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Understanding the MDGs: Fundamentals to Development Part III Engineers Without Borders Vancouver.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding the MDGs: Fundamentals to Development Part III Engineers Without Borders Vancouver."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding the MDGs: Fundamentals to Development Part III Engineers Without Borders Vancouver

2 The numbers 1.2 billion people live on less than $1/day 1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water - UNDP One child dies every 5 seconds from hunger Source, WFP 800 million people go to bed hunger every night 6 million people die from TB, Malaria per year Source, WFP

3 Overview Human Development? The MDGs, Exploring Poverty Why the focus on Africa? What will it cost? Concrete steps to action

4 What does development mean to you?

5 Human development… is about enlarging the choices people have to lead lives they value. – UN Human Development Report

6 A Brief History of MDGs 0.7% commitment: Bruntland Report Agenda 21, Rio Summit 2000, UN Millennium Declaration –189 world leaders committed to UN MDG –8 Goals, 18 targets for 2015 –International community in agreement and targets set Doha Declaration (2001) Monterey Consensus (2002) UN World summit 2005

7 UN Millennium Development Goals Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Goal 6: Combat HIV/Aids, Malaria and other diseases Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Goal 8: Develop Global partnership for development

8 8 goals; targets for 2015 1. ½,the number of people living in extreme poverty and hunger (1990-2015) 2. : all children access to primary education 3: Eliminate gender disparity in primary/secondary education 2015 4: reduce by 2/3 under 5 mortality rate 5.Reduce by ¾ maternity mortality ratio 6. Halt and reverse spread of HIV/Aids 7. Halt and reverse spread of malaria & other diseases 8. Integrate principles of SD in country policies/programs, reverse loss of environmental resources

9 18 Targets, 2015 9. ½ the number of people without access to safe drinking water/sanitation 10. Achieve sig. improvement in min. 1M slum dwellers ** Partnership for Development


11 Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 1: Reduce by ½, the number of people living in extreme poverty Target 2: Reduce by ½, the number of people suffering from hunger

12 What is Poverty?

13 Poverty -Vulnerability -Limited access to basic needs -Important to distinguish between: Extreme, Moderate and Relative Poverty

14 Extreme Poverty: Cannot meet basic human needs (nutrition, health care, shelter, education, water and sanitation $1/day (WB), 1.1b; 1/6 of pop Developing Countries Moderate Poverty: Basic needs are met, but barely $1-$2/day, 1.5b Relative Poverty: Lack access to cultural goods, quality services Household income < national average

15 Overcoming Poverty Saving: Trade- commercial farming Technology **- irrigation methods, HYV of maise Increased resources – more fertile soils These can Increase income

16 So what happens when… Lack of savings: No Trade: Decreased technology** Decrease in Natural Resources Sudden shocks Population Growth What could cause the above situations?

17 Poverty trap Impoverished household Resource input Agricultural output For survival Market

18 Why is Sub-saharan Africa falling behind?

19 Map of World Hunger

20 Governance? CountryTransparency international Global Corruption Report 2004 Economic Growth Ghana Senegal Mali Malawi 70 76 78 83 0.3 0.5 -0.5 0.2 India Pakistan Indonesia Bangladesh 83 92 122 133 3.5 2.4 3.5 2.0


22 Other causes Geography: landlocked countries, majority of pop lives in the interior. Lack of access to markets/limited transportation Lack of Irrigation ( 90% of crops are rain fed, Depletion of soil nutrients Lack of health services: Higher transmissions of malaria Aids Existing poverty Deep poverty trap Sources: The end of Poverty, J.Sachs

23 How can EWB help break this Poverty trap? Impoverished household Resource input Agricultural output For survival Market

24 Other methods?

25 Consider: $1.08 / day to access basic human needs (WB est.) $0.77 average income/ poor household Income gap: $0.31/day 1.1 b ppl < $1/day Global income gap: $124b Now consider: $20.2trillion: Income of 22 donor countries 0.6% would meet the $124 income gap 0.7% of GDP would meet the income gap * This would not have been possible twenty years ago….WHY? What would it cost?

26 ODA and MDGs 2006: $121b 2010: $143b 2015: $189b Increase in ODA required, beyond commitments: 2006: $48b 2010: $50b 2015: $74

27 Forms of Capital Human – health, education, nutrition Business – equipment, machinery, tools Infrastructure: roads, power, wat/san Natural Capital: land, healthy soils, biodiversity Public institution capital: government systems, judicial systems Knowledge- scientific/technology

28 Focus Increasing Agric inputs Investing in education Investing in health Developing power, transportation and communications services Water and sanitation

29 Use your voice Make Poverty History Food Aid – untied 40% Debt relief 0.7% Commitment

30 Learn – lunch and learns Connect - people to people, actions to impact Tell 3 people about the MDGs. Invite EWB into your workplace Contribute To organisations that support long term programming

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