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Legal Definition: a condition which prevents one from performing all usual physical functions. This usually means a permanent state, like blindness, but.

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Presentation on theme: "Legal Definition: a condition which prevents one from performing all usual physical functions. This usually means a permanent state, like blindness, but."— Presentation transcript:


2 Legal Definition: a condition which prevents one from performing all usual physical functions. This usually means a permanent state, like blindness, but in some cases it is temporary. Medical Definition: inability to function normally

3 IDEA refers to physical disabilities as: orthopedic impairment, and in C.F.R. Sec 300.7 states: "Orthopedic impairment means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly (e.g. clubfoot, absence of some member, etc.), impairments cause by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

4 Cerebral Palsy – Spastic – Ataxic – Athedoid – Mixed – Quadriplegia – Hemiplegia – Diplegia Spina Bifida Muscular Dystrophy Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Seizures

5 Cerebral Palsy is a medical condition that affects control of the muscles. Caused by an injury to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth. Cause is usually unknown Children with CP: may not be able to walk, talk, eat or play in the same ways as most other kids.

6 Cerebral palsy is not a disorder with a single cause, like chicken pox or measles. It is a group of disorders with similar problems in control of movement, but probably with a variety of causes Congenital cerebral palsy, results from brain injury during intra-uterine life Acquired cerebral palsy results from brain damage in the first few months or years of life and can follow brain infections, such as bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis, or the results of head injury -- most often from a motor vehicle accident, a fall, or child abuse

7 3 Types of Spina Bifida are: Spina Bifida Occulta: There is an opening in one or more of the vertebrae (bones) of the spinal column without apparent damage to the spinal cord. Meningocele: The protective covering around the spinal cord, has pushed out through the opening in the vertebrae in a sac called the "meningocele." However, the spinal cord remains intact. This form can be repaired with little or no damage to the nerve pathways. Myelomeningocele: This is the most severe form of spina bifida, in which a portion of the spinal cord itself protrudes through the back. In some cases, sacs are covered with skin; in others, tissue and nerves are exposed. Generally, people use the terms "spina bifida" and "myelomeningocele" interchangeably. - from NICHCY

8 The exact cause of spina bifida remains a mystery No one knows what disrupts complete closure of the neural tube, causing a malformation to develop. Scientists suspect genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors play a role. Research studies indicate that insufficient intake of folic acida common B vitamin detail_spina_bifida.htm


10 3 Common Features: they are hereditary they are progressive each causes a characteristic Most well known of the muscular dystrophies is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) Next most well known is Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD)


12 All of the muscular dystrophies are inherited and involve a mutation in one of the thousands of genes that program proteins critical to muscle integrity The body's cells don't work properly when a protein is altered or produced in insufficient quantity Many cases of MD occur from spontaneous mutations that are not found in the genes of either parent, and this defect can be passed to the next generation

13 Occurs to a person who is developing normally and then suffers an assault Must occur before adulthood to acquire the label of TBI Caused by a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain Not all blows or jolts to the head result in a TBI Severity of TBI can range from mild to severe

14 TBI may be the result of an injury Falls (28%) Motor vehicle-traffic crashes (20%) Struck by/against events (19%) Assaults (11%) Also may be caused by: An accident Drowning Being resuscitated

15 ABI may also result from an illness: Stroke High temperature Seizures Illness that cuts off oxygen to the brain Tumor Brain surgery ABI is not considered an eligible part of special ed services Because of this, these students are classified as TBI

16 Common causes are: airway obstruction near drowning choking injuries in which the chest has been crushed electrical shock lightening strike trauma to the head or neck blood loss artery impingement shock heart attack stroke, aneurysm intracranial surgery vascular disruption infections diseases intracranial tumors metabolic disorders meningitis some venereal diseases insect-carried diseases AIDS hypo or hyperglycemia hepatic encephalopathy uremic encephalopathy seizure disorders toxic exposures to chemical and gases

17 Damage to the frontal lobe can cause paralysis Brain Map Click on an area of the brain to learn more about its functions Damage to the brain stem can cause balance and movement problems Damage to the cerebellum can cause the lack of the ability to coordinate fine movements as well as the ability to walk

18 What is a seizure? An abnormal movement or behavior due to unusual electrical activity in the brain Most commonly thought of as a symptom of epilepsy, but not all people who have seizures have epilepsy Epilepsy is a group of related disorders characterized by a tendency for recurrent seizures.

19 Provoked seizures (epileptic) can be caused by: Trauma Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Low blood sodium High fever, or Alcohol or drug abuse Non-epileptic seizures can be caused by: psychological issues or stress

20 Cerebral Palsy It is estimated that some 764,000 children and adults in the United States manifest one or more of the symptoms of cerebral palsy. Currently, about 8,000 babies and infants are diagnosed with the condition each year. In addition, some 1,200 - 1,500 preschool age children are recognized each year to have cerebral palsy Spina Bifida One of the most common birth defects, with an average worldwide incidence of 1-2 cases per 1000 births Muscular Dystrophy Approx. 1 in every 3,500 to 5,000 boys, or between 400 and 600 live male births each year in the United States Traumatic Brain Injury Approx. 1.4 million sustain a TBI each year in the US alone Seizures 0.5% to 1%

21 Movement is based on the principles behind the universal design movement for access to products and environments for all users, regardless of sensory or physical disabilities

22 Differentiating instruction provides teachers with tools to construct instruction and modify curriculum that is compatible with how students learn and perform in classrooms The best possible learning environment for students with disabilities is in a classroom where differentiated instruction is the norm and not how IDEA suggests

23 YOU are a very important person in this child's life. Be patient, willing and warm at all times. Use grade appropriate materials. Identify some clear goals/expectations Be consistent Have predictable routines for everything you do. Make sure that everything is relevant to the child you are working with. Track progress carefully to define readiness for the next milestone.

24 Physically handicapped children long to be normal and be seen as normal as much as possible. Focus on what they can do at all times. Find out what the child's strengths are and capitalize on them. These children need to feel successful too! Keep your expectations high. This child is capable of achieving. Never accept rude remarks, name calling or teasing from other children. Compliment appearance from time to time. Make adjustments and accommodations whenever possible to enable this child to participate. Never pity the physically handicapped child, they do not want your pity. Take the opportunity when the child is absent to teach the rest of the class about physical handicaps. Take frequent 1 to 1 time with the child to make sure that he/she is aware that you're there to help when needed.

25 http://legal- http://legal- http://medical- http://medical- ass/advanced/Physicaldisabilities.html ass/advanced/Physicaldisabilities.html

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