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Long term responses of exercise on the cardiovascular system Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac.

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Presentation on theme: "Long term responses of exercise on the cardiovascular system Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac."— Presentation transcript:

1 Long term responses of exercise on the cardiovascular system Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood volume; reduction in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased aerobic fitness

2 The Grades Look at the different descriptions below, and research as far as you feel you need to: If you want to get a Pass, simply – Describe what happens to the cardiovascular system when we start to exercise, and after 6 weeks of training. If you want to get a Merit, – Extend your description to include an explanation of how the cardiovascular system responds when we start to exercise and after 6 weeks of training. – You will need to provide some examples from sport in general and football in particular here. Look at the different descriptions below, and research as far as you feel you need to: If you want to get a Pass, simply – Describe what happens to the cardiovascular system when we start to exercise, and after 6 weeks of training. If you want to get a Merit, – Extend your description to include an explanation of how the cardiovascular system responds when we start to exercise and after 6 weeks of training. – You will need to provide some examples from sport in general and football in particular here.

3 Cardiac Hypertrophy Increase in the size of the heart – Increase in thickness of the myocardium Allows left ventricle to fill more completely during diastole – Larger ventricular wall Can contract more forcefully Pumps more blood into the systemic system More efficient heart Endurance athletes have larger ventricle cavities and Anaerobic athletes have thicker ventricle walls.

4 Stroke Volume Due to Cardiac hypertrophy, this increases both at rest and during exercise. – Greatest amongst endurance athletes Increased size of ventricular cavity Up to 140ml per beat Improved contractility of the myocardium In trained athlete at rest: – EDV 130, ESV 40, SV 90 In untrained athlete at rest – EDV 130, ESV 60, SV 70

5 Heart Rate Resting heart rate untrained – 80bpm Resting heart rate athlete – 60bpm Resting elite endurance athlete – 35bpm Bradycardia – When h.r. falls below 60bpm – Due to a slowing of the rate of the S.A. node Lance Armstrong 35bpm Steve Redgrave 45bpm Cardiac output – At rest – Same for athlete & non athlete – Therefore, athlete has increased stroke volume – During exercise much larger for trained athlete

6 Blood pressure Decreases, particularly at rest – Mainly from endurance training Blood pressure at a maximal or sub-maximal level remains unchanged Decreases, particularly at rest – Mainly from endurance training Blood pressure at a maximal or sub-maximal level remains unchanged Of trained muscles – New capillaries may develop – Existing capillaries become more efficient. Brings about more efficient delivery of blood to working muscles More O2 reaches the muscles Of trained muscles – New capillaries may develop – Existing capillaries become more efficient. Brings about more efficient delivery of blood to working muscles More O2 reaches the muscles Capillarisation

7 Increase in blood plasma Increases blood volume Decreases blood viscosity – Blood flows more easily – Enhances delivery of O2 to the muscles Vasculature efficiency Particularly in the arteries More efficient vasodilation & vasoconstriction – Improves redistribution of blood – Better at shunting to active muscles


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