2What is the difference between weather and climate? Weather: Atmosphere conditions at a given time or placeClimate-Average weather conditions in a given region over a long period of time.
3What are the following instruments used to measure? Thermometer-Measures Temperature Hygrometer- Measures Humidity Barometer-Measures Air Pressure Wind Gauge- Measures Wind Speed Rain Gauge- Measures Amount of Rain
4List and describe the major features of each atmosphere Thermosphere-temp risesMesosphere-temp decreasesStratosphere- temp rises, ozone layer is found hereTroposphere- temp decreases, where weather occurs
5Why is carbon dioxide of greatest interest to meteorologist, even though carbon dioxide is only found in small amounts in the atmosphereCO2 is a greenhouse gas that absorbs energy and traps it in the atmosphere causing a rise in temperature.
6How is global warming and the greenhouse effect related? Greenhouse effect causes global warming- greenhouse gases trap energy causing an increase in the temp (Global Warming)
7-Ice caps melting/ sea level rising What evidence supports the idea of global warming? What evidence disputes the idea of Global Warming?Support-- increase temperature out of the “normal” range-Ice caps melting/ sea level rising-Increase of storms/increase of intensity ofstormsDispute-Data misinterpreted-Not enough data-”Normal” earth cycles causes warming
8What is the ozone, and why is it important? Three oxygen's bonded together – exists in a layer in our atmosphereBlocks ultraviolet rays (UV rays) which causes skin cancer.
9What is the name given to the group of chemicals that cause destruction to the ozone? Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs
10Conduction Description: transfer of energy through contact Example: Layer of air in contact with ground being heated
11ConvectionDescription: rising/sinking of air due to temp/density differenceExample: Air rising due to heating of earth’s surface
12RadiationDescription: all forms of energy that travel through space as wavesExample: Energy traveling through space to earth.
14List and describe the major causes of temperature differences around the world Latitude-more direct sunlight at equator, less direct at polesUnequal heating- land heats/cools more rapidly than H2OAltitude- temp drops 3.5 degrees per 1000 feet in elevationGeographic- coastal areas experience more moderate temps.Albedo/Cloud Cover- Clouds, Ice/ Snow reflect energy and decrease temp.
15Why would a city near a body of water have less temperature variation than a city located in the center of a continent? Make sure to reference specific heat in your answerWater takes longer to heat/cool meaning it has a high specific heat- this slow heat transfer moderates temperatures along the coastLand heats/cools quicker (lower specific heat) causing variable temps in the center of continents
16What is the relationship between the heating of the earth's surface and the air temperature? The earth's surface heats the air/ atmosphere above itDifferently earth materials heat the air above differentlyExample sand heating faster than the water at the beach, creating land and sea breeze
17What causes global winds What causes global winds? How do you name them and what makes them curve?Convection causes air to rise and the rotation of the earth causes them to curveThe apparent deflection due to the rotation of the earth is known as Coriolis effect
18Land breeze Description: wind blows from land to sea Example: Cooling of land at night causes sinking air (high pressure). The water stays warmer longer leading to rising air (low pressure)
19Sea Breeze Description: Wind Blows from sea to the land Heating of land causes rising air (low pressure)- wind blows in from the sea to fill the void
20Air Masses Continental Polar-cP-Dry, Cold- Forms Over Canada Continental Tropical-cT-Dry, Warm, Forms over Mexico, South west U.S.Maritime Tropical-mT, Humid, Warm, Forms over Gulf of MexicoMaritime Polar, MP, Humid, Cold, Forms over North Atlantic, North Pacific
22Types of FrontsCold- Cold air moving into area of warmer air-Cooler temperature, heavy precipitation, ThunderstormsWarm- Warm air moving into area of cooler air-warmer temperature, moderate precipitation
23Type of pressure cells High- Clear Skies Low- Change in temp, Precipitation, Clouds
24How are high and low pressure systems related to convection?
25Which direction does weather move across the United States and why? West to East due to jet streams and westerlies
26How could a mountain range impact weather? Large bodies of water Mountains force air up which can lead to cloud formation on precipitationBody of water moderate temperature.
27Describe how tornados form. Winds traveling at different speeds in the atmosphere cause horizontal rotation within a thunderstormUpdrafts tilt the spinning column vertical creating the tornado.
28What are some ways to stay safe from lightning? Stay indoors away from windows.Stay inside for 30 min after last thunder clapIf outside seek shelter-> squat down on balls of feet
29How do scientist study and track major weather events like hurricanes and tornadoes Study Radar and predicts wind direction and wind speed.Use computer forecast models
30How do thunderstorms commonly form How do thunderstorms commonly form? At what time of day do they form and why?Warm moist air is forced upward quickly where H20 Vapor cools and condenses and forms clouds- updraft and downdraft move precipitation and charged particles through the clouds causing lightningAfternoon- need enough heat for air to rise.
32LocationsA) Clear skies- High pressure is sinking air which prevents condensation/cloud formationB) Cooler temp- cold front moving counter clockwise.B)Storms -cold from forces air up to cool,H2O vapor condenses forming clouds/stormsC) Warm Temp- Warm front moving counterclockwise low.C) Moderate Rain- warm air rises up over colder air, water vapor
33Be able to read and interpret climate graphs Be able to read and interpret climate graphs. What is the temp in Rio de Janeiro in November?24 C