2A Rocky RepublicThe year 1931 marked the death of the Spanish monarchy with the abdication of King Alfonso XIII. (left)It was also the end of Primo De Rivera’s (bottom) dictatorship.From its ashes, the Second Spanish Republic was born.However, the Republic was divided and very unstable.There were constant conflicts between the right and left.And we’ll never be royalsContext:Read about the build up to the creation of the Republic:Royals
3Popular PowerIn 1936, the elections gave the leftists (aka*the Popular Front) a clear victory. Azana was elected Prime Minister.The Popular Front was a coalition of liberalists, socialists and communists.Once in power, the Popular Front took extremely bold steps and made reforms that upset the right-wing.An upset right wing.Vote for the Popular Front. Amnesty.AKA:Those loyal to the Spanish Republic were called Republicans or Loyalists.Manuel Azana y Diaz, prez of the Second Spanish Republic
4The Rights RiseIn Spanish Morocco, the right wing* (aka the Nationalists) there decided that they were not going to stay still. They were going to overthrow the government.The leader was a man named Francisco Franco, who is pictured here.Soon, there were Nationalist revolts all across Spain.*Who is the right wing anyway?The rightists included the landed aristocracy, the Catholic Church, a large military clique, the monarchists, and the new fascist party, the Falange. (although it may sound like it, Falange is NOT a fancy pudding.)
5Fascist FriendsFascist Francisco Franco and friends gained support from Germany’s Hitler and Italy’s Mussolini.Hitler and Mussolini provided Franco and troops with a lot of weapons.Because of this foreign support, the fascists were able to seize control in many areas across Spain.The Loyalists were now at a serious disadvantage.MussoliniHitlerTomorrow the world, today Spain.Rome-Berlin Axis:The Rome- Berlin Axis was an agreement between Italy and Germany. Learn more about it here:friends~
6Territory Taken Throughout Time Republican SpainRebel NationalistsJuly 1936Woo republicans look at how red Spain is, full of Republican power.October 1936But the Repubs ain’t sweatin’. Not yet, hon.Rebels creeping inOctober 1937Repubs gotta step their game up.Dang watch them rebels, doing well and crap.May 1938Repubs split in two. Thing’s aren’t looking good…February 1939Repubs feeling like a narwhal in Africa. Lost and confused.Look at them rebels go
7The Lacking LoyalistsSo although Franco had the support of Germany and Italy, the Loyalists had nothing.The U.S. refused to export anything to Spain because they didn’t want to get caught up in war.France and Britain also didn’t help Spain in order to avoid war.The only support the Loyalists received were from the Soviet Union and the International Brigade. (see next slide)Stranglers of the Spanish people. The true reason behind the false neutrality.
8International Intervention The International Brigade was made up of volunteers from other countries, including America.*There were all types of people, both women and men, who served as soldiers and nurses.Many volunteers were disillusioned, bored, or in need of adventure. (Though some did truly want to help the Spanish cause).The Brigade was a way for the Loyalists to gain international aid without having direct support from another government.However, the volunteers that made up the International Brigade was no match for the trained fascist troops.*‘Murica:In America, the International Brigade was known as the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Learn more about them here:What are you doing to stop this? Esperantists of the World, Pit Your Strength against International Fascism!
9Civilian CatastropheHitler’s intervention in the Spanish Civil War gave him the opportunity to try out some new weapons and some new tactics. These new weapons and tactics would prove to be handy dandy in the upcoming World War II. But Hitler doesn’t know that yet.Some of these tactics included the usage of planes for the bombing of open cities and civilians.Many people were forced to flee their homes, and hundreds of innocent civilians died.One of the most famous of these bombings took place in Guernica, whose horror is immortalized in Picasso’s painting.
10The Republican Rupture Franco knew that splitting the Republican territory in half would be crucial for a fascist victory.Although he failed initially in the Battle of Guadalajara, Franco was eventually able to succeed in splitting the Republicans in two in April, 1938.The victory of the Nationalists was becoming imminent.Notice that the Republican territory has been split in two.
11Catalonia and Capital Captured Franco then mounted a huge offensive against Catalonia. Its capital, Barcelona, fell to the fascists, and soon the rest of Catalonia followed suit.At this point, the Republicans were ready to negotiate a peace, but Franco refused.Franco and his troops invaded the Spanish capital of Madrid. In 1939, Madrid finally surrendered.With the surrender of Madrid, the fascists had won. The Spanish Civil War was over on April 1, 1939.The capture of Catalonia.
12Rebel RecognitionAlthough Germany and Italy had long recognized Franco as the head of Spain, Britain and France also recognized Franco as the official ruler of Spain after the fascists came out victorious in 1939.Franco was to rule successfully for thirty-six years until his death in 1975.What he left behind:Read about Francisco Franco’s legacy:Let’s Rebuild Spain!!Look at how happy Franco is
13A Lesson LearnedSo what were the long-lasting effects of the Spanish Civil War?The immediate effect – a fascist victory and a lot of destruction.Some international effects…Well, the war gave Hitler the perfect laboratory to test out new war tactics.The war also proved to the world (especially Hitler) that Britain, France, and America were willing to do anything to avoid war. They were tired.The aftermath of the Spanish Civil War would be one of the contributing factors to the beginning of the Second World War.
15Works Cited "The Causes of the Spanish Civil War Works Cited "The Causes of the Spanish Civil War." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Mar Rosemont, Franklin. "SPANISH REVOLUTION OF 1936." Writing.upenn.edu. University of Pennsylvania, n.d. Web. 15 Mar Sills, Sam. "Abe Lincoln Brigade." Writing.upenn.edu. University of Pennsylvania, n.d. Web. 15 Mar "The Spanish Civil War ( )." SparkNotes. SparkNotes, n.d. Web. 15 Mar "Spanish Civil War Breaks out." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 13 Mar "Spanish Civil War." The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project. George Washington University, n.d. Web. 14 Mar "Spanish Civil War." Spanish Fiestas. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar "Timeline of the Spanish Civil War." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Mar "The Visual Front - Posters of the Spanish Civil War." Libraries.ucsd.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Mar