Presentation on theme: "Global Economy and Global Warming Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements."— Presentation transcript:
Global Economy and Global Warming Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements of ATmospheric Event) UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) February 22, 2007
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Global Economy Whats the advantage of enhancing global economy? Global Economy Global Warming
Outline 1.Problem: Global Economy Global Warming 2. Solutions: –individuals, –industry-governments
Economic Divide *Sachs, YEAR World $
GNP per capita purchasing power parity
Poverty Trap – Clinical Economics Physical Geography –Arid conditions, high transport cost, isolation, mountain ranges, lack of navigable rivers, disease, climate Cultural Barriers –Role of women, ethic minorities, education Geopolitics: war, trade barriers, sanctions, debt Lack of technology Closed market =>Countries too poor to develop =>Need $ to hop onto 1 st step of economic ladder
Why did England flourished? 1.Open market 2.Island- used to navigation, trading 3.Technology- coal, steam engine 4.Weather – not prompt for disease, mosquitoes 5.Education 6.Basic needs: Nutrition, Health, Water 7.Infrastructure
China & India Certain conditions helped these 2 countries flourish economically. Usually Green Revolution follows technological growth. IndiaIndia : invested in education; Indian Institutes of Technology, now paying off; now a world IT leader. –Was an English colony until –Began economic reforms in 1991 (Open Market)
China & India… ChinaChina : growing economic rate (9%!) in the World, after it opened to global trading. –Ancient civilization. Past technology leader, until 1400s. –1434 Ming emperor closes international trade, dismantled worlds largest fleet of ocean vessels. –Japan invasion Mao Tse-tung –Market reforms began ***Global Warming: coal, oil…
Why is Africa an exception? Too much Corruption Laziness of people +Sexually active: AIDS Bad land-use Myth#1: Truth: Less corrupted Myth#2 Truth: Backbreaking labor Myth#3 Truth: Equal or less Myth#4 Truth: Global warming
Lake Chad Was the 6 th largest lake in the World! A study by U. Wisconsin-Madison and NASA's EOS, the lake is now 1/20th of the size it was 35 years ago. W. Africa (Chad, Niger, Nigeria, & Cameroon), the region has suffered from an increasingly dry climate, experiencing decline in rain since early 1960s. We are causing Extreme poverty in Africa due to our emissions which accounts for 25% of all world emissions compared to Africas 3%.
Why is Africa an exception? Geography –Disease prompt weather: malaria –Vast regions with no navigable rivers –Sparsely populated –Lack of infrastructure: roads, bridges, etc. –Lack of health systems Years of exploitation Political reasons; frontiers set by Europeans, Huge external debt Global warming due to developed world emissions
We can banish extreme poverty, yet 8 million people die each year because they are too poor to survive., J.Sachs, The End of Poverty With only $70/person/year for 5 years, we can help poor countries be self-sustained! ($0.21 daily) –Currently, U.S. gives ~$15/pp/yr.
World's governments committed to provide 0.7% of rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance. First pledged 35 years ago in a 1970 General Assembly Resolution, … has been affirmed many times over the years, including the 2002 Monterrey Consensus.
Charities help provide the basics: food medicines vaccines education shelter clean water
Extreme poverty UN Millennium Project GOALS: (www.unmillenniumproject.org) –Half extreme poverty by 2015 –Aims to end extreme poverty by 2025 What is extreme poverty? Versus relative poverty?
MP Goals: Significant progress:1990 – 2002 Average overall incomes increased by ~ 21 percent. The # of people in extreme poverty declined by an estimated 130 million. Child mortality rates fell from 103 to 88 deaths per 1,000 live births a year. Life expectancy rose from 63 to 65 years. An additional 8% of the developing world's people received access to water. And an additional 15% acquired access to improved sanitation services.
Why bother? Less poor abroad means more poor here. Hard evidence has established strong linkages between extreme poverty abroad and the threats to national security. Better global economy provides new technologies developed in a diverse world. More products for everyone. Eliminating extreme poverty is a global responsibility that will have global benefits Money spent on war instead could go to help the poor be self-sustained, to new technologies to stop global warming. This is the only way to achieve Global Peace Another Myth! Another Myth!
Poverty - a conflict generating factor There is a close relation between poverty and internal conflict. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 2001
Global Warming 1.Global Warming is NOT a theory; its a FACT.* 2.Scientific consensus: Its caused by human activity, mainly carbon dioxide emissions.* 3.Its happening now* 4.Some of its consequences are irreversible!* * According to the most recent UN-IPCC 4 th report published on Feb 2, 2007.
World before Industrial revolution, 1800 –CO 2 level low <280ppm. –~No fossil fuel emissions (oil, coal, gas). Radiative transfer yielded thermodynamic global climate equilibrium for the last 100,000 years –Atmosphere like a blanket Heat-trapping IR greenhouse gases.
A report in 2006 by economist Sir Nicholas Stern concludes that global warming could shrink the global economy by 20%!
CO 2 in the atmosphere Years:
CO 2 in Atmosphere Years:
Global average temperature Years: Cold due to sulfuric emissions: ( ) which caused lung cancer, asthma & acid rain Clean Air Act }
Consequences: Polar caps melt Sea level rise Extreme temperatures: BOTH cold and hot Cyclones/tornadoes Drought / floods Disease Agriculture losses Water (potable) scarcity Extinction of animal species, corals, vegetation Worst case scenario: stop ocean conveyor belt
Puerto Rico Dry Season Puerto Rico Wet Season
Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Africa) 30 years later…
Patagonia (Argentina) Longest Glacier in S.A
Costa Rica First official lost species due to Global warming: golden toad FemaleMale
Hurricanes 10 hottest years ever, occurred in the last 14 yrs. Hottest of all time, st hurricane ever in the S. Altantic Ocean 2005 highest # of hurricanes, –most intense, 6 Greek letters 2005 Wilma strongest hurricane ever recorded AO Then… 2006 Monica strongest hurricane ever recorded Luckily, this year, El Niño decreases # hurricanes
Potential Flooding in PR
Icebergs with caves = broken food chain 60% of krill population killed because of this. Krill are small shrimp-like crustaceans zooplankton, food for baleen whales, mantas, whale sharks, seals, and a few seabird species
Worst case scenario: abrupt change IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps melting, this current could stop, creating a small ice age in Europe and North America.
On top of this… New blooming economies want to live their own version of the American Dream. Example: in China, the traditional bicycle lane was closed to lay way to an extra automobile lane. India is now also flourishing economically and greatly increasing their CO2 emissions.
Tardó TODA la historia de la humanidad para llegar a 1,000 millones en Crecimiento Población Mundial ,000 BC 5,000 BC Year X mil millones
Also Political Issues Oil industry interests, –Lobbyists Governments covering up scientific evidence –(e.g. NASA climatologist, Jim Hansen) Real cost of Nuclear energy –versus cost of clean energy like solar or wind –Health hazards, radioactive waste deposit
Potential Solutions Reduce CO 2 emissions: Reduce energy consumption Alternative green power: solar, wind, biofuels,… Reforestation Increase fuel efficiency; e.g. fuel cell, hybrid cars Scientific propositions: CO 2 sequestration Inject sulfur in stratosphere Distribute iron oxide to SA ocean Emission trading- Kyoto Protocol: Signed by 135 nations to reduce emissions. Not signed by U.S. or Australia!, the 2 nations with the highest emissions.
Economic advantage Advantage will go to countries that take the leadership to develop renewable energy technologies, green building construction codes, and energy conservation and efficiency.
Example: Auto Sales in U.S
Eco Urbana Solar powered & rainwater filtration system.
The Good News is… We can make a difference…
Weve done it before!: Ozone Layer Montreal Protocol's ban on CFCs For years, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were the agents-- contributing to the destruction of the Earth's ozone layer. After the Montreal Protocol's ban on CFCs, slightly-more benign HCFCs replaced them..
Ahorra $$$, Salva el planeta Cada vez que utilizamos electricidad o gasolina, incluso agua, estamos enviando emisiones como CO 2 a la atmósfera que la calientan aún más.
Los enseres eléctricos aún APAGADOS GASTAN energía Se llaman Cargas Fantasmas!!
Ahorras $5 a $50 al mes si: apagas los enseres (o mejor aún desconéctelos) cuando no los estés usando. Usa un power strip para conectar varios enseres y así los apaga todos a la vez.
Mito vs. Realidad: el prender y apagar enseres, los daña. FALSO! Eso ocurría hace 2 décadas. Desconecta y Ahorra!
Luces FLUORESCENTES COMPACTAS AHORRAS $50 por bombilla durante la vida de la bombilla Usan 75% menos electricidad. Usan 75% menos electricidad. Duran 10 veces más. Duran 10 veces más.
Baterías recargables Comparación Costo [4 AA y 4 AAA] AHORRAS $850+ por cada 8 baterías recargables !! *
¿Qué compro? Una estufa o secadora de gas te ahorra unos $25-$50 mensuales! Una estufa o secadora de gas te ahorra unos $25-$50 mensuales! Tender la ropa al sol, ahorra aún más. Tender la ropa al sol, ahorra aún más.
¿Qué compro? Compra enseres que tengan un bajo uso de energía. ¡Compara! Puedes ahorrar de $ mensuales por cada uno!!
Reforestación Siembra árboles Siembra árboles –Bajan la temperatura del hogar hasta 10 grados F!, hogar hasta 10 grados F!, –¡Aumentar valor de propiedad! –Reducen emisiones de CO 2 *El Fideicomiso te regala 200 árboles gratis!
Computadoras Apágala si no la vas a usar en 1.5 horas o más. NO dejes el adapter conectado!!!
Apaga también la impresora y bocinas si no las estás usando. Desconéctalas por las noches.
Cargadores ¡No dejes el cargador del celular conectado si no lo estás usando! Usa de 70-95% de la energía.
¿Qué compro? Un calentador solar Ahorra $40-$100 mensual Ahorra $40-$100 mensual Dura 30+ años! Dura 30+ años!
¿Aires? Usa abanicos en vez de aires acondicionados en noches frescas. –Puedes ahorrar $70-$100 mensualmente!
Ahorras $6,000 en 5 años y $12,000 en 10 años! Carros Híbridos Toma en cuenta gastos inicial y gastos debido a eficiencia de combustible del auto de gasolina versus auto híbrido.
¿Qué compro? Una piscina de fibra de vidrio (fiberglass) gasta 1/3 de la energía que una piscina de concreto Además la de fibra tiene menos filtraciones de agua. Escoge piscina de fibra de vidrio
Viajes en Avión
Other Things to Do– Save $ with NO initial cost 1.Turn off water faucet, shower not baths, flow change shower head 2.Clean air-conditioning filters 3.Tune-up car, keep balanced, Accelerate minimum only *MPG
4.Turn down Water heater, and air conditioner Use sheets instead of blankets 5.Use cold water for washing cloths! Hang clothes if possible 6.Use dishwasher only when full Wash by hand if possible
7.Eating habits: Eat less meat (less methane); Eat local products 9.Car pooling, walking or biking 10.Avoid sanitary dishes/napkins Both styrofoam or paper
11.Buy products with least packaging Large family packs Gift bags instead of wrapping Water bottles! *Packaging and clean water production needs a lot of energy and releases tons of CO 2 in the atmosphere annually.
12.Be a wise consumer Buy less Give away things you not longer use. Everex.com
13.Recycle! (plastic, paper, cardboard, cans, glass) 14. your senators, government officials: Sign petition at Sign petition at climatecrisis.org
To Do… 15.Use public transportation 16.Eat organic products (better health, less Br) 17.Consider wind or solar power 18.Use silicone or dark baking pans: Bake T-25 o F 19.Use reusable plastic or cloth coffee filter Transportation accounts for 67% of oil used! Green means its also good for your HEALTH.
Small changes, make a big difference:
Lets use its resources efficiently so that we can all benefit from it. We are ONE human race; we only have ONE planet. We are ONE human race; we only have ONE planet.
Book References: The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs Weather Makers by Tim Flannery An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore The World is Flat by Thomas Friedman Global Warming by Chris Spence Pathologies of Power, Paul Farmer Mini Atlas of Global Development, The World Bank Economics of Climate Change, Sir Nick Stern