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Coach Cameron T. Gary USATF Level 2 – Jumps

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1 Coach Cameron T. Gary USATF Level 2 – Jumps
The Long Jump Coach Cameron T. Gary USATF Level 2 – Jumps

2 History (Courtesy of the IAAF)
The long jump has been part of all athletics competitions since ancient times. In the Games of 708 BC it was part of the pentathlon The jumper took his run-up holding a small weight in each hand which gave greater impetus Modern event regulated in England/USA The take-off had to be made from a 20cm (8-inch) wide board into a sand pit. Hand weights were not used. Until the 1920s, technique was rudimentary Most jumped by drawing up and tucking the legs under the body immediately after take-off, then extended them again for landing. This is currently known as the “stride” or “tuck” method Is still acceptable for beginners

3 More Long Jump History (Cont.)
Between 1922 and 1927 Americans William De Hart Hubbard (co-holder of the world 100-yard dash record of 9.6) and Robert LeGendre introduced the "hitch kick“ - a running motion of the legs in mid-air. Variations of this, and the more simple 'hang' technique, remain the norm today. The first women's long jump contests took place in the USA First IAAF women's world record 1948 – First women’s Olympic long jump competition – London, England

4 LONG JUMP Current Records
(Men & women) World 8.95 (29-4.5); Michael Powell (USA); Tokyo, Japan (1991) 7.52 ( ); Galina Chistyakova (Soviet Union); St. Petersburg, Russia (1988) High School 8.18 (26-10); Marquis Goodwin (Rowlett, Texas); Eugene, Oregon (2009) 6.78 (22-3); Kathy McMillan (Hoke County, Raeford, North Carolina); Westwood, California (1976)

5 Key Points One explosive movement
Uses maximum controlled approach speed One must run TALL! One must run FAST! One must ATTACK the board with ACTIVE foot strikes PROGRESSIVE AGGRESSION DON’T over-emphasize jumping up! Alters long jump mechanics The goal is to jump OUT That is why it is called the long jump

6 More Key Points… Long Jump vs. Triple Jump VERY different take-offs
LJ prep movements are greater than triple jump Dramatic penultimate-to-ultimate stride change Take-off angle in the Long Jump is steeper Few elite triple jumpers also long jump However; the high school realities of… Team dynamics Point scoring Etc.

7 Basic Skills Full foot plant
THE most basic skill a jumper must learn Same for the Long Jump and Triple Jump NOT a “dead” or “lazy” foot Emphasize middle of the foot striking the board Activates large muscles of the upper leg and hip Deliver a Blow to the Board NOT heel first NOT toe first “Pawing” may encourage dropping the toe (BE CAREFUL!) Dorsi-flexion enables pre-recruitment of muscles Useful cues: “Squish a bug” “Break a board”

8 Sprinting The key to good jumping
Jumpers must be effective SPRINTERS Few sprinters can long jump well But ALL good jumpers can sprint 80% of distance is a result of GROUND force Sprinting to build up speed Last three strides of approach Actual jumping take-off Coaching/training focus: Strength/Power Development Speed Development In-Air mechanics

9 COM Projection Why Speed is Important
Projects the Center of Mass (COM) As far as possible - from the board, into the pit Flight path is determined at take-off Constant battle vs. forward rotation What is the optimal take-off angle? 18 – 22 degrees – as COM starts from above the ground Horizontal velocity is main contributor to distance

10 Hinged-Moment Rotation
All parts move at same rate – until take-off The take-off leg is the compressed spring This is what causes the impulse or ”jump” Rotation around axis (a controlled “trip”) Rotation is faster than prior horizontal velocity In-air movement is designed to control this

11 Approach Running Key aspects of the approach
Speed – determines potential distance Consistency – especially in first few strides Consistent approach running leads to consistent jumps Accuracy – minimize doubt/fouling Jumper should be confident of hitting the board Advice to beginners – K.I.S.S. Avoid the “Voodoo Dance” Use a checkmark for accuracy In-Air movements are secondary They are the result of what happens on the ground They maximize what is established via the run/takeoff The primary focus should be on the approach

12 Constructing the Approach Run
Begin on the track – away from the runway Mark off 50 meters on one lane line Right-foot jumpers to the left of the line, left-footers to the right Perform “build-up” sprints from a set position It has to start off the same every time Easier to start on the dominant jump leg (even number of strides) Accelerate for 40 – 50 meters Count “Beats” - every two steps (jump leg only) Determine where the third beat strikes consistently – mark it Count subsequent beats to the full run distance Take measurements and transfer the marks to the runway The jumper should focus on running to a count – not a place Start w/ short run; extend as speed/strength improves Beginners should start with six beats, then move to eight Advanced jumpers use nine to 12 beats Examples: 6-7 Beat 8-9 Beat Beat

13 Believe it or not… It is possible to run even faster than sprinters at the end of the approach Almost ALL jump distance is determined at take-off The last few strides of the approach determine take-off In-Air movements only obtain optimal landing positions Majority of training should focus on how to transfer the run into the jump

14 Plant & Take-off You have to get down to get up
Hips drop - next-to-last stride Count (ex. 8-beat) is: “seven-and-eight” Step pattern is: “short-long-short”, or “flat-roll-flat” Hips at low point over take-off board Take-off leg pre-recruitment Muscles pre-stretched (tightened) Last stride is shorter and faster Not too short – long strides = long jumps Foot plant is slightly in front of COM FULLY punch elbows front and back “Telephone – Pager” position Knee punches up in reaction to a strong downward stomp Avoid “pulling” leg up IRRESPECTIVE of subsequent flight style Position is always the same!

15 LONG JUMP Flight Examples
Sail/Stride Jump Generally used by beginning jumpers However, good jumps can be made with it Hang Athlete “hangs” as if suspended from a bar Lengthens the body, slows rotation Hitch-Kick “Running” in the air The arms and legs move quickly Arms/Legs counteract rotation

16 Horizontal Jump Landings
Heels out, toes up Hands stay outside of the hips Variations Slide in Buttocks in Hole Pop-Out – sort of… NEVER reach forward on the landing! It does not combat forward rotation It actually makes it faster One will NOT be able to hold the feet up – regardless of the number of sit-ups one does!

Jumping is Sprinting/Sprinting is Jumping Train the Energy System (CP/ATP) Get Strong…Weights are our friend! Consider the Olympic lifts Develops applied strength w/o added bulk Reserve bodybuilding lifts for: Correcting isolated deficiencies Recovering from injury Take care of your feet!!! Use REST as a training tool

18 Cameron T. Gary USATF Level 2 - Jumps

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