Presentation on theme: "Some Surgical Aspects of Atrial Fibrillation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Some Surgical Aspects of Atrial Fibrillation Vincent A. Gaudiani, MDLuis J. Castro, MDAudrey L. Fisher, MPH
2 The Nature of Surgical Intervention Demands a Simplified Model of What May Be a Complex Problem
3 Conceptual strip of atrium with normal depolarization Yellow tissue is repolarized and ready to conduct.Green tissue is depolarized and cannot currently conduct.Initial impulseImpulse travelsImpulse completescircuit while tissueis still depolarizedTissue repolarizes –ready for next impulse
4 Each macro-reentrant pathway must have a conduction time sufficiently long to permit initially depolarized muscle to repolarize before the depolarizing wavefront returns. This will depend on the:Physical length of the pathwayConductance of the pathway
6 Macro-reentrant pathways NormalLongSlowInitial impulseYellow tissue is repolarized and ready to conduct.Green tissue is depolarized and cannot currently conduct.NNormalSlowLongImpulse travels: farther in long circuit and at slwoer speed in slow circuit. Both of these circuits allow for tissue to repolarize by the time the impulse completes the circuit.NNormalLongSlowCircuit complete: normal circuit tissue is still depolarized and unable to conduct again. The time delay in long and slow circuits creates tissue that is repolarized by the time the circuit is complete, and the impulse can be conducted again and again.
7 Cox and his colleagues demonstrated that atrial fibrillation may be seen as the result of the interaction of a finite number of macro-reentrant pathways AND that each pathway correlated with an anatomic feature of the atria.
8 Cox reasoned that surgical interdiction of each of these pathways would preclude sustained atrial fibrillation.
9 The likely Anatomic Pathways are around the right atrium: Right Atrial AppendageAtrial SeptumTricuspid ValveVenae Cavae
10 The likely Anatomic Pathways are around the left atrium: Atrial SeptumLeft Atrial AppendagePulmonary VeinsMitral Valve
11 Surprisingly, other research has shown that atrial fibrillation is frequently initiated within the cuff of tissue comprised by the pulmonary veins and the local atrial tissue around them. - Perhaps 70-80% of atrial fibrillation can be prevented solely by isolating this tissue from the rest of the atrium.
12 Optimum Therapy of AF demands: Ablation of AFRestoration of AV SynchronyRestoration of AV Transport
13 Optimum therapy corrects the clinical problems associated with AF: Atrial thrombus formationDecreased cardiac efficiencyPalpitationsNeed for anticoagulation
14 Surgical incisions in the right atrium Excise right atrial appendageExtend from right atrial appendage to tricuspid valveSVC to IVC straight line incisionExtend from caval incision to tricuspid
15 Surgical incisions in the left atrium Left atriotomyEncircle pulmonary veins(epv)Excise left atrial appendageExtend from appendage to epvExtend from mitral annulus to epvCut atrial septum through fossa ovalis
16 The Cox/Maze III operation restores AV synchrony and transport in > 70-80% of patients by isolating the pulmonary vein cuff and placing surgical incisions through each of the major macro-reentrant circuits. Every segment of the atria, except the pulmonary vein cuff, remains in electrical contact with the SA node.
17 Maze Results IFrom October 1997 through December 2003 we performed 162 Maze operations as follows:Maze Only 11Maze and Mitral Valve Only 74Maze and Any Other 77
18 Maze Results IIIn the entire series of 162 cases, there were three operative mortalities (1.9%). These occurred in high-risk patients. There have not been any deaths in reasonable or low risk patients.
19 Maze Results IIIWe follow up with our Maze patients on an annual basis. Our follow up of August 2003 included 133 patients from between three months to over five years out from the time of operation. The percentage of patients in normal rhythm at 2003 follow up was:Maze Only % (10/11)Maze and Mitral Valve Only 92% (55/60)Maze and Any Other 89% (55/62)
20 ConclusionThe Cox/Maze procedure is an effective treatment for atrial fibrillation for some patients who require cardiac operations.