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CPL Air Law ATC Chapters 3. Aim To review rules of the air & conditions in which flight may be conducted.

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Presentation on theme: "CPL Air Law ATC Chapters 3. Aim To review rules of the air & conditions in which flight may be conducted."— Presentation transcript:

1 CPL Air Law ATC Chapters 3

2 Aim To review rules of the air & conditions in which flight may be conducted

3 Objectives 1.Review operations at uncontrolled aerodromes 2.Review navigation requirements 3.To identify the minimum documents for flight 4.Illustrate right of way rules in the air 5.Define VMC 6.Identify altimetry requirements for flight 7.Identify various operational air law requirements

4 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes Which aerodromes require a radio? CERT REG MIL Details found in? ERSA What defines in the vicinity of? Within 10nm of an aerodrome & below 2000 AGL (CAR 166, AIP Gen 2.2) Carriage of radio

5 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes Required broadcasts at an uncontrolled aerodrome include? Taxi Entering/crossing a runway Taking off/rolling Vacated and clear of runways Joining the circuit Carrying out a straight in approach at least 3nm prior Inbound to aerodrome at least 10nm prior (preferably 15nm) Transiting in the vicinity of the aerodrome (AIP ENR 1.1 para 20, CAR 166C) Broadcasts & Advisories Pilots of radio equipped aircraft must listen out and announce if in potential conflict. Pilots who are in conflict must acknowledge these broadcasts (AIP ENR 1.1 para 43.1) Pilots of radio equipped aircraft must listen out and announce if in potential conflict. Pilots who are in conflict must acknowledge these broadcasts (AIP ENR 1.1 para 43.1)

6 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes Default circuit direction & CTAF is? Left hand (unless stated in ERSA), 126.7 Mhz Max speed? 200kts Circuit height? 500ft low power, 1000ft medium, 1500ft high power aircraft Overfly height generally at least 500ft above circuit altitude ___________________________________________________________ The pilot must maintain a lookout for aircraft The pilot joins the circuit, he/she must ensure all turns are made in the same direction as the designated circuit (para 1d) The pilot must maintain runway track on takeoff until 500ft above terrain (para 1f) However under para 4, the above does not apply is a change in track is required to avoid terrain The pilot must take-off & land into wind (para 1h) Circuit operations (CAR 166A)

7 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes The pilot must determine wind direction prior to arrival (CAR 166B para 2a) The above does not apply if in accordance with an Instrument approach (CAR 166B para 3) Aircraft lights turned on along with Transponder Straight in approach (CAR 166B, ENR 1.1 para 47.6)

8 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes Arrivals Pilot should overfly at 2000ft AGL Descend on dead side of runway Join appropriate leg of circuit (crosswind, mid field crosswind) Arriving on live side downwind from 45 degrees Final approach turned no lower than 500ft Departures Depart by extending one particular leg Turns not made contrary to circuit unless at overfly height of 3nm away Going-Around Maneuver to dead side to keep runway visible Re-join circuit for another approach Arrival & Departure to uncontrolled aerodrome

9 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes Take-off: The preceding aircraft must have: Crossed the upwind end of runway Commenced a turn (eg: crosswind) at least 1800m ahead MTOW <7000kg, & following a/c <2000kg, both aircraft at 600m apart Landing and vacating runway Landed & holding short of current runway in use Take-off: The preceding aircraft must have: Crossed the upwind end of runway Commenced a turn (eg: crosswind) at least 1800m ahead MTOW <7000kg, & following a/c <2000kg, both aircraft at 600m apart Landing and vacating runway Landed & holding short of current runway in use Landing: The preceding aircraft landing must have: Vacated & taxiing off runway in use (without backtracking) Landed past a point 1000m from threshold (<7000kg) ATC considers there to b no collision risk Landing: The preceding aircraft landing must have: Vacated & taxiing off runway in use (without backtracking) Landed past a point 1000m from threshold (<7000kg) ATC considers there to b no collision risk

10 2.Review navigation requirements List hemispherical levels? West, ODD + 500ft East, EVEN + 500ft Not required below 5000ft Separation from Controlled Airspace? Hemispherical levels & Tracking AltitudeDayNight 0 – 2000ft+- 1nm+-2 nm 2000-5000ft+- 2nm+- 3nm 5000-10000ft+- 4nm+- 5nm Gliders+- 5nmn/a NDB+- 6.9 o VOR+- 5.2 o Dead Reckoning +- 12 o VFR EVEN Altitudes PLUS 500 000 0 180-359 0 VFR ODD Altitudes PLUS 500

11 3.Minimum documents for flight A pilot of an Australian aircraft must have on board: Certificate of Registration Certificate of Airworthiness Maintenance Release Licenses/Medical of flight crew Aircraft Flight Manual Manifest of passengers detailing names, places of embarkation & destination Manifests of cargo However if operating in Australia, does not require rego, airworthiness, radio license, manifests Documents on Australian aircraft (CAR 139)

12 3.Minimum documents for flight AIP GEN 0.1 paragraph 9 & CAR 233 (para 1h) A pilot must have access to appropriate flight charts VFR: ERC, WAC, VNC, VTC, ERSA IFR: ERC, IAL charts, ERSA, alternates, WAC, VNC, VTC On Board Maps & Charts (AIP GEN 0.1)

13 4. Rules of the air If 2 aircraft on converging headings, the pilot must give way to the right. However this is not the case where: Power driven aircraft shall give way to gliders/airships/balloons Airships shall give way to gliders & balloons Gliders shall give way to balloons Power driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft conducting towing Right of way (CAR 161 & 162 para 1)

14 4. Rules of the air Should 2 aircraft approach head on, both aircraft shall turn right. Right of way (CAR 162) para 2

15 4. Rules of the air An aircraft being over taken as right of way. The overtaking aircraft must do so by manoeuvring to the right until clear of the other aircraft The aircraft overtaking must do so without climbing or descending Right of way (CAR 162) para 3

16 4. Rules of the air Para 5 Aircraft in flight or operating on the ground shall give way to aircraft on final Para 6 When 2 powered aircraft are on final approach, the higher aircraft must give way to the lower aircraft. However pilots shall not take advantage by using this as a method to cut in front of aircraft on final approach Right of way (CAR 162) para 5 & 6

17 5. Visual Meteorological Cond. Class G AltitudeVisibilityCloud Separation > 10000ft8km 1000ft above & below, 1500m horizontally 5000 - 10000ft5km 1000ft above & below, 1500m horizontally < 3000ft AMSL or < 1500AGL 5kmClear of cloud

18 5. Visual Meteorological Cond. Class C AltitudeVisibilityCloud Separation > 10000ft8km 1000ft above & below, 1500m horizontally < 10000ft5km 1000ft above & below, 1500m horizontally *Special VFR also permitted

19 5. Visual Meteorological Cond. CLASS E Class D AltitudeVisibilityCloud Separation Within defined dimensions 5km 600m horizontal 500ft below cloud 1000ft above cloud *Special VFR permitted AltitudeVisibilityCloud Separation > 10000ft8km 1000ft above & below, 1500m horizontally < 10000ft5km 1000ft above & below, 1500m horizontally *Special VFR also permitted

20 5. Visual Meteorological Cond. What about Class A airspace? Separation as required by ATC VFR not permitted SVFR VMC in Class D or C airspace : Day Clear of cloud Vis 1.6km Special VFR not permitted in Class E Only permitted upon pilot REQUEST SVFR VMC in Class D or C airspace : Day Clear of cloud Vis 1.6km Special VFR not permitted in Class E Only permitted upon pilot REQUEST

21 6. Altimetry. Para 1.3 VFR altimeters should read within +- 100ft to be serviceable VFR altimeters not permitted above FL200 (ie- Class A airspace) Accurate QNH sources are considered to be from ATIS, Tower, AWIS. QNH by Area of Terminal forecasts are not to be considered. Transition Altitude/Level (para 2.1) Allows aircraft to fly with a standardised Baro QNH setting Uses 1013hPa Transition Altitude 10000ft, Transition Level FL110 Flight within the Transition layer is not permitted Within 100nm of a QNH source set the QNH Beyond 100nm set Area QNH Altimetry (ENR 1.7)

22 6. Altimetry.. Altimetry (ENR 1.7)

23 6. Altimetry. Area QNH para 2.2 Area QNH valid for 3hrs & applies within the prescribed area Area QNH is accurate to +- 5hPa Local QNH para 2.3 Local QNH can be determined from ATS, ATIS, AWIS, Terminal Forecast When Area QNH <1013.2 hPa, FL110 is not available Altimetry (ENR 1.7)

24 7. Operations Aircraft must not be flown lower than 1000ft over a built up area Aircraft must not be flown lower than 500ft in any other area Laterally an aircraft must not be flown closer than 600m to an obstacle/terrain The above is not the case where: An aircraft be taking off or landing Thru stress of weather a lower altitude is required Search & rescue ops being conducted Dropping of supplies Low Flying (CAR 157)

25 7. Operations Aerobatics are not permitted at night Aerobatics are not permitted is anything other than VMC The aircraft must be certified & airworthy for aerobatics Aerobatics to be conducted above 3000ft, not over a built up area, with a separation of 600m horizontal Aerobatic flights (CAR 155) Public gatherings (CAR 156) : Pilots must not fly over public gatherings or events (eg: races) Unless with permission from casa (eg: a news helicopter)

26 7. Operations Smoking is not prohibited: During takeoff, landing, or refuelling In which a notice is displayed indicating smoking is prohibited Within aircraft toilets During any period of time the pilot deems necessary Fire Hazards (CAR 289) : No one shall produce a naked flame within 15meters of an aircraft or in any part of an aerodrome in which a notice indicates A person shall not act in any way to create a fire hazard Smoking (CAR 255)

27 7. Operations A person intoxicated shall not embark an aircraft A flight crew member shall not act under duty if having consumed alcohol or be under the influence A pilot shall not fly if within 8 hrs alcohol has been consumed BAC limit of 0.02% after 8 hours (CASR 99) Alcohol & Drugs (CAR 256, CASR 99)

28 7. Operations A pilot must not carry a firearm unless engaged in Charter or RPT A pilot must not discharge his firearm whilst on board Permission is required from CASA Carriage & Discharge of firearms (CAR 143,144)

29 7. Operations Pilots shall transmit a Safety Signal when safety is concerned. Safety signal shall consists of: TTT ( - - - ) If radio can be transmitted repeat the word SECURITY 3 times Eg: in the event of spotting a fire AIP AD – Light Signals : Safety Signals (CAR 194) Light SignalMeaning in flightMeaning on ground Solid GreenLand if safe to do soTake off if safe to do Solid RedGive way & circleSTOP Flashing GreenReturn for landingTaxi if safe to do so Flashing RedDONT LAND unsafeTaxi clear of runway Flashing Whiten/aReturn to start point of aerodrome

30 7. Operations CAR 244 Immediately before take-off the pilot shall check All control surfaces for full free and correct movement All control locks have been removed Any frost/ice has been removed Precaution before take-off

31 Questions?


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