2 Ecosystems Support Life Ecosystem: A community of interrelated plants, animals, and Abiotic (non-living) factors
3 Biotic Factors interact with an Ecosystem Living things (biotic) depend on an ecosystem for food, air, water, and shelter.Animals also affect an ecosystema beaver building a dam that changes the flow of a rivercattle overgrazing a grassland causing soil to erode
4 Abiotic factors affect ecosystems Abiotic factors include non-living chemical and physical parts of an ecosystemAbiotic factors are things organisms can see or feelTemperature, water, soil, sunlight
5 Temperature Temperature affects the type of plants that will survive The plants then determine what food or shelter is available to the animals that live in the ecosystemAnimals are also affected by temperature; a polar bear would not survive in a desert.
6 Light Energy from the sun supports all life on Earth Plants need sunlight as a part of photosynthesisThe strength and amount of sunlight determines the type of plants that will live in an ecosystemLight is also important for the ocean…light is only available in the first hundred meters below the surface of the water…which determines which plants and animals would survive at specific depths of the ocean
7 Soil Soil is a mixture of small rock and mineral particles. Some organisms help to break down the remains of dead plants and animals to enrich the soil with minerals and nutrientsTypes of Soils: soil with decaying plant matter and water, sand, clay (water doesn’t move through easily)Type of soil determines which plants will grow and the type of plants determine which animals will feed on them and live in the ecosystem
8 WaterThe amount of water available to organisms determines the species and quantities of animals and plants that will be able to live in the ecosystem
9 Matter Cycles Through Ecosystems Water, carbon, and nitrogen are materials that are necessary for life. They move through ecosystems in continuous cycles
12 Matter Cycles Through Ecosystems Nitrogen Cycle
13 Energy Flows Through Ecosystems Living things capture and release energyProducers (plants capture and store energy)Consumers (get energy by eating other organisms)First-order: Organisms that eat food producersSecond-order: Eat first-orderThird-order: Eat second-orderDecomposers (organisms that break down dead plant and animal matter)
14 Energy Flows Through Ecosystems Food Chain:feeding relationship between a producer and a single chain of consumers in an ecosystem
15 Energy Flows Through Ecosystems Food Web:A model of the feeding relationships between many different consumers and producers in an ecosystem.
16 Energy Flows Through Ecosystems Available energy decreases as it moves through an ecosystemThe amount of energy decreases as you go up the pyramid
17 Biomes Contain Many Ecosystems Biome: a region of earth that has a particular climate and certain types of plants.There are 6 major land biomesTundra and Taiga: northern regions of earth, long cold winters and short cool summersDesert and Grassland: middle latitudes, warm to hot and do not have enough water to support treesTemperate Forest and Tropical Forest: contains enough water to support treesWater BiomesFreshwater: streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, estuariesMarine: coastal, open ocean, deep ocean
18 Biomes Contain Many Ecosystems Land BiomesAre affected by climateAre affected by conditions of soilAre characterized by types of plantsWater Biomescan be freshwater or saltwaterAre affected by landscape if freshwaterAre affected by depth if marine
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