Presentation on theme: "The Comma Part I: Punctuation, Grammar, Rhythm, and Flow Writing Samples Words in a Series Compound Sentences Interjections Words at the Beginning Introductory."— Presentation transcript:
The Comma Part I: Punctuation, Grammar, Rhythm, and Flow Writing Samples Words in a Series Compound Sentences Interjections Words at the Beginning Introductory Phrases and Clauses
Words in a Series I want a hockey stick, skates, and a helmet for my birthday. Rule Place commas between words, phrases, or clauses in a series. A series is three items or more in a row.
Words in a Series Jordan, Stackhouse, and Hughes were disappointed with the loss to the Knicks. Ruth plays field hockey, basketball, and soccer. She bought carrots, apples, and bananas. Toucans have feathers, beaks, and wings.
Phrases in a Series Michael Jordan enjoys playing basketball, hitting golf balls, and watching baseball. Cinderella washes the floor in the morning, in the afternoon, and in the evening. We looked for Darren in the auditorium lobby, in the main gym, and under the cafeteria tables. The zoo had large cages, many animals, and strange sounds. The nest had two eggs, a mother bird, and one chick. We can play board games, watch a movie, or make popcorn.
Clauses in a Series Miranda gets very thirsty when she plays tennis, when she races her brother, and when she sleeps in the desert. You may visit the gift shop when we arrive at the park, after we hike to the ruins, or before we leave. She was a woman who knew her strengths, who knew how to use her wit, and who wasn't afraid to speak her mind. My dog bolts under the bed whenever thunder booms, strangers knock on the door, or I reach for the flea shampoo.
Compound Sentences Tim got a new baseball bat for his birthday, but he really wanted a new hockey stick. Rule Use a comma between two independent clauses that are joined by a coordinating conjunction and, but, or, nor, for, so, or yet.
Compound Sentences Susan tried talking to her sister about her bad day, but she really needed to talk to her best friend. My mom went to the store to buy groceries, and she stopped at the bank. You can pick up a cup of coffee for a few dollars, or I can brew a pot at home for the same price. Jeremy rode his bike to the store, and his friend Greg joined him. Doug wanted to take a vacation, but he had too much work to do.
Words at the Beginning of Sentences Yes, I can always use additional hockey equipment. Rule Place a comma after words like oh, yes, and no at the beginning of a sentence. Transitional words such as however, therefore, moreover, besides, and consequently used at the beginning of sentences should also be set off by commas.
Words at the Beginning of Sentences Yes, I intend to keep that commitment. No, we are not visiting the mall this afternoon. Moreover, his boss gave him a bonus. Besides, she will be more than happy to drive us. Also, they decided to eat lunch along the way. However, she always responds to emails from friends. Well, that explains everything.
Interjections Wow, that was an easy game! Rule Use a comma to separate a mild interjection from the rest of the sentence. Wow, look at that sunrise! Hey, you woke me up too early. The following words are often used as interjections. HelloHeyAh Oh myNo kiddingHmm ReallyWowWell
Interjections Hey, did you hear that? Hey, get off that floor! Oh, that is a surprise. Good, now we can move on. Jeepers, that was close!
Introductory Phrases After a Phrase: During the season, I use two separate hockey sticks. Rule Use a comma to separate a long phrase that comes before the main part of a sentence.
What is a Phrase? During the morning, we worked on skating and passing. A phrase is a group of related words. Phrases cannot stand alone as sentences They do not have a subject and a predicate.
Introductory Phrases In fact, the planet Mars glows red on a clear night. During the track meet, Mike lost his sweatshirt. Pausing only for a sip of water, the runner continued on with his marathon. Before leaving for school, Martha decided to go to the gym. In the morning, Annie woke from a deep sleep with an urge to eat cereal. Between March and April, the little boy grew three inches.
Introductory Clauses After a dependent clause: Although I asked for new skates for my birthday, I only got new socks. Rule Use a comma to separate a dependent clause that comes before the main part of a sentence.
What is a Dependent Clause? Although I practiced my slap shot for hours, I still needed more work. A dependent clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate but does not express a complete thought. It cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Introductory Clauses With sweat pouring down his face, the point-guard stepped up to the free-throw line. Although I was tired, I finished the paper by the 6:00 A.M. deadline. As the man was walking into the store, he came face-to-face with his childhood sweetheart. Because the rain was torrential, the days Little League games were postponed. Grabbing her umbrella, Kate raced out of the house. Before the curtain fell, the actors bowed. If the next two nights are sellouts, the play will be extended.