# Navigation Review ATC Chapter 12.

## Presentation on theme: "Navigation Review ATC Chapter 12."— Presentation transcript:

Aim To review principals of navigation to a BAK level of knowledge

Objectives State the method to read charts and identify prominent features Explain the principals of direction Describe the triangle of velocities In the ERSA extract data pertaining to prohibited, restricted and danger areas, and conversions State the method for fuel planning

1. Charts Visual Terminal Chart (VTC)
Smallest scale chart, 1:250000, shows the greatest detail and used whenever possible Only produced for areas with high volumes of traffic Features include: Visual reporting points VFR routes Danger/Restricted areas Terminal information Aerodromes Controlled airspace boundaries and levels Spot heights Visual navigation aids Includes inset for major GA aerodromes

1. Charts Visual Navigation Chart (VNC)
1: scale, used on navigation exercises Shows less detail but covers a larger area

1. Charts World Aeronautical Chart (WAC)
1: scale, used on navigation exercises in areas not covered by the VNC A lot less information compared to the VTC or VNC Uses contours and hypsometric tints to show terrain shape and height

1. Charts PCA 1:8300000 scale, covers the entire country
Used primarily during the pre-flight planning stages to track weather systems

2. Direction Variation All charts use the geographical north pole as their reference datum, this is known as true north. A track taken from a chart is said to be in degrees true Unfortunately when we are flying in the aircraft all our instruments will use the magnetic north pole as the datum Variation is the angular difference between true and magnetic north, it is not constant over the entire earth and is shown on charts using isogonals (lines of constant variation)

2. Direction Variation Variation is labelled east or west depending on whether the isogonal is east or west of the agonic line If variation is East, magnetic direction is less than true If variation is West, magnetic direction in more than true For example, if we are on a flight from YPPF to YPAG, we measure a track from the chart of 193⁰, what is the variation? 8⁰ What is the magnetic track? 185⁰

3. Triangle of Velocities
The triangle of velocities is typically used to calculate heading and groundspeed In order to use the triangle we must know at least two of the following: Track and groundspeed Wind Heading and TAS Wind Heading and TAS Track and groundspeed

4. ERSA PRD Areas Information relating to Prohibited, Restricted and Danger (PRD) areas can be found in the PRD section in the back of the ERSA It states the PRD areas identification, status, hours of operation, controlling authority and type of operations conducted Restricted area (RA) status indicates the likelihood of obtaining a clearance through the area RA 1: Pilots may plan through the area and can expect a clearance from ATC RA 2: Pilots must not plan through the area unless on a route specified in the ERSA GEN FPR or under an agreement from the department of defence, ATC clearance is not assured RA 3: Pilots must not plan through the area and clearance will not be available For example: What is the status of R255? What is the status of R292A?

4. ERSA Conversions ERSA GEN CON contains various conversion charts and tables including: Fuel weight table Imperial to metric conversions Distance conversions Wind component tables

Note: Due to the critical nature of the fuel plan, always round up
The fuel plan is used to pre-plan fuel requirements for the flight Note: Due to the critical nature of the fuel plan, always round up

5. Fuel Plan Fill in flight time

5. Fuel Plan Fill in flight time
Determine cruise fuel required, remember when fuel planning we plan to burn 35 litres per hour for the C172SP

5. Fuel Plan Fill in flight time
Determine cruise fuel required, remember when fuel planning we plan to burn 35 litres per hour for the C172SP An alternate will not be required for training area flights

5. Fuel Plan Fill in flight time
Determine cruise fuel required, remember when fuel planning we plan to burn 35 litres per hour for the C172SP An alternate will not be required for training area flights Sub total = Cruise + Alternate

5. Fuel Plan Fill in flight time
Determine cruise fuel required, remember when fuel planning we plan to burn 35 litres per hour for the C172SP An alternate will not be required for training area flights Sub total = Cruise + Alternate As per our ops manual we must carry 15% variable reserve. Note: This is not a legal requirement as we are an air work operation

5. Fuel Plan Fixed reserve is required for all operations

5. Fuel Plan Fixed reserve is required for all operations
Holding should not be required for training area flights

5. Fuel Plan Fixed reserve is required for all operations
Holding should not be required for training area flights The ops manual states to plan 5 Litres for taxi fuel

5. Fuel Plan Fixed reserve is required for all operations
Holding should not be required for training area flights The ops manual states to plan 5 Litres for taxi fuel Work out the total fuel required

5. Fuel Plan Fixed reserve is required for all operations
Holding should not be required for training area flights The ops manual states to plan 5 Litres for taxi fuel Work out the total fuel required Enter the Useable fuel on board at start up

5. Fuel Plan Fixed reserve is required for all operations
Holding should not be required for training area flights The ops manual states to plan 5 Litres for taxi fuel Work out the total fuel required Enter the Useable fuel on board at start up The margin is the difference between Endurance and fuel required

5. Fuel Plan Fixed reserve is required for all operations
Holding should not be required for training area flights The ops manual states to plan 5 Litres for taxi fuel Work out the total fuel required Enter the Useable fuel on board at start up The margin is the difference between Endurance and fuel required Determine margin endurance at a fuel burn of 35 litres per hour

5. Fuel Plan Add fuel required time and margin time to determine total endurance Note: For the C172SP the full fuel endurance should be  333 minuets

5. Fuel Plan Example Determine the fuel required for a 1.5 hour flight to the training area and the margin if we are carrying 160 litres

Questions?