Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CPL Air Law ATC Chapters 3.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "CPL Air Law ATC Chapters 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 CPL Air Law ATC Chapters 3

2 Aim To review rules of the air & conditions in which flight may be conducted

3 Objectives Review operations at uncontrolled aerodromes
Review navigation requirements To identify the minimum documents for flight Illustrate right of way rules in the air Define VMC Identify altimetry requirements for flight Identify various operational air law requirements

4 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes
Carriage of radio Which aerodromes require a radio? CERT REG MIL Details found in? ERSA What defines ‘in the vicinity of’? Within 10nm of an aerodrome & below 2000 AGL (CAR 166, AIP Gen 2.2)

5 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes
Broadcasts & Advisories Required broadcasts at an uncontrolled aerodrome include? Taxi Entering/crossing a runway Taking off/rolling Vacated and clear of runways Joining the circuit Carrying out a straight in approach at least 3nm prior Inbound to aerodrome at least 10nm prior (preferably 15nm) Transiting ‘in the vicinity of’ the aerodrome (AIP ENR 1.1 para 20, CAR 166C) Pilots of radio equipped aircraft must listen out and announce if in potential conflict. Pilots who are in conflict must acknowledge these broadcasts (AIP ENR 1.1 para 43.1)

6 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes
Circuit operations (CAR 166A) Default circuit direction & CTAF is? Left hand (unless stated in ERSA), Mhz Max speed? 200kts Circuit height? 500ft low power, 1000ft medium, 1500ft high power aircraft Overfly height generally at least 500ft above circuit altitude ___________________________________________________________ The pilot must maintain a lookout for aircraft The pilot joins the circuit, he/she must ensure all turns are made in the same direction as the designated circuit (para 1d) The pilot must maintain runway track on takeoff until 500ft above terrain (para 1f) However under para 4, the above does not apply is a change in track is required to avoid terrain The pilot must take-off & land into wind (para 1h)

7 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes
Straight in approach (CAR 166B, ENR 1.1 para 47.6) The pilot must determine wind direction prior to arrival (CAR 166B para 2a) The above does not apply if in accordance with an Instrument approach (CAR 166B para 3) Aircraft lights turned on along with Transponder

8 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes
Arrival & Departure to uncontrolled aerodrome Arrivals Pilot should overfly at 2000ft AGL Descend on dead side of runway Join appropriate leg of circuit (crosswind, mid field crosswind) Arriving on live side downwind from 45 degrees Final approach turned no lower than 500ft Departures Depart by extending one particular leg Turns not made contrary to circuit unless at overfly height of 3nm away Going-Around Maneuver to dead side to keep runway visible Re-join circuit for another approach

9 1. Review Ops at CTAF aerodromes
Take-off: The preceding aircraft must have: Crossed the upwind end of runway Commenced a turn (eg: crosswind) at least 1800m ahead MTOW <7000kg, & following a/c <2000kg, both aircraft at 600m apart Landing and vacating runway Landed & holding short of current runway in use Landing: The preceding aircraft landing must have: Vacated & taxiing off runway in use (without backtracking) Landed past a point 1000m from threshold (<7000kg) ATC considers there to b no collision risk

10 2.Review navigation requirements
Hemispherical levels & Tracking VFR EVEN Altitudes PLUS 500’ 0000 VFR ODD List hemispherical levels? West, ODD + 500ft East, EVEN + 500ft Not required below 5000ft Separation from Controlled Airspace? Altitude Day Night 0 – 2000ft +- 1nm +-2 nm ft +- 2nm +- 3nm ft +- 4nm +- 5nm Gliders n/a NDB +- 6.9o VOR +- 5.2o Dead Reckoning +- 12o

11 3.Minimum documents for flight
Documents on Australian aircraft (CAR 139) A pilot of an Australian aircraft must have on board: Certificate of Registration Certificate of Airworthiness Maintenance Release Licenses/Medical of flight crew Aircraft Flight Manual Manifest of passengers detailing names, places of embarkation & destination Manifests of cargo However if operating in Australia, does not require rego, airworthiness, radio license, manifests

12 3.Minimum documents for flight
On Board Maps & Charts (AIP GEN 0.1) AIP GEN 0.1 paragraph 9 & CAR 233 (para 1h) A pilot must have access to appropriate flight charts VFR: ERC, WAC, VNC, VTC, ERSA IFR: ERC, IAL charts, ERSA, alternates, WAC, VNC, VTC

13 4. Rules of the air Right of way (CAR 161 & 162 para 1)
If 2 aircraft on converging headings, the pilot must give way to the right. However this is not the case where: Power driven aircraft shall give way to gliders/airships/balloons Airships shall give way to gliders & balloons Gliders shall give way to balloons Power driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft conducting towing

14 4. Rules of the air Right of way (CAR 162) para 2
Should 2 aircraft approach head on, both aircraft shall turn right.

15 4. Rules of the air Right of way (CAR 162) para 3
An aircraft being over taken as right of way. The overtaking aircraft must do so by manoeuvring to the right until clear of the other aircraft The aircraft overtaking must do so without climbing or descending

16 4. Rules of the air Right of way (CAR 162) para 5 & 6 Para 5
Aircraft in flight or operating on the ground shall give way to aircraft on final Para 6 When 2 powered aircraft are on final approach, the higher aircraft must give way to the lower aircraft. However pilots shall not take advantage by using this as a method to cut in front of aircraft on final approach

17 5. Visual Meteorological Cond.
Class G Altitude Visibility Cloud Separation > 10’000ft 8km 1000ft above & below, 1500m horizontally ’000ft 5km < 3000ft AMSL or < 1500AGL Clear of cloud

18 5. Visual Meteorological Cond.
Class C Altitude Visibility Cloud Separation > 10’000ft 8km 1000ft above & below, 1500m horizontally < 10’000ft 5km *Special VFR also permitted

19 5. Visual Meteorological Cond.
Class D Altitude Visibility Cloud Separation Within defined dimensions 5km 600m horizontal 500ft below cloud 1000ft above cloud *Special VFR permitted CLASS E Altitude Visibility Cloud Separation > 10’000ft 8km 1000ft above & below, 1500m horizontally < 10’000ft 5km *Special VFR also permitted

20 5. Visual Meteorological Cond.
What about Class A airspace? Separation as required by ATC VFR not permitted SVFR VMC in Class D or C airspace: Day Clear of cloud Vis 1.6km Special VFR not permitted in Class E Only permitted upon pilot REQUEST

21 6. Altimetry. Altimetry (ENR 1.7) Para 1.3
VFR altimeters should read within ft to be serviceable VFR altimeters not permitted above FL200 (ie- Class A airspace) Accurate QNH sources are considered to be from ATIS, Tower, AWIS. QNH by Area of Terminal forecasts are not to be considered. Transition Altitude/Level (para 2.1) Allows aircraft to fly with a standardised Baro QNH setting Uses 1013hPa Transition Altitude 10’000ft, Transition Level FL110 Flight within the Transition layer is not permitted Within 100nm of a QNH source set the QNH Beyond 100nm set Area QNH

22 6. Altimetry. Altimetry (ENR 1.7) .

23 6. Altimetry. Altimetry (ENR 1.7) Area QNH para 2.2
Area QNH valid for 3hrs & applies within the prescribed area Area QNH is accurate to +- 5hPa Local QNH para 2.3 Local QNH can be determined from ATS, ATIS, AWIS, Terminal Forecast When Area QNH < hPa, FL110 is not available

24 7. Operations Low Flying (CAR 157)
Aircraft must not be flown lower than 1000ft over a built up area Aircraft must not be flown lower than 500ft in any other area Laterally an aircraft must not be flown closer than 600m to an obstacle/terrain The above is not the case where: An aircraft be taking off or landing Thru stress of weather a lower altitude is required Search & rescue ops being conducted Dropping of supplies

25 7. Operations Aerobatic flights (CAR 155) Public gatherings (CAR 156):
Aerobatics are not permitted at night Aerobatics are not permitted is anything other than VMC The aircraft must be certified & airworthy for aerobatics Aerobatics to be conducted above 3000ft, not over a built up area, with a separation of 600m horizontal Public gatherings (CAR 156): Pilots must not fly over public gatherings or events (eg: races) Unless with permission from casa (eg: a news helicopter)

26 7. Operations Smoking (CAR 255) Fire Hazards (CAR 289):
Smoking is not prohibited: During takeoff, landing, or refuelling In which a notice is displayed indicating smoking is prohibited Within aircraft toilets During any period of time the pilot deems necessary Fire Hazards (CAR 289): No one shall produce a naked flame within 15meters of an aircraft or in any part of an aerodrome in which a notice indicates A person shall not act in any way to create a fire hazard

27 7. Operations Alcohol & Drugs (CAR 256, CASR 99)
A person intoxicated shall not embark an aircraft A flight crew member shall not act under duty if having consumed alcohol or be under the influence A pilot shall not fly if within 8 hrs alcohol has been consumed BAC limit of 0.02% after 8 hours (CASR 99)

28 7. Operations Carriage & Discharge of firearms (CAR 143,144)
A pilot must not carry a firearm unless engaged in Charter or RPT A pilot must not discharge his firearm whilst on board Permission is required from CASA ONLY JOHN RAMBO CAN DISCHARGE FIRE ARMS

29 Return to start point of aerodrome
7. Operations Safety Signals (CAR 194) Pilots shall transmit a Safety Signal when safety is concerned. Safety signal shall consists of: TTT ( ) If radio can be transmitted repeat the word “SECURITY” 3 times Eg: in the event of spotting a fire AIP AD – Light Signals: Light Signal Meaning in flight Meaning on ground Solid Green Land if safe to do so Take off if safe to do Solid Red Give way & circle STOP Flashing Green Return for landing Taxi if safe to do so Flashing Red DON’T LAND unsafe Taxi clear of runway Flashing White n/a Return to start point of aerodrome

30 7. Operations Precaution before take-off CAR 244
Immediately before take-off the pilot shall check All control surfaces for full free and correct movement All control locks have been removed Any frost/ice has been removed

31 Questions?

Download ppt "CPL Air Law ATC Chapters 3."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google