Presentation on theme: "Teaching Vocabulary Building Academic Background Knowledge Cynthia Hernandez August 12, 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Teaching Vocabulary Building Academic Background Knowledge Cynthia Hernandez August 12, 2009
Objectives for this workshop are based on Robert J. Marzanos book, Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement Participants will: 1.understand what it means to build academic background knowledge. 2.learn about eight steps to effective vocabulary instruction.
Research on What Works in Schools Marzano explores direct vocabulary instruction in depth by outlining eight characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction and applying a six step process that teachers can use to help students develop and understand new concepts.
View Video After viewing the video, be prepared to discuss the following: 1. Discuss strategies that influence the building of students academic background knowledge. 2. As a table group, come to a consensus and list these strategies on chart paper. Have someone in your group report out and share strategies that build academic background knowledge.
1. Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on definitions Teacher and/or student provides a description, explanation, or example of new term. Student restates the explanation of the new term in their own words. Student writes about his own experiences. (Make it personal). Provide opportunities to find a relationship between what they already know and what they are asked to learn. Teacher identifies the critical features that form the basis of the descriptions. (ie., Internal & External Conflict)
Academic Vocabulary Name:Teacher Vocabulary Term:Understanding Level X In My Own Words (Describe): DrawNew Information:
2. Students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic & non-linguistic ways Linguistic (language-based)Nonlinguistic (imagery-based) 1. Writing a description of vocabulary words. Their definition, in their own words. (Painted vocabulary) Rough understanding. Write question, What is ________? Students will refine vocabulary as they go through the process. Break words down into syllables, or parts. (ie., mono/archy) 1. Using a graphic organizer to represent the meaning of a word. Draw an example of a picture, pictograph or symbol of word to connect with the abstract & build associations. Create mental pictures (Close your eyes and imagine) Act out their meanings, ie., role play, hand motions.
Context Builder In this sentence __________________________________ _______________________________________________. The word The word The word Helped me understand that the word means New sentence: ___________________________________ _______________________________________________.
3. Effective vocabulary instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meanings through multiple exposures. Provide opportunities for student to understand the meaning of a term, therefore refining the meaning, deepening the understanding. (Extended mapping) Creating metaphors-The process of identifying a general or basic pattern that connects information that is not related at a surface or literal level, ie., Love is a rose.
____________ is_____________ is ___________________________ Element #1 Another way to say it. Element #2 Element #1 Literal Pattern #1 AbstractLiteral Pattern #2 Element #2 Metaphors
Identifying Similarities and Differences Analogies A is to B as C is to D = A: B : : C : D Relationship: ______________ as is to
3. Effective vocabulary instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meanings through multiple exposures, cont. Creating analogies-The process of identifying the relationship between two sets of items-in other words, identifying relationships with relationships. Create word associations. Classifying-The process of grouping things that are alike into categories based on their characteristics.
3. Effective vocabulary instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meanings through multiple exposures cont Comparisons with other words Create images, political cartoons, satire Act out, improvisations, (holy war) Content Word Walls readily available Play with vocabulary using a matrix Reading an article
An art teacher presents the following terms to students. Paint, overlapping, adding in sculpture, clay, shading, subtracting in sculpture, charcoal, varying size, casting jewelry, pencil, varying color, constructing jewelry, wood, collage, mixing color, perspective, stippling, glaze She asks students to sort the terms into the following categories: Art materials, Art techniques, Art processes. At your table sort the above terms into the aforementioned categories.
Art materials: paint, clay, charcoal, pencil, wood Art techniques: overlapping, shading varying size, varying color, collage, perspective, stippling, glaze Art processes: adding in sculpture, subtracting in sculpture, casting jewelry, constructing jewelry, mixing color
View Video This time, in your group, observe the remainder of Marzanos strategies, Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement and be prepared to create a product using the supplies at your table. This product will demonstrate the use of new vocabulary learning. BE CREATIVE/MAKE IT FUN
4. Teaching word parts enhances students understanding of terms. Excellent for ELL students Word parts to learn new terms, ie., affixes include prefixes & suffixes. (Post on word wall) Have student list everything they already know about the term. Not or opposite of something Use of graphic organizers to create an easier tool for student Cognates, ie., impossible=imposible, stressed=estresado, explosive= explosivo If working w/ELLs say word in Spanish In elementary, create labels in your classroom not
5. Different types of words require different types of instruction. What is a ________? Nouns-To give examples and generalize from the meaning. Two basic categories: Concrete (can be described) & abstract (exemplified). Verbs-Function differently from nouns & modifiers. Verbs implies a relationship w/one or more nouns. Think of the word in context and/or sentence. Who _____ whom? See picture of the word. Hold object in hand. Abstract concepts require a lot of total physical response. Draw Science terms to create a picture in mind.
5. Different types of words require different types of instruction, cont Use graphic organizers to describe examples and non-examples to build associations between new word and different concrete or abstract concepts they already know. ie., Frayer Model Definition Characteristics Examples Non-Examples Concept
6. Students should discuss the terms they are learning. Literary Circle-Oral Sharing (Round Table Discussion) Socratic Seminar Plot Diagrams Set student up in pairs to discuss new words. Pairs with a purpose. Ask students to make connections with new words. Ask students to think about how words are related. Leading questions, spiraling questions to push them to the next level to lead students to understand relationship between words. Sustained Silent Reading with a purpose. Books must be at students reading level. Allows student to encode information in their own words. Allows for self-expression. Helps student view things from different perspective.
7. Students should play with words. Games present manageable challenges for students. Games arouse curiosity by providing sufficient complexity so that outcomes are not always certain. Games create imaginary circumstances that permit the free and unfettered use of ones growing abilities. Literacy Plus: Games for Vocabulary and Spelling Around the World Vocabulary Concentration Role Play What is ________? Word Bingo Vocabulary pyramid-Build on what you already know. Pictorial/Word Matching Manipulative demonstrations to a partner, using string, toothpicks, buttons
8. Instruction should focus on terms that have a high probability of enhancing academic success. Marzano recommends that a Sustained Silent Reading program be continuous over many years because it is a cumulative process. Access refers to the ease students acquire reading material, ie., trade books, comics, newspapers, & other reading materials are provided directly to the students in a variety of ways. Appeal means that students are free and encouraged to read information that they find highly interesting. The reading material should be at appropriate levels of reading difficulty. o Conducive environment refers to the atmosphere provided for reading. Ideally, it is relaxed and comfortable b/c this is a natural characteristic of personal reading. o Encouragement refers to providing students with positive feedback regarding
8. Instruction should focus on terms that have a high probability of enhancing academic success, cont Their topic selection and involvement in the reading process. First, the teacher demonstrates interest in what the student is reading by asking student questions about what they have read or providing students with supplemental information or resources. Second, teachers show excitement about their own personal reading. Finally, teacher allows students to share what they have read with their peers, ie., Literacy circles. Follow-up activities help students better understand
8. Instruction should focus on terms that have a high probability of enhancing academic success, cont. the information they have read, not to test their knowledge or track their performance. Distributed time to read involves systematically and frequently providing students with SSR time. SSR should be provided a minimum of twice per week.
Ending Quote The limits of your language are the limits of your world. -Ludwig Wittgenstein
C Scope/Bilingual/ESL Coordinator Cynthia G. Hernandez 6805 Telephone Road Lake Worth, Texas (817) Ext: 1037