Presentation on theme: "Coach Cameron T. Gary USATF Level 2 – Jumps"— Presentation transcript:
1Coach Cameron T. Gary USATF Level 2 – Jumps The Long JumpCoachCameron T. GaryUSATF Level 2 – Jumps
2History (Courtesy of the IAAF) The long jump has been part of all athletics competitions since ancient times.In the Games of 708 BC it was part of the pentathlonThe jumper took his run-up holding a small weight in each hand which gave greater impetusModern event regulated in England/USAThe take-off had to be made from a 20cm (8-inch) wide board into a sand pit. Hand weights were not used.Until the 1920s, technique was rudimentaryMost jumped by drawing up and tucking the legs under the body immediately after take-off, then extended them again for landing.This is currently known as the “stride” or “tuck” methodIs still acceptable for beginners
3More Long Jump History (Cont.) Between 1922 and 1927Americans William De Hart Hubbard (co-holder of the world 100-yard dash record of 9.6) and Robert LeGendre introduced the "hitch kick“ - a running motion of the legs in mid-air.Variations of this, and the more simple 'hang' technique, remain the norm today.The first women's long jump contests took place in the USAFirst IAAF women's world record1948 – First women’s Olympic long jump competition – London, England
4LONG JUMP Current Records (Men & women)World8.95 (29-4.5); Michael Powell (USA); Tokyo, Japan (1991)7.52 ( ); Galina Chistyakova (Soviet Union); St. Petersburg, Russia (1988)High School8.18 (26-10); Marquis Goodwin (Rowlett, Texas); Eugene, Oregon (2009)6.78 (22-3); Kathy McMillan (Hoke County, Raeford, North Carolina); Westwood, California (1976)
5Key Points One explosive movement Uses maximum controlled approach speedOne must run TALL!One must run FAST!One must ATTACK the board withACTIVE foot strikesPROGRESSIVE AGGRESSIONDON’T over-emphasize jumping up!Alters long jump mechanicsThe goal is to jump OUTThat is why it is called the long jump
6More Key Points… Long Jump vs. Triple Jump VERY different take-offs LJ prep movements are greater than triple jumpDramatic penultimate-to-ultimate stride changeTake-off angle in the Long Jump is steeperFew elite triple jumpers also long jumpHowever; the high school realities of…Team dynamicsPoint scoringEtc.
7Basic Skills Full foot plant THE most basic skill a jumper must learnSame for the Long Jump and Triple JumpNOT a “dead” or “lazy” footEmphasize middle of the foot striking the boardActivates large muscles of the upper leg and hipDeliver a Blow to the BoardNOT heel firstNOT toe first“Pawing” may encourage dropping the toe (BE CAREFUL!)Dorsi-flexion enables pre-recruitment of musclesUseful cues:“Squish a bug”“Break a board”
8Sprinting The key to good jumping Jumpers must be effective SPRINTERSFew sprinters can long jump wellBut ALL good jumpers can sprint80% of distance is a result of GROUND forceSprinting to build up speedLast three strides of approachActual jumping take-offCoaching/training focus:Strength/Power DevelopmentSpeed DevelopmentIn-Air mechanics
9COM Projection Why Speed is Important Projects the Center of Mass (COM)As far as possible - from the board, into the pitFlight path is determined at take-offConstant battle vs. forward rotationWhat is the optimal take-off angle?18 – 22 degrees – as COM starts from above the groundHorizontal velocity is main contributor to distance
10Hinged-Moment Rotation All parts move at same rate – until take-offThe take-off leg is the compressed springThis is what causes the impulse or ”jump”Rotation around axis (a controlled “trip”)Rotation is faster than prior horizontal velocityIn-air movement is designed to control this
11Approach Running Key aspects of the approach Speed – determines potential distanceConsistency – especially in first few stridesConsistent approach running leads to consistent jumpsAccuracy – minimize doubt/foulingJumper should be confident of hitting the boardAdvice to beginners – K.I.S.S.Avoid the “Voodoo Dance”Use a checkmark for accuracyIn-Air movements are secondaryThey are the result of what happens on the groundThey maximize what is established via the run/takeoffThe primary focus should be on the approach
12Constructing the Approach Run Begin on the track – away from the runwayMark off 50 meters on one lane lineRight-foot jumpers to the left of the line, left-footers to the rightPerform “build-up” sprints from a set positionIt has to start off the same every timeEasier to start on the dominant jump leg (even number of strides)Accelerate for 40 – 50 metersCount “Beats” - every two steps (jump leg only)Determine where the third beat strikes consistently – mark itCount subsequent beats to the full run distanceTake measurements and transfer the marks to the runwayThe jumper should focus on running to a count – not a placeStart w/ short run; extend as speed/strength improvesBeginners should start with six beats, then move to eightAdvanced jumpers use nine to 12 beatsExamples:6-7 Beat 8-9 Beat Beat
13Believe it or not…It is possible to run even faster than sprinters at the end of the approachAlmost ALL jump distance is determined at take-offThe last few strides of the approach determine take-offIn-Air movements only obtain optimal landing positionsMajority of training should focus on how to transfer the run into the jump
14Plant & Take-off You have to get down to get up Hips drop - next-to-last strideCount (ex. 8-beat) is: “seven-and-eight”Step pattern is: “short-long-short”, or “flat-roll-flat”Hips at low point over take-off boardTake-off leg pre-recruitmentMuscles pre-stretched (tightened)Last stride is shorter and fasterNot too short – long strides = long jumpsFoot plant is slightly in front of COMFULLY punch elbows front and back“Telephone – Pager” positionKnee punches up in reaction to a strong downward stompAvoid “pulling” leg upIRRESPECTIVE of subsequent flight stylePosition is always the same!
15LONG JUMP Flight Examples Sail/Stride JumpGenerally used by beginning jumpersHowever, good jumps can be made with itHangAthlete “hangs” as if suspended from a barLengthens the body, slows rotationHitch-Kick“Running” in the airThe arms and legs move quicklyArms/Legs counteract rotation
16Horizontal Jump Landings Heels out, toes upHands stay outside of the hipsVariationsSlide inButtocks in HolePop-Out – sort of…NEVER reach forward on the landing!It does not combat forward rotationIt actually makes it fasterOne will NOT be able to hold the feet up – regardless of the number of sit-ups one does!
17JUMP WORKOUTS & VIDEO REVIEW Jumping is Sprinting/Sprinting is JumpingTrain the Energy System (CP/ATP)Get Strong…Weights are our friend!Consider the Olympic liftsDevelops applied strength w/o added bulkReserve bodybuilding lifts for:Correcting isolated deficienciesRecovering from injuryTake care of your feet!!!Use REST as a training tool