Presentation on theme: "Appeasement and the Road To War"— Presentation transcript:
1Appeasement and the Road To War The Spanish Civil War
2The Origins of the Spanish Civil War Aims:To understand the political instability which existed in Spain in the 1930s.To identify how the civil war began and who the two opposing sides were.
3A Brief History of Spain During the 1500s Spain was the world’s strongest power.Spanish Empire covered most of South and Central America.Spanish language and religion was imposed on these colonies.By 1800s Spain had lost most of her colonies and become a third-rate power.Catholic Church have always had a powerful influence in Spanish Society.Between Spain was a military dictatorship under General Primo De Rivera.
4A Republican Government Spain became a republic under Manuel Azana in 1931.A number of reforms were introduced which threatened landowners, the army and the church.
5Spanish FascismIn the 1930s support for Fascist ideas was evident in many European countries. In 1933 the Falange Esapnola – Spanish Fascist party was formed.It sought one party rule and wanted Spain to have a strong authoritarian government.It wasn’t a racist party but believed in loyalty and obedience to the Catholic church.
6War BeginsOn 17th July 1936 a group of army officers led by General Sanjurjo led a coup d’etat in Spanish Morocco (tried to seize power)Sanjurjo was killed in a plane crash and replaced by General Francisco Franco.The coup failed and three years of civil war followed.
7Righteous Republicans The Opposing SidesRighteous RepublicansLiberals, Socialists, Communists, Basque and Catalan Separatists.Groups with differing aims but they all believe that Spain should remain a democratic country.Nasty NationalistsThe armed forces, large sections of the middle and upper classes, the Catholic Church, the Falange (Spanish Fascist Party).Groups who all feel threatened by democracy.v
8International Brigades The Opposing SidesREPUBLICANSDemocracySupported By:Soviet RussiaInternational BrigadesNATIONALISTSDictatorshipSupported By:ItalyGermanyNon-InterventionBritain and France
9Key Terms LEFT WING Democratic government More government control of the economyRIGHT WINGStrong, authoritarian governmentGovernment should not interfere in the economyLeft Wing=Republicans Right Wing=Nationalists
10Progress of the Spanish Civil War September 1936Republicans held all eastern andsouthern Spain, including the two keycities of Madrid and Barcelona.Nationalists have just over half ofSpain, in the south, west and NorthWest
11Progress of the Spanish Civil War March 1937Nationalists capture land in the Northbut fail to capture Madrid in thewinter of During the summerof 1937, Guernica is heavily bombed by theGerman Condor Legion By the end of1937 the fighting has reached astalemate.
12Progress of the Spanish Civil War July 1938Nationalists capture the Basque landsin the North. Nationalist advance inthe east cuts off Republican controlledareas.
13Progress of the Spanish Civil War February 1939Barcelona was captured by theNationalists in January. Madrid fell atthe end of March 1939 and the CivilWar was over.
14Foreign Intervention Aims: To examine the motives behind foreign intervention.To identify what types of aid was provided for both sides in the SCW.
15The Nationalists Italy 40-50,000 troops Tanks, artillery, aircraft GermanyJunker planes airlifted Spanish troops from Morocco.Condor Legion – 600 aircraft/200 tanks. Played major role in bombing of Guernica 193716,000 ‘military advisers’
16Motives Behind Foreign Intervention - Nationalists ITALYGain more influence in the MediterraneanSupport a friendly fascistMilitary glory
17Motives Behind Foreign Intervention - Nationalists GERMANYTesting ground for new weaponsKeep Italy tied up in Spain – turn attention to Austria.Secure supplies of war materialsStop spread of communism
18The Republicans Soviet Union Military advisers Equipment – 200 tanks, 1000 aircraft.Had to be paid for by the Republic.International BrigadesLeft wing opponents of fascism40,000 in total – never anymore than 15,000 at one time.Over 2000 British men joined.75% casualty rate
19Motives Behind Foreign Intervention - Republicans SOVIET UNIONNot fully committed to RepublicansHappy for Germany/Italy to be tied up in Spain.Did not want to threaten Franco-Soviet Pact and lose an ally.Knew GB/France would not tolerate Communist Government
20Motives Behind Foreign Intervention - Republicans INTERNATIONAL BRIGADESCame from a variety of countries – France, GB, Italy and Germany.Little military training or experience75% casualty ratesSocialists, TUs, Communists
21Britain and France’s Policy of Non-Intervention. Aims:Identify the reasons behind Britain and France’s policy of non-intervention.Identify the one time when this policy of non-intervention was not followed.
22Strategic Importance of Spain If Spain fell to the Nationalists, France would be surrounded by Fascist states.British and French had naval bases both on the Mediterranean and Atlantic.Spain had natural resources e.g. iron ore essential for the manufacture of weapons.
23The Non-Intervention Committee Set up in September 1936.France, Britain, Germany, Italy and Russia (27 countries in total) agreed not to intervene in the Spanish civil war.Suits both the British and the French.The French want to intervene but can’t. NIC will stop other countries.British don’t want to intervene but cannot publicly go against the democratically elected government of Spain.
24Why Did France Support Non-Intervention? The French were sympathetic to theRepublicans however:Political instability in France – scared of a right wing backlash.Concerned that any intervention would split French Cabinet and bring down government.British made it clear they would not be happy if the French got involved.
25Why Did the British Support Non-Intervention? Expected Franco to win.Didn’t want to antagonise Mussolini or Hitler.Worried that intervention might cause a general European war.Suspicious of Communist influence in Popular Front Government.Wanted to protect British business interests.
26The Non-Intervention Committee Set up a naval blockade to stop weapons getting into Spain.By 1937 ‘mystery submarines’ were sinking ships taking supplies to the Republic.Conference was held at Nyon in Switzerland to discuss the matter.British and French navies ordered to destroy submarines or aircraft attacking non-Spanish ships.The ‘piracy’ came to an abrupt end.
27British Public Opinion Active participation in International Brigades to oppose Franco – only involved a minority of Britons.Conservative dominated National Government advocated non-intervention and had public support behind them.Labour party was divided – some supported neutrality, others advocated help for the Republicans, some supported the Nationalists due to religious sympathies.
28British Public Opinion The bombing of Guernica in 1937 reinforced the belief that ‘the bomber will always get through’. The government was worried that if war broke out in Europe, British cities would face air attacks that would cause huge death and devastation.
29Source C is a cartoon by David Low published on 13th January 1937.