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6 ELEMENTS of Geography. Explanation The Geography Standards Framework consists of two levels. At the first level, the subject matter of geography is.

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Presentation on theme: "6 ELEMENTS of Geography. Explanation The Geography Standards Framework consists of two levels. At the first level, the subject matter of geography is."— Presentation transcript:

1 6 ELEMENTS of Geography

2 Explanation The Geography Standards Framework consists of two levels. At the first level, the subject matter of geography is divided into six essential elements. By essential we mean that each piece is central and necessary; we must look at the world in this way. By element we mean that each piece is a building block for the whole. At the second level, each essential element contains a number of geography standards, and each geography standard contains a set of related ideas and approaches to the subject matter of geography.

3 6 Essential Elements THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS PLACES & REGIONS PHYSICAL SYSTEMS HUMAN SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT & SOCIETY THE USES OF GEOGRAPHY

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5 Essential Element #1 THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS Standard 1. How to use maps & other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective. Standard 1. How to use maps & other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective. Standard 2. How to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context. Standard 2. How to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context. Standard 3. How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface. Standard 3. How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface.

6 Location The place where something is located on the earth's surface. The place where something is located on the earth's surface.

7 Location Absolute location: Absolute location: – exact location or spot where something is found on a map requires Latitude and Longituderequires Latitude and Longitude – cuts earth into Hemispheres (2 halves) Northern & Southern hemispheres Northern & Southern hemispheres Eastern & Western hemispheres Eastern & Western hemispheres is known as the Address of locationis known as the Address of location

8 Location Relative location – where a place is in relation to other places Relative location – where a place is in relation to other places Examples Examples Sugar Land is SW of HoustonSugar Land is SW of Houston Mrs. Browns class is in the 1 st hallway in the Social Studies wingMrs. Browns class is in the 1 st hallway in the Social Studies wing

9 Essential Element #2 PLACES & REGIONS Standard 4. The physical and human characteristics of places. Standard 4. The physical and human characteristics of places. Standard 5. That people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity. Standard 5. That people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity. Standard 6. How culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions. Standard 6. How culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions.

10 Regions Areas united by specific factors Areas united by specific factors How the earth is divided for study. How the earth is divided for study. Geographers choose how they will classify the world based on common characteristics. Geographers choose how they will classify the world based on common characteristics.

11 Regions Formal region – A place with similar attributes that might include physical, government, economic, or cultural characteristics.Formal region – A place with similar attributes that might include physical, government, economic, or cultural characteristics. Example political region such as a city, state or country. People are governed by the same laws and the same government. Example political region such as a city, state or country. People are governed by the same laws and the same government.

12 FORMAL REGION Defined by a common characteristic Defined by a common characteristic The Corn Belt (Iowa/Illinois) The Corn Belt (Iowa/Illinois)

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14 Functional Region A place connected by movement between places.A place connected by movement between places. Example - the greater Houston Metropolitan area, DFW. People move from home-work-home for jobs, entertainment, etc.Example - the greater Houston Metropolitan area, DFW. People move from home-work-home for jobs, entertainment, etc.

15 Central place and the surrounding area linked to it Central place and the surrounding area linked to it Houston and its suburbs are linked by highways Houston and its suburbs are linked by highways Functional Region

16 Perceptual Region A place defined by popular feelings & images rather than by objective data. A place defined by popular feelings & images rather than by objective data. Example the term Example the term Heartland refers toHeartland refers to a central area where traditional values are believed (or perceived) to be predominate.

17 PERCEPTUAL REGION With a perceptual region, the exact area that the region describes can differ based on perceptions. There is NO real defined area. With a perceptual region, the exact area that the region describes can differ based on perceptions. There is NO real defined area.

18 Paris Paris ~ City of Love ~

19 Place answers the question What is it like? answers the question What is it like? Place can be describe in two ways: - Physical and Human Place can be describe in two ways: - Physical and Human Schools are inside buildings intended for learning Schools are inside buildings intended for learning Parks are outside and intended for recreationParks are outside and intended for recreation Sugar Land is a suburban city with businesses, quality schools, and nice neighborhoods Sugar Land is a suburban city with businesses, quality schools, and nice neighborhoods

20 Standard 7. The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface. Standard 7. The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface. Standard 8. The characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface. Standard 8. The characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface. Essential Element #3 PHYSICAL SYSTEMS

21 Place - Physical Systems Physical Systems Physical Systems Info about a location based on physical features such as landforms, weather, climate, or vegetation and how they interact with plant & animal life.Info about a location based on physical features such as landforms, weather, climate, or vegetation and how they interact with plant & animal life.

22 Standard 9. The characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth's surface. Standard 10. The characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics. Standard 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface. Essential Element #4 HUMAN SYSTEMS

23 Standard 12. The processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement. Standard 13. How the forces of cooperation & conflict among people influence the division & control of Earth's surface. Standard 14. How human actions modify the physical environment. Essential Element #4 HUMAN SYSTEMS

24 Place - Human Systems Information about a location based on how people shape the earth.Information about a location based on how people shape the earth. Elements to consider population, religion, education, and language.Elements to consider population, religion, education, and language.

25 The movement of goods, people & ideas from one location to another. The movement of goods, people & ideas from one location to another. Goods can be moved by land, air, & water.Goods can be moved by land, air, & water. Movement

26 Movement The movement of goods, people & ideas from one location to another. The movement of goods, people & ideas from one location to another. People can be physically moved – population trends and location changePeople can be physically moved – population trends and location change

27 The movement of goods, people & ideas from one location to another. The movement of goods, people & ideas from one location to another. Ideas can be moved from person to person, by the media, through the internet, etc.Ideas can be moved from person to person, by the media, through the internet, etc.Movement

28 Movement The ongoing migration of people and exchange of goods and ideas The ongoing migration of people and exchange of goods and ideas Immigration from another country, state, or cityImmigration from another country, state, or city TradeTrade Spread of religions and ways of life that can transform a placeSpread of religions and ways of life that can transform a place

29 Standard 15. How physical systems affect human systems. Standard 15. How physical systems affect human systems. Standard 16. The changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources. Standard 16. The changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources. Essential Element #5 ENVIRONMENT & SOCIETY

30 Human-Environment Interaction How humans use, change, How humans use, change, or live with their environment. or live with their environment. Sometimes it Sometimes it is deliberate, but often it is unintentional.

31 Human-Environment Interaction How people and the environment get along, or how one changes the other How people and the environment get along, or how one changes the other Nomads use to travel from place to place, using the resources availableNomads use to travel from place to place, using the resources available As people settled they began to farm, cutting down vegetation and altering the environmentAs people settled they began to farm, cutting down vegetation and altering the environment People built homes, streets, then cars, etc…People built homes, streets, then cars, etc…

32 Standard 17. How to apply geography to interpret the past. Standard 17. How to apply geography to interpret the past. Standard 18. How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future. Standard 18. How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future. Essential Element #6 THE USES OF GEOGRAPHY


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