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Flight Planning ATC Chapter 4. Aim To introduce the principals of pre-flight planning and discuss planning considerations.

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Presentation on theme: "Flight Planning ATC Chapter 4. Aim To introduce the principals of pre-flight planning and discuss planning considerations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flight Planning ATC Chapter 4

2 Aim To introduce the principals of pre-flight planning and discuss planning considerations

3 Briefing Objectives 1.State the required equipment for flight planning 2.State the route selection criteria 3.State the pre-flight briefing requirements 4.State the VFR alternate requirements 5.Discuss flight planning form 6.Compile an accurate fuel plan

4 Flight Planning Prior to going flying we must ensure we have compiled an accurate flight plan more time spent planning on the ground will mean less to do in the air To achieve this we must firstly ensure we have the right equipment for the job, determine the route which we are to fly then obtain a pre-flight briefing and apply this information to the plan 1. Required Equipment

5 Navigation Equipment The following navigation equipment is required: Scale Ruler Protractor Navigation computer Pencil – A spare pencil is highly recommended Eraser Knee board/Folder Current ERSA Current maps/charts -VTC -VNC -WAC -ERC -PCA 1. Required Equipment

6 2. Route Selection Route selection is an integral part of pre-flight preparation. Items that should be considered include: Forecast conditions – cloud, visibility, Sig.Wx Planning requirements – VFR routes, hemispherical, visual fixes Altitude – terrain, hemispherical, forecast winds/cloud Airspace – clearances, OCTA, PRDs Departure/destination – Turning points Traffic – LOE, Training areas, gliders Nav Aids Positive fixes

7 Pre-Flight briefing During the planning stage we must obtain a detailed briefing of weather and NOTAMS This can be obtained in a number of ways: AVFAX DECTALK Telephone briefing service Internet Radio Telephone and fax numbers can be found in the ERSA 3. Pre-Flight Briefing

8 Weather and NOTAM information must be obtained from Airservices during the pre-flight planning stage prior to departure. 3. Pre-Flight Briefing

9 It is highly recommended you resister for your own account. Until then the company user name is USAFS and password unisa12 3. Pre-Flight Briefing

10 Select required briefing from the menu 3. Pre-Flight Briefing

11 Services Available The briefing information available includes: Area Forecast (ARFOR) Terminal Area Forecast (TAF) METAR SPECI Trend Type Forecast (TTF) SIGMET Notice To Airmen (NOTAM) 3. Pre-Flight Briefing

12 Weather and NOTAMS Weather forecast and NOTAM information is required for all aerodromes/areas that you are operating in ARFOR The Area Forecast system is designed primarily to meet the needs of pilots of general aviation. The system provides for the routine issue of forecasts for designated areas and the prompt issue of amendments when prescribed criteria are satisfied. The ARFOR must be valid for the period of your flight 3. Pre-Flight Briefing

13 A TAF is a coded statement of meteorological conditions expected at an aerodrome and within a radius of five nautical miles of the aerodrome reference point The TAF must be valid for 30mins prior to your planned ETA and 60 mins after TAF A METAR is a routine report of meteorological conditions at an aerodrome METAR A SPECI is a special report of meteorological conditions, issued when one or more elements meet specified criteria significant to aviation. SPECI is also used to identify reports of observations recorded ten minutes following an improvement (in visibility, weather or cloud) to above SPECI conditions SPECI 3. Pre-Flight Briefing Weather and NOTAMS

14 The trend forecast is an aerodrome weather report (METAR or SPECI) to which a statement of trend, for the elements wind, visibility, weather and clouds, is appended, forecasting the weather conditions expected to affect the aerodrome for the validity period of the TTF which is normally the three hours following the time of the report. The TTF supersedes the Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) for its validity period. For aerodromes where the TTF service is not a 24 hour service, a statement in the remarks section during the last three hours of the service will indicate when the TAF supersedes the TTF, e.g. USE TAF FOR ARRIVALS AFTER 0800Z. TTF 3. Pre-Flight Briefing Weather and NOTAMS

15 A SIGMET is a warning issued to provide urgent advice to aircraft of the actual or expected occurrence, in areas over which meteorological watch is being maintained, of weather phenomena that are potentially hazardous. SIGMET Contains information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility service, procedure or hazard NOTAM Ensure you are familiar with decoding forecasts. The BOM Knowledge centre is an excellent resources if you need extra study material 3. Pre-Flight Briefing Weather and NOTAMS

16 VFR Alternate Requirements Part of the pre-flight planning process is to assess the weather and decide if it is suitable to fly in There are some situations where it is perfectly legal for us to go flying (VMC exist), however, we must consider the possibility that we may not be able to land at our destination For these situations we must provide a means of safely getting back on the ground Our options are to either hold and wait for the weather to improve or to divert to a more suitable aerodrome 4. Alternate Requirements

17 VFR Alternate Requirements You must provide provision for an alternate if any of the following conditions are forecast within 30mins of your ETA: More than 4/8ths below 1500AGL Visibility less than 8km Crosswind greater than the aircrafts maximum If an alternate is required the alternate aerodrome must not require an alternate itself 4. Alternate Requirements

18 VFR Alternate Requirements If conditions are forecast to improve or are only intermittently (INTER or TEMPO) below the alternate minima then we can elect to carry holding fuel instead of providing an alternate Holding fuel must be sufficient to allow holding until 30mins after the forecast improvement time Or in the case of INTER/TEPO: INTER – 30mins TEMPO – 60mins 4. Alternate Requirements

19 VFR Alternate Requirements A 30min buffer must be applied to forecast conditions exceeding alternate minima Eg, TAF YPPF Z 2206/ KT 9999 LIGHT SHOWERS OF RAIN SCT020 BKN030 FM KT 9999 LIGHT SHOWERS OF RAIN SCT020 BKN030 INTER 2207/ SHOWERS OF RAIN BKN015 BKN020 We must consider an alternate (or holding) from 0630 till 1530 Note: Buffers are NOT REQUIRED for a TTF 4. Alternate Requirements

20 VFR Alternate Requirements Holding fuel may also be specified for an aerodrome for operational reasons Eg, 30mins traffic holding required for all arrivals Consult ERSA and NOTAMS for any requirements 4. Alternate Requirements

21 5. Flight planning Form Once we have determined the route to fly and the weather conditions we expect we need to start compiling a navigation plan Navigation Plan

22 DEP PT/ROUTE SEGMENT – Details of the route to be flown Navigation Plan 5. Flight planning Form

23 LSALT – Lowest Safe Altitude – Not required for day VFR flight, however, it is required you remain 500 above the highest obstacle on the route segment Navigation Plan 5. Flight planning Form

24 Navigation Plan FL/ALT – Altitude you intend to fly. When flying VFR we should always aim to fly at a hemispherical level. When flying West we should fly Evens When flying East we should fly Odds Flight planning Form

25 Navigation Plan TAS – True AirSpeed – Obtained through performance charts 5. Flight planning Form

26 Navigation Plan TR MAG – Track Magnetic – When measuring tracks ensure you take magnetic variation into account 5. Flight planning Form

27 Navigation Plan Wind – Insert the wind you expect to encounter along the route segment – Remember that winds given in an ARFOR are in degrees True 5. Flight planning Form

28 Navigation Plan HDG MAG – Heading magnetic – This is your measured track with a wind drift allowance applied 5. Flight planning Form

29 Navigation Plan G/S – Groundspeed – This is your planned TAS with any headwind or tailwind component of the wind applied 5. Flight planning Form

30 Navigation Plan DIST – Distance of the route segment in nautical miles 5. Flight planning Form

31 Navigation Plan ETI – Estimated Time Interval – How long it is going to take you to fly the route segment in minutes 5. Flight planning Form

32 Navigation Plan The last 3 boxes are for in-flight calculations of planned estimate, revised estimate and actual time of departure 5. Flight planning Form

33 Fuel Planning - Requirements CAR 220 and 234 detail the requirement for the pilot in command of every flight to ensure sufficient fuel is carried CAAP gives recommendations as to how to achieve this 6. Fuel Planning

34 Fuel Planning - Definitions Flight Fuel – Fuel required for the flight from the departure to the destination then to a suitable alternate (if required) Fixed Reserve – Sufficient fuel for 45mins flight. Emergency use only. Variable Reserve – Safety margin for unpredictable in flight conditions. Usually 15% of the flight fuel Note: Variable reserve is only required for charter/RPT flights unless specified in company policy Holding Fuel – Fuel required to hold (if required) Miscellaneous Allowances – Start up and taxi fuel etc. 6. Fuel Planning

35 The fuel plan is used to pre-plan fuel requirements for the flight Note: Due to the critical nature of the fuel plan, always round up 6. Fuel Planning

36 1.Fill in cruise time from flight plan (121mins for this example) YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

37 1.Fill in cruise time from flight plan (121mins for this example) 2.Determine cruise fuel required, remember when fuel planning we plan to burn 35 litres per hour for the C172SP YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

38 1.Fill in cruise time from flight plan (121mins for this example) 2.Determine cruise fuel required, we can determine the fuel flow using performance data in the POH – 35lph has been used in this example 3.Fill in any alternate fuel if required YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

39 1.Fill in cruise time from flight plan (121mins for this example) 2.Determine cruise fuel required, we can determine the fuel flow using performance data in the POH – 35lph has been used in this example 3.Fill in any alternate fuel if required 4.Sub total = Cruise + Alternate YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

40 1.Fill in cruise time from flight plan (121mins for this example) 2.Determine cruise fuel required, we can determine the fuel flow using performance data in the POH – 35lph has been used in this example 3.Fill in any alternate fuel if required 4.Sub total = Cruise + Alternate 5.As per our ops manual we must carry 15% variable reserve. Note: This is not a legal requirement as we are an air work operation YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

41 6.Fixed reserve is required for all operations YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

42 6.Fixed reserve is required for all operations 7.Holding fuel should not be required for the first nav YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

43 6.Fixed reserve is required for all operations 7.Holding fuel should not be required for the first nav 8.The ops manual states to plan 5 Litres for taxi fuel YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

44 6.Fixed reserve is required for all operations 7.Holding fuel should not be required for the first nav 8.The ops manual states to plan 5 Litres for taxi fuel 9.Work out the total fuel required YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

45 6.Fixed reserve is required for all operations 7.Holding fuel should not be required for the first nav 8.The ops manual states to plan 5 Litres for taxi fuel 9.Work out the total fuel required 10.Enter the Useable fuel on board at start up YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

46 6.Fixed reserve is required for all operations 7.Holding fuel should not be required for the first nav 8.The ops manual states to plan 5 Litres for taxi fuel 9.Work out the total fuel required 10.Enter the Useable fuel on board at start up 11.The margin is the difference between Endurance and fuel required YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

47 6.Fixed reserve is required for all operations 7.Holding fuel should not be required for the first nav 8.The ops manual states to plan 5 Litres for taxi fuel 9.Work out the total fuel required 10.Enter the Useable fuel on board at start up 11.The margin is the difference between Endurance and fuel required 12.Determine margin endurance at a fuel burn of 35 litres per hour YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

48 13.Add fuel required time and margin time to determine total endurance YPPF 6. Fuel Planning

49 1.Stage 1 should be planned as normal 2.Stage 2 planning is the same until we work out the margin and endurance (Lets assume a flight time of 90mins) 3.To calculate the endurance (FoB) for the second stage we must calculate the planned fuel burn for the first stage FoB 2 = FoB 1 – Flight Fuel – Alternate Fuel – Variable Reserve – Holding – Taxi FoB 2 = 201 – 71 – 11 – 5 = 114 Note: We assume all reserves and holding are used with the exception of the fixed reserve Fuel Planning – Multiple Stage Planning YPPF YWHA Fuel Planning

50 It is possible to recalculate the variable reserve in flight To do this we must be over a positive fix and know the current FoB Once we know this we can calculate how much flight fuel we require for the remaining flight and base our new variable reserve on this This technique is often used by airlines to depart with minimum fuel For example, flight is planned from Perth to Melbourne This flight can be initially planned with enough fuel to reach Adelaide then once airborne the reserves can be re-calculated to free up enough fuel to reach Melbourne Fuel Planning – Recalculating Reserves 6. Fuel Planning

51 The re-Calculating method is as follows: We are over a positive fix with 150ltrs on board in a C172SP. Determine the flight fuel available for the remainder of the flight. FoB = 150ltrs Fixed Reserve = 27ltrs Flight Fuel + 15% Var.Res = 150 – 27 = 123ltrs Flight Fuel = 123 ÷ 1.15 = 107ltrs Fuel Planning – Recalculating Reserves 6. Fuel Planning

52 Questions?


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