaire Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
4 What does the APRM do? Monitor compliance with agreed norms, standards and codes; Promote policy dialogue; Promote transparency, accountability and mutual learning: through dissemination of Information and best practice; and Identify gaps and capacity constraints and ways of rectifying them. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
5 Member Countries of the APRM Twenty-five Countries have so far acceded to the APRM as at December These are: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. Sao tome & Principe has requested for accession Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
6 APRM Coverage 652, 476,125 out of Africas total population of 885,977, 259 or 73.67%. Membership of the APRM constitute the largest countries on the continent. APRM Countries Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
7 African Countries in NEPADS Committees Tunisia Libya Botswana Sao-Tome & Principe Benin Burkina Faso Malawi Lesotho Sierra Leone Tanzania Uganda HGSIC APR Forum Algeria Nigeria Senegal Mali Ghana South Africa Congo Mauritius Egypt Angola Kenya Ethiopia Mozambique Gabon Cameroon Rwanda To date twenty five member states of the AU have voluntarily acceded to the APRM.
8 APRM Principles National ownership and leadership by the participating country are essential factors underpinning the effectiveness of the APRM. The APRM process is designed to be open and participatory. It is also guided by the principles of transparency, accountability, technical competence, credibility and it should be free from manipulation. The APRM is not a score-card exercise, meant to exclude or punish countries. There is no conditionality attached to the mechanism. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
9 Organisational Structure of the APRM The overall responsibility for the APRM is vested in the Committee of Participating Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the APRM [APR Forum]. The 7 – Member Panel of Eminent Persons [APR Panel] appointed by the Heads of State oversees the conduct of the APRM processes and ensures the integrity of the APRM. The APRM Secretariat provides the secretarial, technical, coordinating and administrative support services for the implementation of the APRM. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
10 Strategic partners The African Development Bank: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Development Programme Regional Bureau for Africa Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
11 A National Commission with broad stakeholder representation should ideally be in place to interact with the support mission team. A trend seems to emerge that includes a Focal Point and Governing Council supported by a Secretariat as well as Technical Research Institutes. While uniformity may not be easy to achieve based on the contexts of countries, national ownership and broad-based stakeholder representation are key features required for these institutions. Structures to manage the process at country level Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
12 Country Review Processes Five Stages: Stage One: Constituting National Structures and developing the countrys self-assessment Report based on the questionnaire and a preliminary Programme of Action; and the submission of these to the APR Secretariat. The APR Secretariat also prepares a Background paper on the country; Stage Two: the Country Review Team visits the country to undertake wide consultations with stakeholders; Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
13 Structures to manage the process at country level Stage Three: the drafting of the report by the Country Review Team; Stage Four: the submission of the Country Review Report to the APR Secretariat and the APR Panel, and to the Forum for Peer Review discussions among the Heads of State and Government; Stage Five: the final stage of the APR process involves making public the countrys report and related actions. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
14 APRM Master Questionnaire Democracy and Good Political Governance (9 Objectives) Economic Governance and Management (5 Objectives) Corporate Governance (5 Objectives) Socio-Economic Governance (6 Objectives) 30 International instruments and Standards/ 16 Regional instruments and Standards 15 Standards and codes9 Standards and codes10 Standards and codes 1. Prevent and reduce intra- and inter-country conflicts. 1. Promote macroeconomic policies that support sustainable development 1. Promote an enabling environment and effective regulatory framework for economic activities 1. Promote self-reliance in development and build capacity for self-sustaining development 2. Constitutional democracy, including periodic political competition and opportunity for choice, the rule of law, a Bill of Rights and supremacy of the Constitution. 2. Implement sound, transparent and predictable government economic policies 2. Ensure that corporations act as good corporate citizens with regards to human rights, social responsibility and environmental sustainability 2. Accelerate socio-economic development to achieve sustainable development and poverty eradication 3. Promotion and protection of economic, social and cultural rights, civil and political rights as enshrined in African and international human rights instruments 3. Promote sound public finance management 3. Promote adoption of codes of good business ethics in achieving the objectives of the corporation 3. Strengthen policies, delivery mechanisms and outcomes in key social areas including education and combating HIV/AIDS and other communicable diseases 4. Uphold the separation of powers, including the protection of the independence of the judiciary and of an effective parliament 4. Fight corruption and money laundering 4. Ensure that corporations treat all their stakeholders (Shareholders, employees, communities, suppliers and customers) in a fair and just manner 4. Ensuring affordable access to water, sanitation, energy, finance (including micro- finance), markets, ICT, shelter and land to all citizens, especially the rural poor 5. Ensure accountable, efficient and effective public office holders and civil servants 5. Accelerate regional integration by participating in the harmonization of monetary, trade and investment policies 5. Provide for accountability of corporations, directors and officers 5. Progress towards gender equality in all critical areas of concern, including equal access to education for girls at all levels
15 APRM Master Questionnaire Democracy and Good Political Governance Economic Governance and Management Corporate GovernanceSocio-Economic Governance 6. Fighting corruption in the political sphere 6. Encourage broad-based participation in development by all stakeholders at all levels 7. Promotion and protection of the rights of women 8. Promotion and protection of the rights of children and young persons 9. Promotion and protection of the rights of vulnerable groups including internally displaced persons and refugees
16 Progress So Far The APRM has launched reviews in 12 countries:- Ghana, Rwanda, Mauritius, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, Algeria, South Africa, Benin, Tanzania, Burkina Faso and Mozambique. 3 countries have so far completed the entire process -Ghana, Rwanda and Kenya. South African review process is nearing completion. Hopefully, to be peer reviewed in January The Country Review Mission for Algeria has been completed. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
17 Ghana Review Process Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges 6 Best Practices including: An oasis of peace and tranquility in a sub-region perpetually in turmoil. Unique processes for fostering democracy such as the Annual Governance Forum and the Peoples Assembly; Main Challenges Low representation of women in politics; corruption; decentralisation; and chieftaincy disputes which have been quite rife in recent year. Others are – bloated cabinet - 88 ministers in all; weak internal capacity for economic policy making; weak oversight by Parliament; and heavy dependence on external aid.
19 Rwanda Review Process Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges Best Practices including: The highest proportion of Women in Parliament (49%) in the in the world; efforts in providing social services especially free education; and using ICT strategy to transform the country into a service-based economy. Main Challenges Aid dependence - about 90% of the capital expenditure funded externally; relations with its neighbours in the Great Lakes region which has been a source of conflict; and the issue of legitimacy and trust in the Gacaca.
21 Kenya Review Process Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges 9 Best Practices including: Kenyas role in pacifying her neighbours; considerable degree of freedom in exercising political and civil rights; promotion of decentralisation; reduction in the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS; and firing of 29 judges to clean up the Judiciary. Main Challenges Delay in adopting a new constitution to replace the colonial era charter; endemic corruption; weak parliamentary oversight; poor representation of women in key positions; and high incidence of poverty.
23 The Programme of Action Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges The POA is central to the APRM. It is a major output of the review process, which, in itself, brings out the value- added elements of the APRM process in a country. The three countries are enthusiastically implementing the POA, some even before they peer review was conducted. They will be presenting Progress Report to the Forum in January 2007.
24 Technical Support to APRM The support from the three strategic partners, together with the Development Bank of Southern Africa has been tremendous. The APRM has established a pool of African experts who provide technical assistance in the implementation of the APRM Processes. The use of expertise from the diaspora has been a major strength. Selection of experts for the implementation of the APRM is through a competitive process. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
25 Financial Support to APRM The APRM Trust Fund, established by the UNDP at the request of the APR Forum is now operational. Several African countries/ International Organisations have already contributed to the APRM Trust Fund. Amount Contributed (US Dollars) South Africa6,800,000 Algeria 1,500, 000 Egypt1,100,000 Nigeria1,250,000 Other African Countries3,650,000 Canada 570,000 UNDP 2,700,000 DFID (UK Government) 2,000,000 African contribution73% Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
26 Consultative process Civil Society …As a policy, the APRM puts strong emphasis on finding ways to involve all segments of the citizenry including civil society- religious groups, trade unions, the media, women and youth, and the private sector in the APRM at country and continental levels. Country Review Missions are very intense and not confined to the capital. In few instances, the Mission has had to revisit some countries. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
27 Lessons Learnt The APRM is a unique African instrument that is trial- blazing and has great potential as a tool to promote and strengthen good governance. It is African in origin, African inspired and African owned. The experiences emerging out of the APRM implementation process are very encouraging. The process has been empowering in ways that were not envisaged when it started. The interactive and broad inclusiveness of the process has spawned and strengthening a culture of political dialogue in the countries. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
28 Lessons Learnt The preparedness of African governments to engage the civil society and deliberate on national challenges of governance and attempt a framework for addressing them is profoundly significant. Likewise the willingness to let outsiders examine national findings and express a view on how a country is governed is equally a new experience that should be encouraged. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
29 Lessons Learnt The APRM is making it possible for countries to benchmark good governance in Africa on shared African and international norms and standards as well as for citizens to participate in the evaluation of how they are governed. Capacity is being developed and partnerships within and with external partners are being created. It is also show-casing African innovative thinking in governance. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
30 Lessons Learnt ……Centrality of country process Integrity and inclusiveness of processes essential; Ownership and leadership by stakeholders; Sustainability of funding/resource allocation; Good preparation for technical assessments; Harmonisation with ongoing assessments/strategies for synergy. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
31 Challenges As is apparent in the emerging experiences in the countries implementing the APRM, along with the opportunities it presents, a number of challenges exist and these are being addressed. The APRM is still clearly misunderstood. It is not a score- card exercise. The Human and Institutional Capacity of the APR Secretariat. The recommended time -frame (6-9 Months) –is proving to be quite short - yet there are complaints that the APRM is not moving fast enough. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges
32 Challenges At the national level, there are daunting challenges, including the establishment of appropriate national structures, financing the process and the organization of a participatory and all inclusive self-assessment process. Monitoring and Evaluation tools are just being developed. With over half a century experience, perhaps, the APRM needs to engage with the OECD with a view to promoting learning and exchange, sharing approaches and good practice in conducting peer reviews. Overview Progress So Far Lessons Learnt Challenges