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Chapter 19 Program Design

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1 Chapter 19 Program Design
Chapter 18 NSCA Essentials of Strength & Conditioning

2 7 Resistance Training Program Design Variables
Needs analysis Exercise selection Training frequency Exercise order Training load & reps Volume Rest periods

3 Step 1 - Needs Analysis Two stage process
Evaluation of the requirements & characteristics of the activity/sport. Assessment of the athlete.

4 Needs Analysis – Evaluation of Activity
Unique characteristics of the activity. Allows you to design a program that includes those elements. Should include: Movement analysis Physiological analysis Injury analysis cardiovascular endurance Speed Agility Flexibility

5 Needs Analysis – Evaluation of Person
Athletes’ current condition to begin a program (Training Status). Identify and previous or current injuries. Determine training background or exercise history (training status). Type of program Length of recent, regular training Intensity level Degree of exercise technique experience See table NSCA,18-1.

6 NSCA, P. 397

7 Needs Analysis – Evaluation of Person
Should include an overall assessment of all components. Tests should relate to the athlete’s sport, be consistent with skill level and be realistic in terms of the equipment that is available. Results compared with normative data. Maintain strengths and improve weaknesses.

8 Primary Resistance Training Goal
The goal is usually to improve strength, power, hypertrophy, or muscular endurance. Concentrate on only improving one area per season.

9 Step 2 - Exercise Selection
Exercises should involve primary muscle groups or body areas. Fall into categories based upon relative importance to the person’s activity or sport. Exercises classified into: Structural – muscular stabilization of posture while performing exercise Power – a structural exercise that is performed very explosively Core – larger muscle areas Assistance – smaller muscle areas

10 Exercise Selection Core Exercises: Assistance Exercises:
Recruit one or more large muscle areas Involve two or more primary joints Receive priority when selecting exercises due to their direct application to the sport. Assistance Exercises: Usually recruit smaller muscle areas Involve only one primary joint Considered less important to improving performance.

11 Core Anatomy (Internal)

12 Core Anatomy (Back) Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus Maximus
Help stabilize scapulas and spine Gluteus Maximus Provide powerful hip extensors & protect lower lumbar spine

13 Core Anatomy (Front) Obliques, Rectus Abdominis Hip Adductors
Provide a sheath for rib cage & spine Hip Adductors Support lower limb movement & hip stability

14 Sports Specific Exercises
Specificity See p. 400

15 Muscle Balance Insure that a proper ratio of strength, power, muscular endurance is maintained in opposing muscle groups. Agonist & antagonist

16 Exercise Technique Experience
If in doubt as to the person’s ability, have them demo the exercise. Those who are inexperienced should begin with machine weights and free-weight assisted exercises first.

17 Availability of Equipment
May have to substitute exercises if certain items are in short demand. Types of barbells Amount of weight plates

18 Training Time Per Session
Some exercises take longer than others. Bench press vs. push ups Try to make workouts efficient but also try to keep specificity. Squats vs. leg extension Weigh the value of subbing exercises at the expense of time.

19 Step 3 -Training Frequency
The number of training sessions completed in a given time period. Generally 3 times per week. As conditioning level improve, frequency can increase to 4 or more. General rule  schedule training session so there is at least one rest day (not more than 3) between sessions that stress the same muscle groups.

20 Frequency Split routine involves training more frequently. See page 403, Table 18.5 Group exercises that train a certain portion of the body, ie) Upper or lower. The rest days will not occur on the same days each week. Frequency will also depend upon the overall amount of physical stress the individual may have: From physically demanding jobs From the type of training the coach is also including

21 Training Load & Exercise Type
People who train with max or near-max loads require more recovery time between sessions. Alternating light & heavy days can assist in keeping the frequency up. Upper body muscles tend to recover faster than lower body. Person recovers more quickly from single joint exercises than multi joint exercises.

22 Step 4 - Exercise Order Refers to the sequence of resistance exercises performed during one training session. Four of the most common methods: Power, Core, then assistance exercises Alternated upper – and lower body exercises Alternated push & pull exercises Supersets & compound sets

23 Power, Core, Then Assistance Ex
Need to be fresh to perform these moves and avoid injury. Affected by fatigue. Significant energy expenditure.

24 Alternated Upper & Lower Body Exercises
Good for untrained individuals. Use the rest period to work the opposing muscle group. Decreases overall training time. Also considered circuit training if the exercises are performed with minimal rest periods.

25 Alternated Push & Pull Exercises
Insures that the same muscle groups will not be used for two exercises in a row thereby reducing fatigue of the muscle. Can also be constructed in a circuit training format. Is appropriate for beginning and returning exercisers.

26 Supersets & Compound Sets
Superset – involves 2 exercises that stress 2 opposing muscles. Compound set – involves performing 2 exercises for the same muscle sequentially. Very demanding May not be appropriate for beginners

27 Step 5 - Training Load & Repetitions
The heavier the load, the less reps performed. Load is determined by using a percentage of Rep Max or… The most weight lifted for a specified number of reps, ie) 10 rep max. As the percentage of that 1Rep Max decreases, the athlete will be able to successfully complete more repetitions. See p. 407, table  

28 Training Load & Repetitions
A certain percentage of the 1 rep max assigned to a machine exercise can result in more repetitions at the same percentage of the 1 rep max than a similar free exercise.   See Table 18.7 These tables should only be used as a guideline the for estimating a particular repetition maximum load for resistance training exercise.

29 Rep Max Continuum Heavy loads, few reps  strength & power
Moderate loads, more reps  hypertrophy Light loads, more reps  endurance

30 Rep Max Continuum The most effective and practical application is to assign loads that are about 80% of the 1 rep max for resistance training exercises designed to improve max power production. Power exercises cannot be maximally loaded at any rep scheme because the quality of the movement will decline. Power exercises are usually limited to 5 reps per set.


32 Variation in Training Load
A high training status cannot be tolerated for repeated weekly sessions without overtraining. Can counterbalance by varying the loads from the core to assistance exercises. Can have heavy days and light days. Can have upper body and lower body days Heavy lifting days can coincide with lighter training days in the sport and visa versa.

33 Progression of Training Load
Monitor the person’s training and chart progress to know when to progress the loads.

34 Timing Load Increases 2 for 2 rule
If the person can perform 2 or more reps over his/her assigned rep goal in the last set, in 2 consecutive workouts of the same exercise, weight should be added for the next session. Example: 3 x 10 to start, progresses to 12 reps in the last set, for the last two sessions  increase weight

35 Quantity of Load Increases
Load increases of % can be used. Upper body increases are usually done in smaller increments. Lower body increases are usually larger than those made to the upper body.

36 Step 6 - Volume Volume Load - the total amount of weight lifted in a training session. Set – a group of reps sequentially performed before the athlete stops to rest. To calculate the Volume: Multiple the # of sets by the # of reps times the weight lifted. The volume for 2 sets of lbs 2 x 10 x 50 = 1000 lbs.

37 Multiple vs. Single Sets
Generally accepted that performing one set of 8-12 reps (post warm-up) to volitional muscular failure is sufficient to maximize gains in muscular strength and hypertrophy. Higher volumes will eventually be needed to promote further gains in strength. Performing 3 x 10 without going to failure enhances strength better than one set to failure for 8-12 reps.

38 What is the Training Goal?
Strength Power Hypertrophy Muscular Endurance

39 NSCA, p 419

40 Step 7 - Rest Periods Rest period – the time dedicated to recovery between sets & exercises. Dependent on the goal of training, load lifted and person’s training status. General guideline is: 2-5 minutes rest for power and strength. 30 s – 1.5 min for hypertrophy and endurance.

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