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Chapter 8 5 th Grade Science Weather Patterns. Layers of Air ______ - made up of 8/10 nitrogen and 2/10 oxygen, small parts of carbon dioxide, water vapor.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 5 th Grade Science Weather Patterns. Layers of Air ______ - made up of 8/10 nitrogen and 2/10 oxygen, small parts of carbon dioxide, water vapor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 5 th Grade Science Weather Patterns

2 Layers of Air ______ - made up of 8/10 nitrogen and 2/10 oxygen, small parts of carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gases _______ of Earths atmosphere Most weather conditions occur in the ________ layer – troposphere ___________ and ___________ change through the layers Air 5 layers bottom temperature Air pressure

3 5 Layers Air pressure __________ as you go ___ through the atmosphere – Gas particles get _______ apart and there is _____ air above 5 Layers: 1.___________ - Highest layer 2.___________ - 3.____________ 4._____________ 5.______________ - bottom layer decreasesup fartherless Exosphere Thermosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere

4 Heating and Cooling Earth Land heats up _____ than water in the sun Land cools _____ than water Air above land and water have different ____________. Differences in temperatures cause: – _________ – ___________________ faster temperatures winds storms Other sorts of weather

5 Convection Current ______________ - caused by different temperatures – gases and liquids rise and sink in a circular pattern. ______ - gas particles are closer together than in warm air – Cooler air is _________ than warm air – Cool air _______ and lets the warm air ______ above it Convection current Cool air heavier sinksrise

6 6 Convection Currents __________________ form above the Earth Warm air from the _______ rises and then cools as it moves north and south ______________________ - the combination of movement of huge convection currents and the spinning of the Earth on its axis Winds blow from _______ to _______ 6 huge convection currents Tropics Regional surface wind patterns WestEast

7 Jet Streams _________ - found high above the ground between the 6 huge convection currents – Band of very fast ________ formed by different temperatures between convection currents – Causes changes in ______, ___________, and ____________ by affecting the movement of air Jet Streams winds windtemperature precipitation

8 Study Diagram on Page

9 Air Masses __________ - large body of air with similar properties (_________ and ______________) all through it Air masses move because of ______ Some air masses are guided by the _________ At the edge of an air mass, _______ may occur There are __ kinds of air masses – the kind of weather depends on the air mass in that area. Air Masses temperatureAmount of Water vapor winds Jet Streams storms 4

10 4 Air Masses ________________ - air mass from this area is cold and fairly dry because the land near the poles is not very moist ________________ - humid air with lots of moisture because of evaporation over tropical oceans and rainforests _________________ - air is cold and moist because cold ocean water near the poles evaporates _________________ - warm and fairly dry from hot desert air Continental Polar Air Maritime Tropical Air Maritime Polar air Continental Tropical Air

11 Fronts ________ - a boundary between two air masses Air masses and fronts move from _____ to ____ across the United States A ______ gets its name from the kind of air that moves into the area. Example: cold front = ______, warm front =_________ Front west east front Cold air Warm air

12 Fronts Continued _____________ - a front that does not move very much or it moves back and forth over the same area. Areas of rising air near fronts have ______________ than areas in the middle of air masses Rising air masses at fronts often cause ____________ Stationary front Lower air pressure Rain or snow

13 Cold Front / Warm Front __________ - cooler air moves into an area and forces warmer air to move upwards quickly The rising air forms ___________ along the steep boundary Heavy precipitation often falls near a _______ ________ - warmer air moves against cooler air. Warmer air rises above the cooler air Clouds of a warm front often move ______ and cause longer periods of __________ Cold Front Cumulus clouds Cold Front Warm Front slowly precipitation

14 Severe Weather ___________ includes thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes __________ - caused by strong, quickly rising currents in moist air: Three stages – 1 st Stage: Clouds grow as moisture _________ in the rising air. The clouds have both __________ and ____________ – 2 nd Stage – precipitation begins to fall – storm has both upward and downward _____________ Severe weather Thunderstorms condenses Ice crystals Water droplets Moving currents

15 Watch / Warnings 3 rd stage – all of the _________ are moving downward, the clouds get ________ as precipitation falls. ______________ - means that severe thunderstorms with high winds and hail might form ________________ - means that severe thunderstorms have formed and people should prepare for them appropriately currents smaller Severe Storm Watch Severe Storm Warning

16 Tornadoes Layers of _____ in a storm blow at different _________ or in different ________ Between the layers, a ______ of air starts spinning. The spinning column of air is called a ___________ When the funnel cloud touches the ground it is called a _______. winds speedsdirections column Funnel cloud tornado

17 Tornado Warning Tornados can move at hundreds of ________ per hour The winds can be strong enough to move ____ and ________. After a warning people should take ______ in the lowest part of a building like a __________ No ________ near the _____ of the building kilometers cars buildings shelter basement windowscenter

18 Hurricanes Hurricanes get energy from ______________. Water vapor from the ocean ________ and releases ______. Under the right condition, the ________ builds and drives the _____ of a hurricane to land. Once the hurricane reaches land, the ______ is reduced. Warm ocean waters condenses energy winds energy

19 Hurricane Warning Winds of a hurricane are __________ as a tornado, but they can be more ________. To prepare for a hurricane, people must ________________, ___________, and ________ Flashlights and battery powered radios Most important – STAY INSIDE or leave if the authorities call for an evacuation Not as fast destructive Board up windowsStore food water

20 Weather Instruments ________ - shows air pressure ___________ - measures wind speed – wind makes the cups of the instrument spin around ________ - measures moisture in the air ___________ - measures how much rain has fallen _______ - measures the winds and precipitation during a storm barometer anemometer hygrometer Rain gauge radar

21 Weather Predictions ______________ - observe patterns of weather change and make _________ _________ - conclusions of how air, land, and the steps of the water cycle affect each other to make ___________. Forecasters make ________ about the weather in the future based on their ________ Weather forecasters inferences Weather systems predictions inferences

22 Forecasts Forecasters make predictions by assuming that _______ weather conditions will behave like similar weather in the _____ Forecasters use __________ to display the data Triangles and circles point in the direction that the _____ is moving Fronts are always in places of __________ ___________ = clear skies current past Weather maps front Low pressure High pressure


24 Climate _______ - the average of weather conditions over a period of time Climate includes the average amount of ___________, the average ________, and how much ___________ changes over a period of time. __________ and _________ are not the same thing – climates do not change, weather changes. Climate precipitationtemperature Climateweather

25 Landforms affect Climate Higher land is ________ because temperatures ________ with height in the troposphere. _________ on opposite sides of a mountain vary. The ______ side of the mountain gets more precipitation than the ____ ________ can affect a climate by slowing the rise and fall of the air temperature cooler decrease Climates west East Oceans

26 Oceans and Climate The temperature of air on land warms and cools faster than the temperature of the air over an ocean. _____________ can make climate warmer or cooler ________________________ are large currents that carry warm water northward The water warms the _____ above it __________ - make the coastal climate cooler Ocean currents Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift winds Cold Currents

27 Climate Change ________ have changed throughout history _______ help scientists make assumptions about ancient climates Climates can change as the result of: – ______________ – _______________________ – _____________________ Climates fossils Volcanic Eruptions Asteriod or meteorite impacts Burning coal and gasoline

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