Presentation on theme: "Weather Review. What is the difference between weather and climate? Weather: Atmosphere conditions at a given time or place Climate-Average weather conditions."— Presentation transcript:
What is the difference between weather and climate? Weather: Atmosphere conditions at a given time or place Climate-Average weather conditions in a given region over a long period of time.
What are the following instruments used to measure? Thermometer-Measures Temperature Hygrometer- Measures Humidity Barometer-Measures Air Pressure Wind Gauge- Measures Wind Speed Rain Gauge- Measures Amount of Rain
List and describe the major features of each atmosphere Thermosphere-temp rises Mesosphere-temp decreases Stratosphere- temp rises, ozone layer is found here Troposphere- temp decreases, where weather occurs
Why is carbon dioxide of greatest interest to meteorologist, even though carbon dioxide is only found in small amounts in the atmosphere CO2 is a greenhouse gas that absorbs energy and traps it in the atmosphere causing a rise in temperature.
How is global warming and the greenhouse effect related? Greenhouse effect causes global warming- greenhouse gases trap energy causing an increase in the temp (Global Warming)
What evidence supports the idea of global warming? What evidence disputes the idea of Global Warming? Support- - increase temperature out of the normal range -Ice caps melting/ sea level rising -Increase of storms/increase of intensity of storms Dispute -Data misinterpreted -Not enough data -Normal earth cycles causes warming
What is the ozone, and why is it important? Three oxygen's bonded together – exists in a layer in our atmosphere Blocks ultraviolet rays (UV rays) which causes skin cancer.
What is the name given to the group of chemicals that cause destruction to the ozone? Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs
Conduction Description: transfer of energy through contact Example: Layer of air in contact with ground being heated
Convection Description: rising/sinking of air due to temp/density difference Example: Air rising due to heating of earths surface
Radiation Description: all forms of energy that travel through space as waves Example: Energy traveling through space to earth.
List and describe the major causes of temperature differences around the world Latitude-more direct sunlight at equator, less direct at poles Unequal heating- land heats/cools more rapidly than H2O Altitude- temp drops 3.5 degrees per 1000 feet in elevation Geographic- coastal areas experience more moderate temps. Albedo/Cloud Cover- Clouds, Ice/ Snow reflect energy and decrease temp.
Why would a city near a body of water have less temperature variation than a city located in the center of a continent? Make sure to reference specific heat in your answer Water takes longer to heat/cool meaning it has a high specific heat- this slow heat transfer moderates temperatures along the coast Land heats/cools quicker (lower specific heat) causing variable temps in the center of continents
What is the relationship between the heating of the earth's surface and the air temperature? The earth's surface heats the air/ atmosphere above it Differently earth materials heat the air above differently – Example sand heating faster than the water at the beach, creating land and sea breeze
What causes global winds? How do you name them and what makes them curve? Convection causes air to rise and the rotation of the earth causes them to curve The apparent deflection due to the rotation of the earth is known as Coriolis effect
Land breeze Description: wind blows from land to sea Example: Cooling of land at night causes sinking air (high pressure). The water stays warmer longer leading to rising air (low pressure)
Sea Breeze Description: Wind Blows from sea to the land Heating of land causes rising air (low pressure)- wind blows in from the sea to fill the void
Air Masses Continental Polar-cP-Dry, Cold- Forms Over Canada Continental Tropical-cT-Dry, Warm, Forms over Mexico, South west U.S. Maritime Tropical-mT, Humid, Warm, Forms over Gulf of Mexico Maritime Polar, MP, Humid, Cold, Forms over North Atlantic, North Pacific
Types of Fronts Cold- Cold air moving into area of warmer air-Cooler temperature, heavy precipitation, Thunderstorms Warm- Warm air moving into area of cooler air- warmer temperature, moderate precipitation
Type of pressure cells High- Clear Skies Low- Change in temp, Precipitation, Clouds
How are high and low pressure systems related to convection?
Which direction does weather move across the United States and why? West to East due to jet streams and westerlies
How could a mountain range impact weather? Large bodies of water Mountains force air up which can lead to cloud formation on precipitation Body of water moderate temperature.
Describe how tornados form. Winds traveling at different speeds in the atmosphere cause horizontal rotation within a thunderstorm Updrafts tilt the spinning column vertical creating the tornado.
What are some ways to stay safe from lightning? Stay indoors away from windows. Stay inside for 30 min after last thunder clap If outside seek shelter-> squat down on balls of feet
How do scientist study and track major weather events like hurricanes and tornadoes Study Radar and predicts wind direction and wind speed. Use computer forecast models
How do thunderstorms commonly form? At what time of day do they form and why? Warm moist air is forced upward quickly where H20 Vapor cools and condenses and forms clouds- updraft and downdraft move precipitation and charged particles through the clouds causing lightning Afternoon- need enough heat for air to rise.
Locations A) Clear skies- High pressure is sinking air which prevents condensation/cloud formation B) Cooler temp- cold front moving counter clockwise. B)Storms -cold from forces air up to cool,H2O vapor condenses forming clouds/storms C) Warm Temp- Warm front moving counterclockwise low. C) Moderate Rain- warm air rises up over colder air, water vapor
Be able to read and interpret climate graphs. What is the temp in Rio de Janeiro in November? 24 C