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Building time- specific population grid models David Martin, University of Southampton, UK EFGS, 5 October 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Building time- specific population grid models David Martin, University of Southampton, UK EFGS, 5 October 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building time- specific population grid models David Martin, University of Southampton, UK EFGS, 5 October 2009

2 2 Acknowledgements Samantha Cockings and Samuel Leung Economic and Social Research Council award number RES Employee data from the Annual Business Inquiry Service, National Online Manpower Information Service, licence NTC/ABI07-P3020. Office for National Statistics 2001 Census: Standard Area Statistics (England and Wales): ESRC Census Programme, Census Dissemination Unit, Mimas (University of Manchester). National Statistics Postcode Directory Data: Office for National Statistics, Postcode Directories: ESRC Census Programme, Census Geography Data Unit (UKBORDERS), EDINA (University of Edinburgh). Quarterly Labour Force Survey, Economic and Social Data Service, usage number

3 3 Presentation overview Introduction Space-time population modelling Data sources Modelling framework Early results and conclusion

4 Introduction Importance of small area population mapping Advantages of gridded population models: esp. stability over time and reconstruction of settlement geography Deficiencies of current night-time approaches Enormous growth of new population-related data sources

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8 (Schmitt, 1956, p. 83). One of the most important and difficult problems now facing city planners is the development of accurate, usable techniques for estimating the current daytime population of census tracts in urban areas Why? Reasons included modelling the location and size of bomb shelters and the potential casualties resulting from a nuclear attack Schmitt, R. C. (1956) Estimating Daytime Populations. Journal of the American Planning Association 22 (2),

9 Space-time population modelling ~99% of work based on night-time; ~0.5% daytime? Numerous motivations for time-specific models: emergency planning, transportation, business location, etc. General approach is to start with night-time population map and transfer population subgroups to specific daytime locations, e.g. schools, workplaces Longstanding difficulty of obtaining data with sufficient space/time resolution In reality, many different timescales to be modelled

10 Examples Emergency response in US cities – Sleeter and Wood (2006) US hazard exposure and response – McPherson et al. (2006) Landscan USA - Bhadhuri et al. (2007) Helsinki - Ahola et al. (2007) UK Health and Safety Executive – Smith and Fairburn (2008)

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12 12 Data sources - residential Census- or register-based, using usual place of residence Residence definition – equivalent to night-time population locations, students counted at term-time residence Decennial update interval – long-term population change UK census at output area level (OA, pop ~300) and official mid-year estimates (MYEs) at Lower Super OA level (LSOA, pop ~1500) Some workplace data from census, but not all people have workplaces and not all workplaces are daytime locations

13 13 Data sources – non-residential New administrative sources esp. from government, Neighbourhood Statistics Service (NeSS) Huge growth in availability and frequency since 2001 census Annual Business Inquiry dataset (employers, employees) Schools, hospitals, visitor attractions, long-distance visitor numbers, transportation flows Indirect measures of retail, leisure activity, points of interest Can all be related to NeSS geography hierarchy, NSPD

14 Total population +/- external visitors Private dwellings Non- residential Communal ests. Transport Education Employment Residential Temp accomm. Generalized local Family/social Retail Leisure Tourism Healthcare Rail Metro/subway Air Water Road Mapping population to activities/places…...and further subdivisions

15 Total population +/- external visitors Private dwellings Non- residential Communal ests. Transport Education Employment Residential Temp accomm. Generalized local Family/social Retail Leisure Tourism Healthcare Rail Metro/subway Air Water Road What do current maps cover? Census, MYE

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18 Data sources for all non-residential Total population +/- external visitors Private dwellings Non- residential Communal ests. Transport Education Employment Residential Temp accomm. Generalized local Family/social Retail Leisure Tourism Healthcare Rail Metro/subway Air Water Road Census, MYE NeSS, EduBase Census, ABI, QLFS VisitBritain, ABI VisitBritain ABI, commercial DCMS, ALVA, etc. HES National Rail TfL, etc CAA TfL DfT, AADF ID2007, NeSS

19 19 Modelling framework Builds on Martin (1989, 2006), Martin et al. (2000) currently implemented in SurfaceBuilder program One of a variety of methods for reallocation of population counts onto a series of geographical features Akin to dasymetric models where known population counts are allocated to most likely set of spatial locations Adaptive kernel estimation, treating each centroid as a high information point. Weight each cell to receive population reallocated from local centroids, hence volume preserving

20 20 Centroids, boundaries and grids Left: centroid locations and boundaries; Right: centroid populations redistributed onto grid

21 21 Distance decay function Always try to provide a caption next to your picture in this style

22 Extension to the spatio-temporal problem Spatial centroid: –Population count –Spatial extent Time-space centroid: –Population capacity –Spatial extent –Time profile –Area of influence e.g. census output area –Census population –Modelled e.g. primary school –Pupil numbers –Small (one cell) –Term dates, school day –Catchment area (modelled time/space) 22

23 Time profile example – school Time of day Population In transit Present

24 Treatment of centroid i at time t study area a area of influence j local extent d centroid i background layer b

25 Background layer Population capacity –Land use –Land cover –Pop density –Transport

26 Basic time-space interpolation algorithm Specify study area a and time t Identify background layer b (cells that can contain population) for time t Adjust for external visitors in/out of a at time t Sum all residential centroids to obtain population P Examine each centroid i to obtain populations p in local extent d and area of influence j at time t Redistribute P across d and j, constrained by b 26

27 27 Early results Southampton, UK as test area Using existing model with pre-prepared data extracts for specific time slices (SurfaceBuilder program) –Does not require full time profiles for each centroid –Does not take background layer into account, hence no population is allocated into transport layer Time-space interpolation program currently being written in.Net using existing and new code components Preliminary validation against known patterns

28 28 02:00 Residential night-time model Southampton, 200m cells

29 08:00 29 Early workplaces, docks, industrial estates; rest as residential Southampton, 200m cells

30 09:00 30 Workplaces, educational institutions, daytime model; low residential; very high central densities Southampton, 200m cells

31 18:00 31 Late workplaces remain, education closed; return to residential; high central densities Southampton, 200m cells

32 Initial visualization of output Output to kml Multiple layers overlaid in Google Earth 3D navigation and exploration Time slider allows time sequence to be played 32

33 Questions, discussion.


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