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The Basics of Geography

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1 The Basics of Geography
geography- the study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth

2 Vocabulary absolute location- exact place on earth where a place is found using latitude and longitude relative location- describes a place in comparison to other places around it latitude- lines that run parallel to the equator

3 Vocabulary longitude- lines that go over the earth around the poles

4 Vocabulary prime meridian- imaginary line diving the earth east and west map projection- is a way of drawing the earth’s surface that reduces distortion caused by presenting a round earth on flat paper topographic map- a general reference map; it has natural and man-made features of earth Landsat- a series of satellites that orbit more than 100 miles above Earth and can scan the Earth in 16 days

5 Vocabulary physical map- shows natural features of Earth; landforms, bodies of water and other physical characteristics of a location political map- show features on the Earth that humans have created; cities, states, countries qualitative maps- use colors and patterns to show a specific idea Check the title Study the legend closely Determine the theme Determine the relationships among the data

6 Vocabulary Geographic Information System (GIS)- stores info about Earth in a digital database; it can combine info from a variety of sources and keep it in one place

7 Five Themes Location Where is it?
Describe location using absolute location and relative location

8 Five themes Place -What is it like?
-includes physical features (climate, landforms, vegetation) -includes cultural characteristics of a location -human influence (dams, highways, houses, building, bridges)

9 How are places similar or different?
Five Themes Region How are places similar or different? Area of the earth’s surface with similar characteristics

10 Regions (1)Formal region- a region that has a limited number of related characteristics The US and Canada Latin America Europe Russia Southwest Asia South Asia

11 Regions Functional region- a region organized around a set of interactions and connections between places a hub or central place and links to that place New York city is a functional region because it is a main hub with many suburbs surrounding it

12 Regions Perceptual regions- in region where people perceive the characteristics of a region in the same way *perceptual regions can be different from person to person because everyone views how regions are defined differently ex: everyone knows what the Southwest region is but they may differ on what states it contains

13 Five Themes Human-Environment Interaction
the relationship between humans and the environment people learn what the environment can give them and uses it to meet their needs living with aspects of the environment they can’t control Altering the environment (irrigation ditches, bridges)

14 Five Themes Movement- how do people, goods, and ideas move from one location to another? Geographers analyze movement by looking at three types of distance (1) linear- how far across the earth a person, idea, or product travels (2) time- the amount of time it takes a person, idea or product to travel (3) psychological- the way people view distance (thinking something is farther away than it really is)

15 Practice Turn to page 23 and answer questions 1-5
Turn to page 25 and answer questions 1-3 under the Geographic Skills section How have modern technologies such as the airplane, television and Internet affected people’s perceptions of linear distance, time distance and psychological distance?

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