2Eco system Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak All the living, non living and climatic conditions of a place are interconnected and a geographical area along with this interconnected network is termed as an “Ecosystem”.Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak
3Types of ecosystem 2. Artificial ecosystem 1. Natural ecosystem (man-engineered ecosystem,viz,crop,urban,industrial,laboratory,space)a.)Terrestrial(forest,grassland,desert)Lentic(standing water)Fresh water(lake,pond,ditch,swamp)Lotic (running,water)b)Aquatic-Marine (ocean,sea)(river,spring,stream)Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak
4The Forest EcosystemThese are the ecosystems where abundance of flora (plants) is seen and they have a large number of organisms living in relatively small areas. Therefore, the density of life in forest ecosystems is very high. They are again divided into few types.Tropical evergreen forest: Tropical forests which receive an average rainfall of 80 to 400 inches in a year. These forests are marked by dense vegetation comprising of tall trees with different levels. Each level gives shelter to different kinds of animals.Tropical deciduous forest: Dense bushes and shrubs rule here along with broad levels of trees. This type of forests is found in many parts of the world and large variety of flora and fauna are found here.Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak
5Temperate evergreen forest: These have very few number of trees but ferns and mosses make up fro them. Trees have spiked leaves to minimize transpiration.Temperate deciduous forest: This forest is found in the moist temperate regions with sufficient rainfall. Winters and summers are well defined and with trees shedding their leaves during winter.Taiga: Situated just south of the arctic regions, Taiga is distinguished by evergreen conifers. While the temperature is subzero for almost six months, the rest of the year it is buzzing with insects and migratory birds. Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak
6Ecosystem components A biotic components Biotic components Climate regime(temprature,light)ProducerConsumersdecomposersInorganic substances(c,n,h,o,p,s,etc)Organic substances(carbohydrates,proteins)Bajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak
8Food chain Aquatic food chains The feeding of one organism upon another in a sequence of food transfers is known as a food chain.vegetation rabbit fox wolf tigerAquatic food chainsPhytoplankton zooplankton smallfish------largerfish-----sharkBajaj Coaching Center, Rohtak
9Food webA food web is a graphical description of feeding relationships among species in an ecological community, that is, of who eats whom (Fig. 1). It is also a means of showing how energy and materials (e.g., carbon) flow through a community of species as a result of these feeding relationships.
10Ecological succession Ecological succession is the gradual process by which ecosystems change and develop over timeA. Succession on bare rock (xerarch)B. Succession in a pond or lake(hydrarch)