Unit 43 Wall Framing Wood-framed wall components include studs, plates, headers, trimmer studs, sills, cripple studs, and corner posts. Exterior walls are commonly covered with structural panels such as oriented strand board or plywood.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Corner posts are constructed wherever a wall ties into another wall. Straight studs are used to frame corner posts. When an inside corner is constructed using a block laid flat, a carpenter must insulate the U-shaped cavity before exterior wall sheathing is applied. When metal clips are used, the wall cavity can be insulated after exterior wall sheathing is applied
Unit 43 Wall Framing Rough door and window openings must allow for the finish frame and a required clearance around the frame.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Various methods are used to construct door and window headers.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Header size is determined by the width of the opening and load bearing down from above. For example, a 4 × 6 Douglas fir header can be used for an opening up to 6 0 wide.
Unit 43 Wall Framing A 12 wide solid header can be used to accommodate a 6-8 door in an 8-1 standard-height wall.
Unit 43 Wall Framing When a header less than 12 wide is installed, cripple studs are installed between the top of the header and top plate.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Corner braces may need to be installed in rough openings for installation of oval or round windows.
Unit 43 Wall Framing T-shaped metal braces fit into saw kerfs in the studs.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Fireblocking is required in concealed spaces to cut off vertical and horizontal draft openings and to form a barrier between stories.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Fireblocking caulk is applied to joints or openings in walls or structural members to inhibit the spread of fire, smoke, and fumes.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Wood-framed walls may be assembled while they are lying on the subfloor.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Lines are snapped to indicate the exact locations of walls, and top and bottom plates are cut to length and tacked next to the chalk lines.
Unit 43 Wall Framing The top and bottom plates are tacked next to the snapped chalk lines before laying out the wall components.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Framing members are nailed where the plates are marked.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Stud-and-block corner posts are constructed with full- length studs and blocks.
Unit 43 Wall Framing If the first stud of an exterior wall is placed 15 1/4 from the corner and other studs follow 16 OC layout, the edges of standard-size panels will fall over the stud centers.
Unit 43 Wall Framing When the second exterior wall is laid out, the 15 1/4 mark is measured from the outside edge of the panel on the first wall. The corner of the first panel on the second exterior wall will align with the edge of the first wall panel. The opposite edge of the panel will fall on the center of a stud.
Unit 43 Wall Framing On partitions, the 15 1/4 measurement ensures that standard-size gypsum board or interior finish panels will fall over the center of a stud.
Unit 43 Wall Framing The finish door opening is the width of the door and the distance from the head jamb to the floor. The rough door opening is the distance between the trimmer studs and the height from the floor to the header.
Unit 43 Wall Framing The finish window opening width and length is the frame-to-frame dimension. The rough window opening is the distance between the trimmer studs and the height from the rough sill to the header.
Unit 43 Wall Framing When laying out the width of a door or window rough opening at the corners of intersecting walls, allowances must be made along the corner assembly for the trimmer stud, side jamb thickness, and shim clearance.
Unit 43 Wall Framing When laying out the width of a door or window rough opening, the center of the opening is first laid out. One-half of the rough opening width, side jamb thickness, and shim clearance is laid out on each side of the centerline.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Floor plans provide information to properly lay out walls. Information on this floor plan is used in the layout calculations for Figures through
Unit 43 Wall Framing Wall plate locations are laid out and chalk lines are snapped.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Outside and inside corner posts are laid out and studs are laid out 16 OC.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Studs are commonly laid out 16 OC.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Rough door and window openings are located and stud, trimmer stud, and cripple stud locations are marked.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Rough door and window opening dimensions may be obtained from the door and window schedules on the prints.
Unit 43 Wall Framing A story pole is marked to indicate the lengths of studs, trimmer studs, and cripple studs. The example shown here is based on information in Figure
Unit 43 Wall Framing Some prints provide only finish opening dimensions.
Unit 43 Wall Framing The story pole being laid out here is based on information found in Figure
Unit 43 Wall Framing A bench is useful for making up large quantities of corner posts. The material should be held tightly against the fence and end block when pieces are nailed together.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Outside and inside corner posts are commonly assembled prior to wood-framed walls being assembled. Before nailing, align the ends of the studs.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Door openings are assembled before assembling the rest of the wall. In this example, cripple studs are required over the header.
Unit 43 Wall Framing The procedure for framing window openings is the same as framing door openings. A rough sill and bottom cripple studs are then added. Cripple studs follow the stud layout (usually 16 OC).
Unit 43 Wall Framing A wood-framed wall is nailed together on the subfloor after corner posts and door and window openings are completed.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Joints in plates should occur over a full header or at the center of a stud or cripple stud.
Unit 43 Wall Framing The topmost plates of a double top plate overlap the plates below them at all inside corners.
Unit 43 Wall Framing A framed wall is often squared while it is lying on the subfloor. Temporary braces must be attached to keep the wall square while it is being raised. Wall sheathing may also be applied while the wall is lying on the subfloor to keep the wall square when raising it.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Diagonal metal braces may be used to provide additional wall stability. A shallow kerf is required for T- and L-shaped braces.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Wall plates and studs are notched for wood let-in braces. The braces are tacked in place when the wall section is lying on the subfloor. After the wall is raised and the brace adjusted to its final position, the nails are driven in.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Wall jacks can be used to raise walls when small carpentry crews are working on a job site.
Unit 43 Wall Framing A plate level is used to plumb a wall corner.
Unit 43 Wall Framing After the corners are plumbed, the tops of the walls are straightened using a line and 3/4 blocks.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Powder-actuated fasteners are often used to fasten bottom plates to concrete slabs.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Metal framing angles attach wall studs to plates and concrete slabs.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Stud plate ties secure wall studs to plates.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Seismic or hurricane ties are required in areas that experience earthquakes and high winds.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Wall sheathing panels can be placed with the grain running vertically or horizontally.
Unit 43 Wall Framing After placing wall sheathing panels and securing them at the corners, snap vertical chalk lines locating the intermediate studs before installing nails or screws.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Weather barriers, such as housewrap, prevent water and air penetration into a building while allowing moisture vapor and gases to escape. Housewrap for the prefabricated panels forming the exterior walls of this house is applied at the manufacturing facility. Housewrap that is folded back at the corners and along the joists will be laid into position and fastened.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Housewrap must be properly applied and overlapped to prevent moisture from infiltrating the building envelope.
Unit 43 Wall Framing An inverted Y cut is made in the housewrap, and the flaps are folded back and fastened to the inside of the rough opening. The top flap is folded up and tacked to the exterior side of the wall. The flap will be folded down and secured after the window or door is installed in the opening.
Unit 43 Wall Framing A rainscreen wall is a method of preventing moisture vapor from accumulating between the exterior finish material and weather barrier.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are composed of two outer panels and an insulating foam core.
Unit 43 Wall Framing A surface or dimensional lumber spline may be used to join SIPs together.
Unit 43 Wall Framing A pressure-treated sill plate is secured to the foundation wall, and SIP panels are lowered over and fastened to the sill plate.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Top-flange joist hangers are used to support upper floors in SIP construction.
Unit 43 Wall Framing The lateral direction of the shear load against the wall may cause uplift at the bottom of the wall, resulting in a downward force at the opposite end of the wall.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Shear wall construction is similar to conventional wood-framed walls. Additional shear anchor bolts and holddown anchors are installed at the ends of shear walls.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Special anchors are required to secure sill plates of a shear wall system. Some anchors are embedded in concrete as it is being placed in the forms or CMUs. Other anchors are bolted to the foundation.
Unit 43 Wall Framing Holddowns are secured to anchor bolts embedded in the foundation. Lag or carriage bolts are driven into the adjoining wall studs.
Unit 43 Wall Framing In a one-story anchor tiedown system, a long threaded rod extends from the top double plates and is coupled with an anchor bolt embedded in the concrete.
Unit 43 Wall Framing In a multistory anchor tiedown system, a threaded rod is tightened and secured to the next story with a take-up device.