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Unit 2 Construction Process Part Illustrated Words and Concepts Figure 2-1 Schedule of Stages in Typical Single House Construction Figure 2-2 Approvals, Permits and Inspections Process for New Houses Part Passages Passage A Stages of a Single House Construction (Part 1) Passage B Stages of a Single House Construction (Part 2)
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Illustrated Words and Concepts Figure 2-1 Schedule of Stages in Typical Single House Construction *Plans, financing and permits as well as any other aspects of the pre-construction stage will have a virable duration depending on site and house characteristics.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Illustrated Words and Concepts Figure 2-2 Approvals, Permits and Inspections Process for New Houses Figure 22Approvals, Permits and Inspections Process for New Houses
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage A Stages of a Single House Construction (Part 1) There are a number of stages in constructing a house that must beexecuted by the builder. A short description of these has been provided following the typical construction sequence. It should be noted that theconstruction process is presented here according to this sequence.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage A Plans, Financing and Permits This stage is also referred to as the pre- construction stage. Theamount of time needed to develop a complete set of plans, estimate the cost of the dwelling, arrange for financing and obtain a building permit and all other required approvals, will vary considerably across the country. Providing access to the building site and arranging for temporary power may also take place during this stage. Because the time required for these factors is unpredictable, it has not been shown in the Schedule of Stages; but it should be taken into account.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage A Site Planning Careful planning is required to ensure the house is well situated in relation to property lines, sunshine and shading, and trees and other natural features. The elevation of the house should take into consideration storm and wastewater disposal and site drainage.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage A Layout of Building The first stage of construction involves layout of the building on the property. To properly observe the by-laws for setbacks to property lines, the services of a land surveyor may be required. Accurately laying out the excavation for the depth and placement of foundations is critical.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage A Layout can usually be performed in a single day provided property boundaries do not need to be established. On the other hand, site planning to take advantage of the sun and wind, to manage drainage (runoff) and snow accumulation, and to afford a pleasing view, may require considerably more effort.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage A Excavation and Footings Once the building layout is complete, excavation for the foundations may proceed. A single day is often all that is needed, provided appropriate equipment is employed and there is easy access to the excavation area. Another few days are needed to trench for rough- in services, form and place footings, remove footing formwork, lay out the foundation walls and columns, and prepare to construct the foundations.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage A Foundations, Drainage and Backfill Foundations can be constructed in several days by skilled subtrades,including concrete curing and formwork removal. Damp-proofing, foundation drainage systems and backfill will usually require another day or two.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage A In some cases, unusual site conditions in unserviced areas may require additional measures for foundation drainage, such as sump pumps, ditching or dry wells. Properly storing topsoil and excavated material suitable for backfilling can eliminate the need to import fill and topsoil. Placement of the granular layer and basement floor slab usually takes place later when the basement plumbing roughin is completed.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage A Framing Generally, about two weeks is needed to complete the framing and install roofing to provide weather protection during subsequent stages of construction. This assumes that temporary power is available for tools and equipment. Chimney installation and the building of stairs or the installation of pre- manufactured stairs is generally considered part of the framing stage. Typical arrangements with carpentry sub-trades vary in different countries. Where window and exterior door installation is included, more time is needed to complete this stage. Deck framing is usually performed later.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage B Stages of a Single House Construction (Part 2) Doors and Windows Installing doors and windows, usually after framing is completed, requires a few days to a week to complete. Complete installation generally includes flashing and installing locks and related hardware. Jamb extensions and trim are typically part of the finishing carpentry work. The interior air sealing of gaps around window and door openings is commonly performed by the insulation and air/vapour barrier contractor.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage B Plumbing, Heating and Electrical Rough-in This stage usually does not start until all framing is completed. Plumbing is brought from the service connections and roughed-in to the fixtures. Bathtubs and shower enclosures are generally installed at this time, but may need to be situated earlier if their size means framing will interfere with later installation. The furnace and ductwork or piping is installed, along with ductwork for exhaust fans and mechanical ventilation equipment such as heat recovery ventilators (HRVs).
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage B Electrical wiring, smoke and carbon monoxide alarms, telephone and computer lines, and cable TV are roughed- in throughout the dwelling. The work requires about two weeks to complete, but does not include items such as woodstoves and fireplaces.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage B Exterior Finishes Depending on the type of exterior finish being applied to the dwelling, between one and two weeks is needed to complete this stage. If an exterior air barrier, such as a sheathing membrane, is being used, it is usually applied at this time, but it may also have been installed during the framing stage. Brick, siding and stucco along with soffit, fascia, downspouts, and window and door caulking are all part of the exterior finishes stage. Exterior trim and millwork, staining and painting may also be carried out at this stage.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage B Insulation, Air and Vapour Barriers This stage may be performed at the same time as exterior finishes, provided the insulation is protected against moisture damage caused by wind-driven rain. Installing insulation, air and vapour barriers requires a few days to complete when all of the detailing around penetrations, fixtures and outlets is included.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage B Interior Finishes This stage typically begins with installing ceiling, wall and floor finishes. Finishing carpentry for interior doors, frames and trim along with stair balusters and handrails is generally carried out immediately after the floor, wall and ceiling finishes are prepared for painting and varnishing. The interior finishes stage normally requires about two weeks to complete, but significantly more time may be required depending on the type of finishes selected.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage B Paint, Cabinets and Fixtures Painting and varnishing are usually performed at the beginning of this stage. Cabinets and items such as ceramic tile, backsplashes are then installed. While this is proceeding, plumbers complete the installation of the plumbing fixtures, and electricians finish connecting circuits, receptacles, switches, light fixtures and smoke alarms. Connections to equipment such as furnaces, water heaters, mechanical ventilation systems, stoves and clothes dryers are also performed at this time.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage B The heating contractor will install all grilles and registers for forced-air systems, and radiators for hydronic or electric baseboard systems. In some cases, appliances such as refrigerators, dishwashers, stoves and dryers will also be installed at this time. All of the trades should ensure that their installations have been inspected and function properly, and then hand over any operating instructions and warranties to the builder or owner. A final clean-up of the dwelling concludes all work.
Unit 2 Construction Process Part Passages Passage B Landscaping This final stage includes finish grading, driveways, steps, walkways, groundcover, shrubs and trees. Carpentry work associated with decks and fences, and plumbing work for items such as underground sprinkler systems are also carried out at this time. Approximately one week is needed to carry out this final stage, however, the time will vary depending on the nature of the landscaping, and any special features such as decks and pools.
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