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Presentation on theme: "Ecology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology

2 Ecosystems Support Life
Ecosystem: A community of interrelated plants, animals, and Abiotic (non-living) factors

3 Biotic Factors interact with an Ecosystem
Living things (biotic) depend on an ecosystem for food, air, water, and shelter. Animals also affect an ecosystem a beaver building a dam that changes the flow of a river cattle overgrazing a grassland causing soil to erode

4 Abiotic factors affect ecosystems
Abiotic factors include non-living chemical and physical parts of an ecosystem Abiotic factors are things organisms can see or feel Temperature, water, soil, sunlight

5 Temperature Temperature affects the type of plants that will survive
The plants then determine what food or shelter is available to the animals that live in the ecosystem Animals are also affected by temperature; a polar bear would not survive in a desert.

6 Light Energy from the sun supports all life on Earth
Plants need sunlight as a part of photosynthesis The strength and amount of sunlight determines the type of plants that will live in an ecosystem Light is also important for the ocean…light is only available in the first hundred meters below the surface of the water…which determines which plants and animals would survive at specific depths of the ocean

7 Soil Soil is a mixture of small rock and mineral particles.
Some organisms help to break down the remains of dead plants and animals to enrich the soil with minerals and nutrients Types of Soils: soil with decaying plant matter and water, sand, clay (water doesn’t move through easily) Type of soil determines which plants will grow and the type of plants determine which animals will feed on them and live in the ecosystem

8 Water The amount of water available to organisms determines the species and quantities of animals and plants that will be able to live in the ecosystem

9 Matter Cycles Through Ecosystems
Water, carbon, and nitrogen are materials that are necessary for life. They move through ecosystems in continuous cycles

10 Matter cycles through ecosystems
Water Cycle

11 Matter Cycles Through Ecosystems
Carbon Cycle

12 Matter Cycles Through Ecosystems
Nitrogen Cycle

13 Energy Flows Through Ecosystems
Living things capture and release energy Producers (plants capture and store energy) Consumers (get energy by eating other organisms) First-order: Organisms that eat food producers Second-order: Eat first-order Third-order: Eat second-order Decomposers (organisms that break down dead plant and animal matter)

14 Energy Flows Through Ecosystems
Food Chain: feeding relationship between a producer and a single chain of consumers in an ecosystem

15 Energy Flows Through Ecosystems
Food Web: A model of the feeding relationships between many different consumers and producers in an ecosystem.

16 Energy Flows Through Ecosystems
Available energy decreases as it moves through an ecosystem The amount of energy decreases as you go up the pyramid

17 Biomes Contain Many Ecosystems
Biome: a region of earth that has a particular climate and certain types of plants. There are 6 major land biomes Tundra and Taiga: northern regions of earth, long cold winters and short cool summers Desert and Grassland: middle latitudes, warm to hot and do not have enough water to support trees Temperate Forest and Tropical Forest: contains enough water to support trees Water Biomes Freshwater: streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, estuaries Marine: coastal, open ocean, deep ocean

18 Biomes Contain Many Ecosystems
Land Biomes Are affected by climate Are affected by conditions of soil Are characterized by types of plants Water Biomes can be freshwater or saltwater Are affected by landscape if freshwater Are affected by depth if marine

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