Presentation on theme: "Long term responses of exercise on the cardiovascular system"— Presentation transcript:
1 Long term responses of exercise on the cardiovascular system Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood volume; reduction in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased aerobic fitness
2 The GradesLook at the different descriptions below, and research as far as you feel you need to:If you want to get a Pass, simplyDescribe what happens to the cardiovascular system when we start to exercise, and after 6 weeks of training.If you want to get a Merit,Extend your description to include an explanation of how the cardiovascular system responds when we start to exercise and after 6 weeks of training.You will need to provide some examples from sport in general and football in particular here.
3 Cardiac Hypertrophy Increase in the size of the heart Increase in thickness of the myocardiumAllows left ventricle to fill more completely during diastoleLarger ventricular wallCan contract more forcefullyPumps more blood into the systemic systemMore efficient heartEndurance athletes tend to have larger ventricular cavities, whilst anaerobic athletes have thicker ventricular walls.Endurance athletes have larger ventricle cavities and Anaerobic athletes have thicker ventricle walls.
4 Stroke VolumeDue to Cardiac hypertrophy, this increases both at rest and during exercise.Greatest amongst endurance athletesIncreased size of ventricular cavityUp to 140ml per beatImproved contractility of the myocardiumIn trained athlete at rest:EDV 130, ESV 40, SV 90In untrained athlete at restEDV 130, ESV 60, SV 70
5 Heart Rate Resting heart rate untrained – 80bpm Resting heart rate athlete – 60bpmResting elite endurance athlete – 35bpmBradycardiaWhen h.r. falls below 60bpmDue to a slowing of the rate of the S.A. nodeLance Armstrong 35bpmSteve Redgrave 45bpmCardiac outputAt rest – Same for athlete & non athleteTherefore, athlete has increased stroke volumeDuring exercise much larger for trained athlete
6 Capillarisation Blood pressure Of trained muscles New capillaries may developExisting capillaries become more efficient.Brings about more efficient delivery of blood to working musclesMore O2 reaches the musclesBlood pressureDecreases, particularly at restMainly from endurance trainingBlood pressure at a maximal or sub-maximal level remains unchanged
7 Increase in blood plasma Vasculature efficiencyParticularly in the arteriesMore efficient vasodilation & vasoconstrictionImproves redistribution of bloodBetter at shunting to active musclesIncrease in blood plasmaIncreases blood volumeDecreases blood viscosityBlood flows more easilyEnhances delivery of O2 to the muscles