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FORCIBLE ENTRY. Modern society is security conscious Private homes Commercial occupancies Vehicles Forcible entry The technique used by fire department.

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Presentation on theme: "FORCIBLE ENTRY. Modern society is security conscious Private homes Commercial occupancies Vehicles Forcible entry The technique used by fire department."— Presentation transcript:


2 Modern society is security conscious Private homes Commercial occupancies Vehicles Forcible entry The technique used by fire department personnel to gain access to a structure whose normal means of access is locked, blocked or nonexistent INTRODUCTION

3 Forcible entry, when properly used, does a minimal amount of damage to the structure or structural components and provides quick access for firefighters should not be used when normal means of access are readily available may be required to open means of egress (exit) from structures INTRODUCTION

4 Knowing the construction features of doors, windows and other barriers, knowing proper tool selection and knowing forcible entry techniques greatly enhances a firefighters effort on the fireground Ability to use forcible entry techniques quickly and effectively demonstrates professionalism to the community you serve INTRODUCTION

5 A firefighter must have a complete working knowledge of the tools available to perform the task Using the proper tool will make the difference in whether the barrier faced is successfully forced Forcible entry tools can be divided into four basic categories Cutting tools Prying tools Pushing / pulling tools Striking tools FORCIBLE ENTRY TOOLS

6 Cutting Tools Many different types Often specific to the type of materials they can cut and how fast they can cut them No such thing as a single cutting tool that will efficiently cut all materials Using a cutting tool in a way it was not designed can destroy the tool and endanger the operator Cutting tools may be either manual or powered FORCIBLE ENTRY TOOLS

7 Axes and Hatchets The most common type of cutting tool available in the fire service Two basic types Pick-head Flat-head Pick-head axe 6 pound or 8 pound head Handle made of either wood or fiberglass Effective for cutting through natural and lightweight materials CUTTING TOOLS

8 Axes and Hatchets Flat-head axe 6 or 8 pound head Handles made of either wood or fiberglass Cuts through a variety of natural and lightweight materials Can be used as a striking tool CUTTING TOOLS

9 Handsaws There are times when the handsaw is necessary because of a small work space Commonly used handsaws Carpenter's handsaw Keyhole saw Hacksaws Coping saw CUTTING TOOLS

10 Power Saws Make fast and efficient cuts in a variety of materials Times when these saws should and should not be used Divided into categories Rotary (circular) saw Reciprocating saw Chain saw Ventilation saw CUTTING TOOLS

11 Power Saws Do not push a saw (or any tool) beyond the limits of its design and purpose Two things may occur Tool failure Injury to the operator Never use a power saw in a flammable atmosphere Always use eye protection when operating any power saw CUTTING TOOLS

12 Power Saws Rotary (Circular) Saw Fire service version is often gasoline powered Blades spin more than 6,000 rpm Blades range from large-toothed blades for quick rough cuts to fine teeth for a more precise cut Carbide tipped teeth are superior to standard blades Less prone to dulling with heavy use CUTTING TOOLS

13 Power Saws Rotary (Circular) Saw Blades specifically designed for cutting metal are also available Often used in forcible entry Following both manufacturers recommendations and department SOGs are imperative to maintaining a firefighters personal safety when operating saws CUTTING TOOLS

14 Reciprocating Saw Powerful, versatile and highly controllable saw Can use a variety of blades for cutting different materials Require electricity CUTTING TOOLS

15 Chain Saw (Vent Saw) Used for years by the logging industry Sometimes more efficient than the rotary saw Powerful enough to penetrate dense material yet lightweight enough to be easily handled in awkward positions Should not be used to cut metal CUTTING TOOLS

16 Metal Cutting Devices and Cutting Torches Bolt cutters Cuts bolts, iron bars, pins, cables, hasps, chains and some padlock shackles Advances in security technology are limiting the use of bolt cutters Materials shatter the cutting surface or cause the handles to fail CUTTING TOOLS

17 Metal Cutting Devices and Cutting Torches Cutting Torch Operates by burning away the material being cut Uses a mixture of flammable gases to generate a flame with a temperature of more than 5,700° F CUTTING TOOLS

18 Prying Tools Provide an advantage for opening doors, windows, locks and moving heavy objects Hand (manual) prying tools use the basic principle of the lever to provide a mechanical advantage Leverage applied incorrectly works against the firefighter Hydraulic prying tools can either be powered hydraulic or manual hydraulic Manual hydraulic tools operate slower PRYING TOOLS

19 Manual Prying Tools Variety of hand prying tools is available to the fire service Crowbar Halligan-type bar Hux bar Claw tool Kelly tool Pry axe Flat bar PRYING TOOLS

20 Hydraulic Prying Tools Hydraulic rescue spreader tool Most often associated with vehicle extrication has some uses in forcible entry Depending on manufacturer, spread as much as 32 inches PRYING TOOLS

21 Hydraulic Prying Tools Hydraulic ram Designed primarily for vehicle extrication Spreading capabilities ranging from 36 inches to an extended length of nearly 63 inches Place the ram in between either side of a door frame to spread the frame apart PRYING TOOLS

22 Hydraulic Prying Tools Hydraulic door opener, is a hand-operated spreader device and is relatively lightweight Consists of a hand pump and spreader device Pressure usually causes the locking mechanism or door to fail Valuable tool when more than one door must be forced Apartments or hotels PRYING TOOLS

23 Pushing / Pulling Tools Limited use in forcible entry Tool of choice for breaking glass and opening walls or ceilings Tools includes Standard pike pole Clemens hook Plaster hook Drywall hook San Francisco hook Multipurpose hook Roofman's hook PUSHING / PULLING TOOLS

24 Pushing / Pulling Tools Gives the firefighter additional reach Stay out of the way of falling debris Pike poles and hooks should not be depended on for leverage PUSHING / PULLING TOOLS

25 Striking Tools Basic hand tool consisting of a weighted head attached to a handle Sledgehammer (8, 10 and 16 pounds) Maul Flat-head axe Sledge hammer Multi-tool STRIKING TOOLS

26 Tool Combinations No single forcible entry tool provides the firefighter with the needed force or leverage to handle all forcible entry situations The most important factor to consider is selecting the proper tools to do the job Pre-incident surveys will help to determine what tools are required TOOL COMBINATIONS

27 Hand and power tools used in the fire service can be extremely dangerous if misused or used carelessly In atmospheres that could be explosive, extreme caution should be taken in the use of power and hand tools that may cause arcs or sparks TOOL SAFETY

28 Prying Tool Safety Using prying tools incorrectly creates a safety hazard Not acceptable to use a "cheater bar" Can put forces on the tool that are greater than the tool was designed to handle TOOL SAFETY

29 Circular Saw Safety Must be used with extreme care to prevent injury from the high-speed rotary blade Store blades in a clean, dry environment free of hydrocarbon fumes Hydrocarbons will attack the bonding material in the blades and make them subject to sudden disintegration during use Match the saw to the task and the material to be cut Never push a saw beyond its design limitations Wear proper protective equipment Do not use any power saw when working in a flammable atmosphere or near flammable liquids TOOL SAFETY

30 Circular Saw Safety Keep unprotected and nonessential people out of the work area Follow manufacturer's guidelines for proper saw operation Keep blades and chain well sharpened A dull saw is more likely to cause an accident than a sharp one Be aware of potential hidden hazards TOOL SAFETY

31 Carrying Tools Carry tools and tool combinations in the safest manner possible Axes Carry the axe with the blade away from the body Pick-head axes Grasp the pick with a hand to cover it Axes should never be carried on the shoulder TOOL SAFETY

32 Carrying Tools Prying Tools Carry these tools with any pointed or sharp edges away from the body Combinations of Tools Strap tool combinations together Halligan type bars and flat-head axes can be married together and strapped TOOL SAFETY

33 Carrying Tools Pike Poles and Hooks Carry with the head down, close to the ground and ahead of the body These tools can severely injure anyone poked with the working end of the tool TOOL SAFETY

34 Carrying Tools Striking Tools Keep the heads of these tools close to the ground Maintain a firm grip Power Tools Never carry a power tool that is running Carry the tool to the area where the work will be performed and start it there TOOL SAFETY

35 Care and Maintenance of Forcible Entry Tools Proper care and maintenance of all forcible entry tools are essential ingredients of any forcible entry operation Tools will function as designed if they are properly maintained and kept in the best of condition CARE AND MAINTENANCE

36 Wood Handles Inspect the handle for cracks, blisters or splinters Sand the handle to minimize hand injuries Wash the handle with mild detergent, rinse and wipe dry Do not soak the handle in water because it will cause the wood to swell Apply a coat of boiled linseed oil to the handle to prevent roughness and warping Do not paint or varnish the handle Check the tightness of the tool head Limit tool marking CARE AND MAINTENANCE

37 Fiberglass Handles Wash the handle with mild detergent, rinse and wipe dry Check the tightness of the tool head Cutting Edges Inspect the cutting edge for nicks, tears or metal spurs Replace cutting edges when required File the cutting edges by hand Grinding weakens the tool CARE AND MAINTENANCE

38 Plated Surfaces Inspect for damage Wipe plated surfaces clean or wash with mild detergent and water Unprotected Metal Surfaces Keep free of rust Oil the metal surface lightly. avoid using any metal protectant that contains trichloroethane Avoid painting Inspect the metal for spurs, burrs or sharp edges and file them off when found CARE AND MAINTENANCE

39 Axe Heads The manner in which the axe head is maintained directly affects how well it works If the blade is extremely sharp and its body is ground too thin pieces of the blade may break when cutting If the body of the blade is too thick, regardless of its sharpness, it may be difficult to drive the axe head through ordinary objects CARE AND MAINTENANCE

40 Power Equipment Read and follow manufacturers instructions Inspect and ensure power tools will start Check blades for completeness and readiness Replace blades that are worn Check all electrical components for cuts and frays Ensure that all guards are functional and in place Ensure that fuel is fresh Fuel mixtures may deteriorate over time CARE AND MAINTENANCE

41 Door Size-Up and Construction Features Primary obstacle firefighters face in gaining access to a building is a locked or blocked door Size-up of the door is an essential part of the forcible entry task How the door functions How it is constructed How it is locked SIZE UP

42 Door Size-Up and Construction Features Doors function in one of the following ways Swinging (either inward or outward) Sliding Revolving Overhead SIZE UP

43 Door Size-Up and Construction Features Firefighters should try the door to make sure that it is locked before force is used try before you pry! If the door is locked, begin additional size-up Which way does it swing? Look for the door In or out? Does it slide left or right? Does it roll up? SIZE UP

44 Door Size-Up and Construction Features Access doors to residences usually swing inward Commercial, public assembly doors and industrial doors, swing outward There will be times that even that best size- up and forcible entry effort will not be successful Remember not to get focused on one effort and one technique Spending too much time forcing a door is counterproductive If the door proves too well secured, find another door SIZE UP

45 Door Size-Up and Construction Features After determining how a door functions, you must understand how the door is constructed Doors range in construction types from interior hollow core to high- security steel Most common door encountered is the wood swinging door, followed by the steel swinging door SIZE UP

46 Wood Swinging Doors Three general categories of wood swinging doors Panel Slab Ledge Entry doors on structures are usually panel or slab SIZE UP

47 Wood Swinging Doors The door is only one component of a door assembly Doorjambs are the sides of the opening into which the door is fitted Rabbeted jamb A shoulder milled into the casing that the door closes against to form a seal Stopped jamb Has a piece of molding added to the door frame for the door to close on SIZE UP

48 Panel Doors wood panel doors are made of solid wood members insert with panels panels may be wood or plastic panel doors often have panels fitted into the door to allow in light glass Lexan (polycarbonate) plastic Plexiglas SIZE UP

49 Slab Doors a very common door constructed in two ways solid core hollow core many interior doors in residences are hollow core core or center portion of door is made up of web or grid of glued wood strips over which several layers of plywood veneer panels have been glued SIZE UP

50 Slab Doors (cont.) most exterior slab doors found on newly constructed residences are hollow core exterior slab doors on older homes may be solid core not pierced by windows or other openings panels on a slab door are purely decorative SIZE UP

51 Slab Doors (cont.) the core of a solid core door is constructed of some type of solid material very old homes, the door may be made of thick planks that have been tongue and grooved together modern solid core doors may be filled with a material used for insulation or soundproofing plywood veneer covering SIZE UP

52 Ledge Doors also know as batten doors found on warehouses, storerooms, barns and sheds made of built-up materials, including boards, plywood sheeting, particleboard, etc. generally locked with some type of surface lock, hasp, padlock, bolt or bar hinges generally pin type, fastened with screws or bolts SIZE UP

53 Metal Swinging Doors are classified as hollow metal, metal covered and tubular more difficult to force due to their construction and design most often set in a metal doorjamb very little spring to the door generally considered impractical to force a metal door in a metal frame in masonry SIZE UP

54 Metal Swinging Doors (cont.) vary greatly in their construction metal covered doors may have a solid wood door underneath the metal or it may be a hollow metal door filled with fire-resistive materials the structural design of tubular metal doors is of seamless rectangular tube sections groove is provided in the rectangular tube for glass or metal panels found on exterior openings of modern buildings SIZE UP

55 Metal Swinging Doors (cont.) tubular aluminum doors are comparatively light in weight, are strong and are not subject to much spring when faced with the need to force a metal door consider the use of power tools, especially rotary saws or hydraulic tools do not waste too much time trying to force the door may be easier to breach the wall next to a steel door SIZE UP

56 Sliding Doors travel either left or right of their opening and in the same plane as the opening attached to a metal track by roller or guide wheels often called pocket doors when used as an interior door more common type of sliding door is the door assembly used in patio areas of residences or as doors to porches or balconies in houses, hotels and apartments SIZE UP

57 Sliding Doors (cont.) the glass panels and sliding door are heavy glass window panels set in a metal or wood frame glass panel normally double-thickness glass newer doors may be triple-glass pane some doors may have tempered (safety) glass SIZE UP

58 Sliding Doors (cont.) may sometimes be barred or blocked by a metal rod or a special device commonly called burglar blocks easily seen from the outside practically eliminates any possibility of forcing without causing excessive damage SIZE UP

59 Revolving Doors made up of quadrants that revolve around a center shaft turns within a metal or glass housing assembly that is open on each side to allow users entry and egress may be locked in various ways and in general, they are considered difficult to force when locked SIZE UP

60 Revolving Doors (cont.) usually, there are swinging doors on either side of the revolving door more effective to force through the swinging door all revolving doors are equipped with a mechanism that allows them to collapse during an emergency three basic types of mechanisms involved panic proof drop arm metal braced SIZE UP

61 Revolving Doors (cont.) Panic-Proof Type has a ¼ inch cable holding the door quadrants apart triggered by forces pushing in opposite directions on the quadrants Drop-Arm Type has a solid arm passing through one of the quadrants a pawl is located on the quadrant the arm passes through press the pawl to disengage the arm, then push the quadrant to one side SIZE UP

62 Revolving Doors (cont.) Metal-Braced Type resembles a gate hook and eye assembly to collapse, lift the hook and fasten it back against the fixed quadrant hooks are located on both side of the quadrant SIZE UP

63 Overhead Doors generally constructed of wood, metal or fiberglass pose quite a forcible entry problem heavily secured sometimes motor driven and usually spring loaded or balanced forcible entry may be difficult, but it is not impossible classified as follows sectional (folding) rolling steel slab SIZE UP

64 Overhead Doors (cont.) sectional (folding) overhead door is not too difficult to force entry through unless it is either motor driven or remotely controlled latch mechanism is generally located in the center of the door controls two locks, one located on each side of the door lock and latch may also be located on only one side SIZE UP

65 Overhead Doors (cont.) sectional overhead doors may be forced by prying upward at the bottom of the door with a good prying tool less damage will be done and time will be saved if a panel is removed and the latch is turned from the inside may be locked with a padlock through a hole at either end of the bar or the padlock may even be in the track cut a hole in the door to gain access and remove the padlock SIZE UP

66 Overhead Doors (cont.) pivoting or overhead slab doors, sometimes called awning doors, are more difficult to force due to the nature of the door spring mechanism must pivot the door out and up care must be taken to not jam the door in its tracks or it will not open wood pivoting doors are very heavy locked similarly to the sectional or folding doors SIZE UP

67 Overhead Doors (cont.) pry outward with a bar at each side near the bottom tends to bend the lock bar enough to pass the keeper SIZE UP

68 Overhead Doors (cont.) rolling steel doors, used as high-security doors designed to keep people out locked with several padlocks and pins can be manually operated, mechanically operated or motor driven among the toughest forcible entry challenges faced by firefighters best accessed by cutting a triangle-shaped opening rotary rescue saw or a cutting torch SIZE UP

69 Fire Doors protect door openings in walls that are required to be rated as fire- barrier assemblies or fire wall assembly includes the door, frame and associated hardware types of standard fire doors horizontal and vertical sliding single and double swinging overhead rolling SIZE UP

70 Fire Doors (cont.) fire doors may be mechanically, manually or electrically operated two standard means by which fire doors operate self-closing when the door is opened, it returns to the closed position on its own automatic-closing normally remain open, close when the hold-open device releases the door upon activation of either a local smoke detector or a fire alarm system SIZE UP

71 Fire Doors (cont.) swinging fire doors generally used on stair enclosures opened and closed frequently vertical sliding fire doors normally open and arranged to close automatically overhead rolling fire doors installed where space limitations prevent installation of other types arranged to close automatically SIZE UP

72 Fire Doors (cont.) most interior fire doors do not lock when they close when passing through an opening protected by a fire door, block the door open to prevent its closing and trapping you fire doors have also been known to close and cut off the water supply in a hoseline SIZE UP

73 Locking devices vary from a simple lock to a series of very sophisticated locking devices Locks are divided into four basic types mortise lock bored (cylindrical) lock rim lock padlock LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES

74 Mortise Lock designed to fit into a cavity in the door consists of a latch mechanism and an opening device when the lock is in the lock position, the bolt protrudes from the lock into a keeper that is mortised into the jamb LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES

75 Mortise Lock (cont.) newer mortise locks may also have larger and longer dead-bolt features for added security found on private residences, commercial buildings and industrial buildings LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES

76 Bored (Cylindrical) Lock named because their installation involves boring two holes at right angles to one another one through the face of the door to accommodate the main locking mechanism and the other in the edge of the door to receive the latch or bolt mechanism one type of bored lock is the key-in-knob lock LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES

77 Bored (Cylindrical) Lock key-in-knob has a keyway in the outside knob inside knob may contain either a keyway or a button latch bolt usually no longer than ¾ inch vulnerable to prying operations LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES

78 Rim Lock one of the most common locks in use today surface mounted used as an add-on lock for doors that already have other types of locks found in all types of occupancies identified from the outside by a cylinder that is recessed into the door LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES

79 Padlock include portable or detachable locking devices two basic types of padlocks regular have shackles of ¼ inch or less in diameter not case-hardened heavy-duty have shackles more than ¼ inch in diameter case-hardened toe and heal locking (both ends of the shackle are locked) LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES

80 Rapid-Entry Key Box System all necessary keys to the building, storage areas, gates and elevators are kept in a key box mounted at a high-visibility location on the buildings exterior only fire department carries a master key unauthorized duplication of the master key is prevented key blanks are not available to locksmiths cannot be duplicated with conventional equipment NON-DESTRUCTIVE RAPID ENTRY METHOD

81 Conventional Forcible Entry is the use of standard fire department tools to open doors and windows if there are no glass panels in the door to break and a door is definitely locked the firefighter must force the door open the best combination is the 8-pound flat-head axe and the Halligan type bar CONVENTIONAL FORCIBLE ENTRY

82 Breaking Glass first technique of forcible entry is to break the glass near the door or in the door reach inside and operate the lock mechanism may be easier to break the glass, but will it cause more damage? if breaking the glass is the most appropriate method of entry, do it! CONVENTIONAL FORCIBLE ENTRY

83 Forcing Swinging Doors a common type of door is one that swings to open and close these doors can be either inward or outward swinging doors forcing entry through these types of doors are basic skills CONVENTIONAL FORCIBLE ENTRY

84 Forcing Swinging Doors (cont.) inward swinging doors conventional forcible entry of inward swinging doors requires either one or two skilled firefighters CONVENTIONAL FORCIBLE ENTRY

85 Forcing Swinging Doors (cont.) outward swinging doors present a different set of problems to get a forcible entry tool into the space between the door and the doorjamb, open that space and allow the lock bolt to slip from its keeper sometimes called flush fitting doors forced using either the adz end or the fork end of the Halligan type bar CONVENTIONAL FORCIBLE ENTRY

86 Special Circumstances circumstances where additional measures may need to be taken to force a door due to building construction door construction higher security a few of the doors needing additional forcing measures double swinging doors doors with drop bars tempered plate glass doors CONVENTIONAL FORCIBLE ENTRY

87 Special Circumstances (cont.) double swinging doors can present a problem depending on how they are secured secured only by a mortise lock, the door can be pried apart far enough to let the bolt slip past the keeper insert the adz end between the doors and pushing down and outward security molding over the space between the two doors, must be removed CONVENTIONAL FORCIBLE ENTRY

88 Special Circumstances (cont.) Doors with Drop Bars either wood or steel, dropped across the door and held in place by wood or metal stirrups insert small narrow tool into space between double doors and try to lift bar up and out of its stirrup cut a triangular hole into the door just below the bar insert the blade of a rotary power saw into either the space between the jam and the door or between the doors in double doors and cut the bar CONVENTIONAL FORCIBLE ENTRY

89 Special Circumstances (cont.) tempered plate glass doors commercial stores, light industry and institutional occupancies heavy and extremely expensive difficult to break glass shatters into small cube-like pieces resists heat glass should be shattered at a bottom corner use a tool with a pick or point glass should be broken only as a last resort for access through-the-lock method CONVENTIONAL FORCIBLE ENTRY

90 Through-The-Lock Forcible Entry is the preferred method of entry for many commercial doors, residential security locks, padlocks and high-security doors minimal amount of damage to the door performed correctly requires a good size-up of both the door and the lock mechanism suitable for conventional forcible entry? THROUGH-THE-LOCK

91 Through-The-Lock Forcible Entry (cont.) commercial doors, the lock cylinder can actually be unscrewed from the door common on storefront doors protected by a collar or shield? operating the lock as though you had the key to the lock use a key tool to operate the lock mechanism once the cylinder is removed THROUGH-THE-LOCK

92 Through-The-Lock Forcible Entry (cont.) requires patience and practice some examples of through-the-lock tools K-tool J-tool shove knife THROUGH-THE-LOCK

93 K-Tool useful in pulling all types of lock cylinders rim, mortise or tubular used with a Halligan-type bar K-tool forced behind ring and face of cylinder until wedging blades bite into cylinder metal loop acts as fulcrum for leverage holds adz end of the prying tool once cylinder is removed, key tool can be used THROUGH-THE-LOCK

94 A-Tool tool accomplishes same job as the K-tool slightly more damage to the door many locks are manufacture with collars or protective cone-shaped covers prevent anyone from using a lock-pulling device A-tool is a sharp notch with cutting edges machined into a prying tool designed to cut behind the protective collar THROUGH-THE-LOCK

95 J-Tool is a wire-type device designed to fit through the space between double swinging doors equipped with panic hardware can manipulate the panic bar operate with minimal pressure exerted THROUGH-THE-LOCK

96 Shove Knife flat steel tool, is one of the oldest burglar tools rapid access to outward swinging latch- type doors THROUGH-THE-LOCK

97 Forcible Entry Involving Padlocks padlocks portable locking device that are used to secure a door, window, gates, etc.. range from the very simple, easily broken type to the high security, virtually impenetrable type conventional forcible entry tools can be used additional tools are available duck-billed lock breaker hammer-headed pick locking pliers and chain hockey puck lock breaker bam-bam tool PADLOCKS

98 Forcible Entry Involving Padlocks (cont.) duck-billed lock breaker is a wedge shaped tool that will widen and break the shackle of padlocks like using the hook of a Halligan type bar driven by a maul or flat head axe until the padlock break PADLOCKS

99 Forcible Entry Involving Padlocks (cont.) bam-bam tool uses case-hardened screws driven into actual keyway lock mechanism of padlock few hits with sliding hammer will pull lock tumbler out of padlock body key tool or screwdriver can be inserted to trip lock mechanism will not work on Master Locks, American Locks and other high quality locks case-hardened retaining ring PADLOCKS

100 Cutting Padlocks with Saws or Cutting Torches may be quickest method of removing padlocks high security padlocks designed with heel and toe shackles will not pivot if only one side of shackle is cut do not try to cut a loose padlock fasten a set of locking pliers and chain to the lock body PADLOCKS

101 Fences can be made of wood, masonry, woven wire or metal may be topped with barbed wire or razor wire may also be used to keep guard animals on the premises Cutting metal fences with bolt cutters or removing wood boards are ways to gain access Wire fences should be cut near posts lessen the danger of injury from the whip coil of loosened wires FENCES

102 Using ladders to bridge fences, especially masonry fences, is another quick way of gaining access over a fence SIZE-UP! FENCES

103 Forcible entry can take place through windows, though they are not the preferred entry point into a fire building sometimes easier to force than doors entry can be made to open a locked door from inside the structure Size-up of windows is critical to a successful forced entry FORCING WINDOWS

104 Breaking widow glass on the fireground presents a multitude of hazards to both firefighters and civilians glass shards travel great distance from windows on upper floors make movement for advancing hose teams or rescue crews difficult may shower victims inside the structure FORCING WINDOWS

105 Wire glass requires great effort to break and remove wire prevents the glass from falling out of the frame FORCING WINDOWS

106 Thermopane windows or triple-glaze windows can cost the owner a large sum of money determine if the benefits of breaking the window outweigh the damage that will be caused or will breaking the window cause more damage than necessary FORCING WINDOWS

107 Thermopane windows are more difficult to break shard removal difficult and time-consuming Windows come in a variety of types and sizes basic windows include double-hung (checkrail) hinged (casement) projected (factory) awning or jalousie also various high-security windows Lexan barred screened FORCING WINDOWS

108 Double-Hung (Checkrail) Windows extremely popular window in building construction manufactured in either wood, metal or vinyl clad made up of two sashes top and bottom sashes are fitted into window frame and operate by sliding up or down newer double-hung windows, referred to as "replacement windows" not only move up and down, but tip inward for cleaning FORCING WINDOWS

109 Double-Hung (Checkrail) Windows (cont.) may contain ordinary glass, Thermopane glass, wire glass, Plexiglas, acrylic plastic or Lexan plastic secured by one or two thumb-operated locking devices located where the bottom of the top sash meets the top of the bottom sash may also be more securely fastened by window bolts replacement windows two side-bolt type mechanisms located on each side of the sash FORCING WINDOWS

110 Hinged (Casement) Windows constructed of wood or metal often called a "crank out window" should not be confused with an awning or jalousie window consists of two sashes mounted on side hinges that swing outward, away from the structure window crank assembly FORCING WINDOWS

111 Hinged (Casement) Windows (cont.) locking devices vary from simple thumb-operated devices to latch-type mechanisms can only be opened by operating the crank mechanism extremely difficult to force usually at least four locking device as well as two crank devices very narrow and presents a more difficult entry FORCING WINDOWS

112 Hinged (Casement) Windows (cont.) if possible another means of entry should be sought if not break the lowest pane of glass and clean out the sharp edges force or cut the screen in the same area reach in and upward to unlock the latch operate the cranks or leavers at the bottom completely remove the screen and enter FORCING WINDOWS

113 Projected (Factory) Windows most often associated with factories, warehouses and other commercial and industrial locations most often metal sashes with wire glass most practical method of forcing is the same as that described for casement windows metal frames and wire glass make it difficult to effectively accomplish rapid forcible entry FORCING WINDOWS

114 Projected (Factory) Windows (cont.) may have bars over the outside and inside to prevent entry best method of forcible entry is to seek another entry point! often cover a large area, but the window openings themselves are very small function by pivoting at either the top or bottom projected-in projected-out pivoted-projected FORCING WINDOWS

115 Projected (Factory) Windows (cont.) projected-in bottom rail of the window swings into the occupancy toward the person who is opening it top rail slides in a metal channel projected-out bottom rail of the window swings away from the building top rail slides into a metal channel FORCING WINDOWS

116 Projected (Factory) Windows (cont.) pivoted-projected usually operated by a push bar that is notched to hold the window in place screens are seldom used FORCING WINDOWS

117 Awning and Jalousie Windows awning windows consist of large sections of glass about 1 foot wide and as long as the window width constructed with a metal or wood frame around the glass panel FORCING WINDOWS

118 Awning and Jalousie Windows jalousie windows consist of small sections about 4 inches wide and as long as the window width usually constructed without frames and the glass is heavy plate that has been ground to overlap when closed FORCING WINDOWS

119 Awning and Jalousie Windows (cont.) glass sections of both awning and jalousie windows are supported on each end by a metal operating mechanism may be exposed or concealed operating crank and gear housing are located at the bottom of the window most the difficult of all types to force FORCING WINDOWS

120 Lexan Windows is 250 times stronger than safety glass 30 times stronger than acrylic classified as self-extinguishing virtually impossible to break with conventional forcible entry tools two recommended techniques cut Lexan using rotary power saw with carbide-tipped medium toothed blade discharge carbon dioxide extinguisher on Lexan, then immediately strike Lexan with point of a tool FORCING WINDOWS

121 Barred or Screened Windows and Openings building owners add metal bars or metal mesh screens over windows and sometimes door openings may be permanently installed, hinged at the top or side or fitted into brackets and locked securely forcing involves considerable time FORCING WINDOWS

122 Barred or Screened Windows and Openings (cont.) more permanent security measure is to install heavy metal bars in the masonry above and below the window "burglar" bars vary in their types and construction attached directly to the building attached to the window frame forcible entry is a difficult and time consuming task FORCING WINDOWS

123 Barred or Screened Windows and Openings (cont.) considerations for burglar bar shear off the bolt heads for the mesh screen or bar assembly it they are visible and accessible cut bar assembly or screen from the building using an oxyacetylene torch FORCING WINDOWS

124 Forcible entry situations may arise where it would be faster and more efficient to gain access through the wall of a structure rather than through a conventional opening thorough knowledge of building construction and good size-up techniques breaching load-bearing walls already weakened by fire can be a very dangerous task walls conceal electrical wiring, plumbing and gas lines BREACHING WALLS

125 Plaster or Gypsum Partition Walls interior walls may or may not be load bearing gypsum wallboard and plaster are relatively easy to penetrate with forcible entry tools select location of opening check wall for electric wall plugs and switches have a wide variety of forcible entry tools available sound wall to locate studs BREACHING WALLS

126 Plaster or Gypsum Partition Walls (cont.) cut along studs to make a large open remove one stud, if possible, from center of breach to enlarge the opening use breach to gain access to area and search to find the normal means of entry BREACHING WALLS

127 Brick or Concrete Block Walls can be the toughest type to breach battering ram may be used to breaching with handles and hand guards one end is jagged for breaking brick and stone and the other end is rounded and smooth for battering walls and doors requires two to four firefighters to use BREACHING WALLS

128 Brick or Concrete Block Walls (cont.) power tools such as air chisels, hydraulic spreaders and rotary rescue saws prove to be the best methods for breaching BREACHING WALLS

129 Metal Walls usually fastened to studs by nails, rivets, bolts, screws or other fasteners metal cutting power saw is normally the best tool to use metal should be cut along the studding provide stability for the saw ease of repair if no studs can be located, may bear the entire load of the structure cut a hole in the wall in the shape of a triangle distributes the walls load more evenly BREACHING WALLS

130 Wood Floors wood joists usually spaced a maximum of 16 inches sub-floor consisting of either 1 inch boards or 4 foot by 8 foot sheets of plywood is first laid over the joists finish flooring is laid last linoleum tile hardwood carpeting BREACHING FLOORS

131 Wood Floors (cont.) plywood sub-flooring is generally laid at right angles to the joist carpets and rungs should be removed or rolled to one side before a floor is cut BREACHING FLOORS

132 Concrete / Reinforced Concrete Floors Extremely difficult to force Opening them should be bypassed if possible Most feasible means is to use a compressed air or electric jack hammer Concrete cutting blades are available for most portable power saws BREACHING FLOORS

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