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THINKING beyond the canopy CIFOR and REDD+ in Indonesia – Research approaches and early findings Markku Kanninen Center for International Forestry Research.

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Presentation on theme: "THINKING beyond the canopy CIFOR and REDD+ in Indonesia – Research approaches and early findings Markku Kanninen Center for International Forestry Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 THINKING beyond the canopy CIFOR and REDD+ in Indonesia – Research approaches and early findings Markku Kanninen Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Bogor, Indonesia Markku Kanninen Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Bogor, Indonesia NORAD Civil Society Meeting Bogor, May 20-21,

2 THINKING beyond the canopy CIFORs Strategy on REDD+: a Global Comparative Study 2

3 THINKING beyond the canopy CIFORs Global Comparative REDD+ Study: Countries Year 1Year 2-3 Latin AmericaBolivia Brazil Bolivia Brazil Peru AfricaCameroon Tanzania DRC AsiaIndonesia Vietnam Nepal 3

4 THINKING beyond the canopy CIFORs Global Comparative REDD+ Study: Partners in Indonesia Research partners, including FORDA, IPB, ICRAF, Tropenbos International, Forest Wacth Indonesia, Lembaga Studi Pers dan Pembangunan (LSPP) (Centre for the Study of Press and Development), Indonesian Center for Environmental Law (ICEL), Flora Fauna International – Indonesia, The Center for Climate Risk and Opportunity Management (CCROM-IPB), Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership Governmental and non-governmental organizations Demonstration activity implementers at selected sites Media, press 4

5 THINKING beyond the canopy 179 projects surveyed Projects can inform national REDD+ strategies (mini test case), incl. reform priorities to enable local REDD Landscape of REDD+ projects varies significantly Third party certification has a major influence (CCBS, VCS) The landscape of emerging REDD+ projects 5

6 THINKING beyond the canopy Emerging REDD+ projects in Indonesia Two main types: Demonstration activities (based on official partnerships with GoI) Projects for voluntary carbon market Project proponents are usually governmental agencies, local governments, communities or corporations Most projects are designed more like ICDPs than PES. PES is difficult to implement due to tenure and social concerns BrazilIndonesiaDRC Planned projects20354 Operating projects210 ActivityPESBuy out concessions Readiness ProponentsDomestic actors Intl NGOs 6

7 THINKING beyond the canopy 7

8 CIFORs Site-specific REDD+ Research in Indonesia Estimating carbon stocks: Aceh, Papua, East Java, Jambi, Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan; Leakage: Central Kalimantan; Biomass/mangrove ecosystems: Sulawesi REDD demonstration activities: Assessment of projects in Aceh, West, Central and Eastern Kalimantan 8

9 THINKING beyond the canopy Deforestation estimates By Stibniati Atmadja; Sources: Method 1: MoF: Penghitungan Deforestsi Indonesia 2008; Method 2: MoF Statistik Kehutanan 2004 and 2007 Improve data and estimates to support decisions 9

10 THINKING beyond the canopy Deforestation estimates By Stibniati Atmadja; Source: MoF Statistik Kehutanan 2004 and 2007 Kalimantan INDONESIA REDD+ projects are in regions with high overall deforestation rates except Bali-Nasa Tgr, where there is only one project 10

11 THINKING beyond the canopy Drivers of deforestation AreaDrivers of deforestation Underlying causes of deforestationCurrent REDD project models f Productivity for Rice and Oil Palm b % National Labour Force 2006 c % National construction 2006 d # Graft Cases e Others KalimantanSecond highest oil palm productivity, 12.5tons/ha in %9.4%90 – Almost all in S and E Kalimant an Low population, Large areas with customary land rights; Oil palm expansion; Logging; Mining Peatland conservation, Land swaps; Community carbon pooling; Reduced impact logging and oil palm; reduced encroachment into national parks; district-wide REDD PapuaHigh forest cover, low deforestation, large peatland areas, 0.7%2.6%2Low population, Large areas with customary land rights; Oil palm expansion; Logging; Mining Ecosystem restoration concessions; Province- wide REDD SumatraHighest oil palm productivity by far: 37 tons/ha. 19.2%19.9%42Low population; Oil palm expansion Peatland conservation; Ecosystem Restoration Concessions; Reduced impact logging and oil palm; Reduced encroachment into national parks; Address adequately drivers of deforestation by REDD+ projects 11

12 THINKING beyond the canopy Policy barriers Example: Revenue collection and distribution Government regulation no. 62/1998 delegates authority to local government for revenue collection, and a number of functions including forest management and community forestry Act no. 22/1999 gives local government increased authority Government Regulation no. 6/1999 bestow regions with the authority to issue timber permits for areas less than 10,000 ha Ministry of Forestry Decree No.310/kpts-II/1999 aims to give benefits to community groups, but in practice triggers large scale logging by companies. Clarify authority over revenue collection and distribution 12

13 THINKING beyond the canopy Policy barriers Example: Forest estate management The Forest estate is managed under the Forestry Act while forests outside the forest estate are managed by Basic Agrarian Law These two different regimes are accompanied by two different interpretations of the Constitution regarding customary rights Under Agrarian law controlled by the state does not mean owned and defines customary land as a separate entity Under the Forest law controlled by the state means owned Align tenure policies Establish clear rights in the forest estate 13

14 THINKING beyond the canopy Reforestation Fund (RF): Main findings Financial Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (F-MVR) are as important as monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon emissions The use of RF funds to subsidize HTI plantation development, coupled with weak mechanisms for accountability encourages irresponsible practices and these could be replicated by REDD participants if recommendations are not addressed Improve transparency; Introduce Financial-MRV 14

15 THINKING beyond the canopy Policy networks – Example: REDD network of information Indonesia (preliminary) Some CSOs play a bridging role across different scales and actors in the REDD+ arena 15

16 THINKING beyond the canopy Forest carbon studies in Sumatra: Main findings Above-ground forest biomass (361 ± 7 Mg ha -1 ) in hill dipterocarp forests of Sumatra is 23% higher than IPCC default values for same types of forests Large sample to cover landscape-scale variation Protected areas do not cause leakage to adjacent areas A study on the effectiveness of Sumatran protected areas in reducing deforestation Use best C emissions calculation methods No leakage found in protected areas: revise REDD+ project objectives to address real drivers 16

17 THINKING beyond the canopy Carbon studies in peatlands and mangroves: preliminary results Mangroves Peatlands Improve data and estimates of C emissions 17

18 THINKING beyond the canopy Carbon emissions from peatlands Our approach: combination of stock change and flux change methods Flux change method applied to the peat before and after LUC Stock change method applied to the trees before and after LUC C loss from conversion of peat swamp forest to an oil palm plantation – much less than other authors estimate C loss rate: 17.1 ± 3.6 Mg C ha-1 y-1 during 25 years 18

19 THINKING beyond the canopy Knowledge sharing 19

20 THINKING beyond the canopy Knowledge sharing: Global outreach – highlights of 2009 Forest Day 3 at Copenhagen 1579 persons registered attended 34 donors, 172 government representatives, roughly 250 climate change negotiators Outstanding line-up of speakers and sessions Congo Basin Forest Day Realizing REDD+ book & other publications CIFOR – REDD/climate change web page REDD literacy among journalists and civil society Regular media briefings Journalist Forum on Climate Change Briefing of Indonesian Parliament 20

21 THINKING beyond the canopy Building REDD literacy in Indonesia: website, publications

22 THINKING beyond the canopy Developing civil society capabilities for monitoring &measuring carbon pools Involving: REDD developers: local governments, private sector, civil society National CC Council (DNPI) UNFCCC Secretariat 50 participants Increase information and dialogue for literacy and engagement 22

23 THINKING beyond the canopy CIFOR advances human well-being, environmental conservation, and equity by conducting research to inform policies and practices that affect forests in developing countries.


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