Presentation on theme: "The Paths West History of the American West. Daily Question The population of the United States west of the Appalachians was less than 100,000 in 1790."— Presentation transcript:
Daily Question The population of the United States west of the Appalachians was less than 100,000 in 1790. What was the population west of the Appalachians in 1820? Take 3 guesses on a ¼ sheet of paper. 7,000,000
Introduction Settlement was the key to American conquest of the continent. Everyone was craving land. By 1840, 8 states formed west of the Appalachians 3 west of the Mississippi What paved the way for settlers to move West?
Lt. Zebulon Pike Claim to fame? Pikes Peak Explored the southern reaches of the LA Territory/Rocky Mtns. (1806) Strayed into Spanish Territory Came home with description of Spanish Territory & of interior plains.
Stephen H. Long Stepped across the plains in 1820. Unfit for cultivation Uninhabitable for people depending on agriculture. Great American Desert
William Becknell Trading expedition 1821-22 Returned home with Mexican silver. Escorted to Santa Fe, NM Sold goods to the Mexicans Generated interest with the governor.
The Result… Santa Fe Trail Summer, 1822 Becknell blazes a route Started in _______________. Ended in ________________. Huge trading route ($145,000/yr.)
Items Exported to New Mexico Tools Household utensils Fabric Latest fashions (American & European) Wallpaper Glass
The Medium of Exchange Mexican silver Mules were also traded to the Americans. Missouri started mule production from this point. Many American goods became in hot demand in Mexico.
Oregon the most valuable of all the unoccupied parts of the earth. Spain, Russia, Britain had interest Too sparsely populated to fight over. US & Britain joint occupation for 10 yrs. Religious motivations.
The Oregon Trail Started in Independence, MO 2,000 miles Problems Mountains Cold, swift streams No spare parts Right pulling animal Mosquitoes
Why not the plains? Land assigned to Indians Treeless Great Plainsa desert Desire for greater resources
Assignment Look at p. 187-188 in your book. Give a step-by-step account of the journey along the Oregon Trail.
The Journey to Texas Tejanos-native-born Mexicans Interested in money, horses, women Pike opened trade with them Rancheros Longhorn cattle-by Spanish Foundation of economy Dress
The Journey to Texas Filibusters Land pirates Defeated San Antonio Other invasions reduced the population in half.
The Journey to Texas Moses Austin Applied for a land grant in Texas. 300 families Approved in 1821 Died on the way home.
The Journey to Texas Stephen F. Austin Claimed Texas as his bride Settlers Given 177 acres of farmland or 4428 acres for grazing Flourishing goods Cattle Cotton Exported to US
The Journey to Texas 900 additional families Empresarios-development for land Texans soon outnumbered Tejanos Slavery Banned by Mexico Contract Labor
The Journey to Texas Colonization Law (1830) Canceled all empresario contracts Banned immigration from US Occupation of Texas by Mexican Army Texas Fever Cattle was fatter, sugar cane was taller and the cotton was finer… GTT-Gone to Texas
The Journey to Texas Factions Peace Party (Austin) Self-rule as a Mexican Colony Legalized slavery Free trade w/US Texian War Party Annexation w/US
Toward Texas Independence Austin Thrown in Jail Became a believer in independence New leaders David Crockett Samuel Houston
Violence in Texas Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Declared national control of local affairs Dictatorship Texans forced Mexican troops from San Antonio Fortified themselves in the Alamo Mexicans invade the Alamo 3/6/1836. 5 hrs., 600 Mexican & 187 Texans died.
The Journey to Texas Santa Anna Attacked Goliad-executed 371 Anglos Divided army to burn and plunder Houston surprised Mexicans at San Jacinto River (4/21). Captured and forced to sign a Treaty granting Texas independence.
The Republic of Texas Houton-president Tejano prejudice & violence White folks and Mexicans were never made to live together, anyhow. Recognized as an independent country by the U.S. in 1837 Legalized Slavery-barred legal residence of free persons of color.
Manifest Destiny John L. OSullivan We were destined by God to expand across the continent James K. Polk Expansionist platform Annex Oregon & Texas Divided Oregon at 49 th parallel 1845-Texas-28 th state
Mexican-American War Santa Anna Annexation of TX would be equivalent to a declaration of war. Polk wanted to take California Sent Maj. Gen. Zachary Taylor into Mexican Territory Mexico attacked Congress declared war on May 13, 1846
Mexican-American War Guerilla fighting 3 Fronts Northern Mexico New Mexico California Irregular settler forces
Mexican-American War 1847-Invasion of Mexico City First amphibious operation in US military history Landed at Vera Cruz Marched across same land as Cortes Mexicans attacked then used guerilla maneuvers. American attacked civilians
Mexican-American War Americans conquered Mexico City (9/14/1847) Public Opinion Mostly outrage First American war covered by the telegraph.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Confirmed annexation of Texas Rio Grande-international boundary Reparations Mexico ceded California and New Mexico US paid $15 million US gave American citizens $3.75 million for land they claimed.
Results of the War 13,000 Americans killed 20,000 Mexicans Cost the US $2.3 billion in todays dollars. Mexico lost 602 million acres (1/3 of domain) Male citizens of Mexico could choose citizenship in either country. Eventually driven out
35 Manifest Destiny Expansion to the Pacific Seen as obvious and inevitable Not necessarily a religious idea Spread of democracy and European- American lifestyle Exterminate or convert Native Americans Tame the western landscape