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Chapter 11 Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and ADHD William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and ADHD William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and ADHD William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

2 Components of IDEA Definitions Orthopedic Impairment (OI) –Dysfunction of bones, joints, limbs, and associated muscles –Dysfunction of central nervous system affecting movement –Adversely affecting educational performance Other Health Impairment (OHI) –Limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems –Adversely affecting educational performance Many children with OI and OHI receive services under other categories Some do not require specialized educational services William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

3 Orthopedic Impairments Cerebral Palsy –Permanent disorder of voluntary movement and posture –Little relation between impairment and intellectual development –Classified according to muscle tone and motor movement Spina Bifida –Congenital defect in the vertebra that enclose the spinal cord –Can result in paralysis below affected vertebra –Hydrocephalic condition common; treated with a shunt William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

4 Orthopedic Impairments Muscular Dystrophy –Progressive weakening and degeneration of the muscles –Little relation between impairment and intellectual development Spinal Cord Injuries –Caused by fracture, stretching, or compression of spinal cord –Car accidents, sports injuries, and violence most common causes –Result in paralysis below affected vertebra William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

5 Other Health Impairments Seizure disorder (epilepsy) –Caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain –Three different categories based on severity –Seizures can be controlled with medicine Diabetes –Chronic disorder of metabolism –Body unable to breakdown sugar –Treated with insulin, diet, and exercise William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

6 Other Health Impairments Asthma –Chronic lung disease resulting in a narrowing of airways –Leading cause of absenteeism in school Cystic Fibrosis –Genetic disorder affecting pulmonary and digestive systems Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) –Children afforded legal protection under Section 504 William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

7 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder The essential feature of ADHD is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity Children with ADHD can be served under the “other health impairments” category Estimates of prevalence of ADHD range from 3% to 5% of all school-age children Two treatment approaches that are widely used with children with ADHD are drug therapy and behavioral intervention William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

8 Characteristics Children are more different than alike –Classification based on symptoms of little use in educational planning –For no other group of exceptional learner is the continuum of educational services more relevant Three important factors that affect educational needs –Age of onset - children with congenital or acquired impairments have different needs –Visibility - the visibility of impairment may cause some to underestimate the child’s abilities and limit opportunities William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

9 Educational Approaches Often involve the collaboration of an interdisciplinary team –Teachers –Physical, occupational, and speech therapists, –Other health care specialists (e.g., heath care aids) Children with physical disabilities may also need environmental modifications –Examples include, wheelchair accessible classrooms, or other assistive technology Inclusive attitude on the part of teaches and non-disabled peers –Students should be encouraged to develop as much independence as possible William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

10 Current Issues and Future Trends Related services in the classroom –Teachers will need to make accommodations for related services in the classroom New and emerging technology –Myoelectric (bionic) limbs –Robotics Animal assistance –Canine helpers in the classroom Employment, life skills, and self-advocacy –Vocational and professional opportunities must be expanded William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.


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