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Leadership: Lessons Learned

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1 Leadership: Lessons Learned
Team Omega: Annette Baker, Team Leader with devoted team members: Myra Rodgers Alan Soskel Leadership: Lessons Learned Apollo 13, Paths of Glory and Other Great Leaders of Our Time, Past and Present

2 Leadership: Lessons Learned
Winston Churchill "A good leader inspires people to have confidence in the leader; a great leader inspires people to have confidence in themselves."  Eleanor Roosevelt  “Anyone can steer the ship, but it takes a leader to chart the course.” JOHN C. MAXWELL, The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership

3 Apollo 13 Leadership Qualities A primer in leadership
The Apollo 13 leaders, Jim Lovell, Gene Kranz, Deke Slayton and Ken Mattingly all displayed similar leadership qualities. All team members were highly motivated by their drive for perfection, success and pride in country. These leaders displayed the following qualities/traits: 2 They all had honorable, selfless, and ethical characters. They were all able to inspire teams to accomplish the impossible. They trained their people as a team, developing team spirit and cohesiveness. They were all excellent communicators, keeping team informed, ensuring tasks were understood.t They all took responsibility for their actions, as well as their team’s actions. They did not blame others when things went wrong. They earned respect of their subordinates via legitimate and referent power. They all set excellent examples and were good role models. They were all technically proficient (not necessarily experts – ex. Flight Director Kranz). They all made sound and timely decisions based on information gathered from their subordinates. 7 6 5 4 3 1

4 Apollo 13 Leadership Qualities A primer in leadership
Effective Leaders Efficient Teams Positive Outcomes Train your people as a team Anticipate each other’s moves Know each other’s thoughts Positive Outcomes Cohesive team that acts as a single entity Quick, decisive effective decisions Jim Lovell – earned unequivocal respect and loyalty, knew his team, developed cohesiveness. Gene Kranz– took advice from team, brainstormed for best alternatives, made best decisions, took total responsibility, threw procedures out the window. Ken Mattingly – led by example, inspired team members, encouraged ingenuity, broke down procedural barriers.

5 Apollo 13 Change & Conflict Problem solving A primer in leadership
Above all Kranz remained cool, calm and collected, inspiring the same in his team. “Let’s stay cool people,” was one of his first comments after initial assessment of the problem. He maintained sense of calm when chaos was breaking out. Next Kranz recognized his teammates were the experts, not him. “Get your support teams in here. Anyone that you think can help out.” He showed utmost confidence in their knowledge and ability. Kranz then brought total focus to the problem – “Let’s work the problem. Let's not make things worse by guessing,” and “Let's look at this thing from a... um, from a standpoint of status. What do we got on the spacecraft that's good?” To solve the problems Kranz was willing to throw out all procedures and listen to all alternatives. He knew it was imperative to adapt to the mission complications very quickly. "Forget the flight plan. From this point on, we are improvising a new mission.“ Now Kranz had to encourage instant creativeness. "I don't care what anything was designed to do. I care what it can do.“ His team knew Kranz would take responsibility for all consequences, thus liberating them to throw out preconceptions and identify all possible alternatives. Kranz gathered as much information as possible within time limits, and then made quick decisions based on that information. Finally, throughout the crisis, Kranz showed total commitment and confidence that no challenge is insurmountable – “We've never lost an American in space, we're sure as hell not gonna lose one on my watch! Failure is not an option.” Flight Director Gene Kranz Non- Programmed Decisions Interactive Brainstorming Delegate, Alternatives, Identify, Evaluate, Select, Implement Legitimate power • Expert power (to a lesser extent) Referent power Sources of Power

6 Apollo 13 Change & Conflict Problem solving A primer in leadership
The most important conflict and problem solving trait Lovell displayed was being extremely calm under duress. When engine # 5 shut down near the beginning of the mission, Lovell calmly stated “Looks like we've had our glitch for this mission” and then when the oxygen tank blew Lovell infamously said, both calmly and deliberately, “Houston, we’ve had a problem.” Equally important, Lovell gained the total respect and loyalty of the crew. Lovell led training and developed the team to the point that the crew could anticipate each other’s thoughts and actions. Lovell made tough decisions and took responsibility for them. It was his decision to bump Mattingly and then he spoke to Mattingly and took responsibility for the decision. Lovell also covered for his team with a “buck stops here mentality.” When Swigert made a mistake in the simulator Lovell covered for him and showed confidence in him. When Haise made a mistake calculating CO2 consumption, Lovell characteristically shrugged it off. Throughout the crisis Lovell used humor and elicited humor from the crew to relieve tension. When Lovell asked Haise to confirm he was hungry, Haise came back with “I could eat the ass out of a dead rhinoceros.” There were several times when the crew had to complete complex tasks in very short periods of time. Lovell took the lead and calmly led them through the procedures. During the frantic final burn, Lovell delegated assignments, yelled out instructions, and led the crew as they maintained a sort of “frantic calm”. This was teamwork at its finest. Commander James Lovell Respected team leader Cool as a cucumber under stress Led by example At one point the crew got testy with one another, leading Haise to blame Swigert for the explosion. Lovell stepped in forcefully to halt the blame-game by saying “if I’m in the left hand seat when the call comes up, I stir the tank” Scapegoat

7 Paths of Glory Mission: Win this war at any cost!
Leadership & Management Strategic Goal Tactical Goal Operational Goal 1 A strategic goal focuses on broad and general interests. General Broulard first proposes taking the “Ant Hill,” a key position and fortified enemy stronghold. “I’ve come to see you about something big.” A tactical goal emphasizes actions required to achieve strategic goals. General Mireau calculates that over half the men will be casualties in the suicidal charge. “Naturally men are gonna have to be killed, possibly a lot of them.” 2 3 Operational goals stress the motivation and guidance of the workforce. A stunned Colonel Dax agrees to the impossible plan in order to stay close to his men and follow orders. “If any soldiers in the world can take it, we’ll take the Ant Hill.”

8 Bureaucratic Management Theory
Paths of Glory Leadership & Management Bureaucratic Management Theory Max Weber’s scientific, “management by office,” theory emphasizes dividing organizations into hierarchies and establishing strong lines of authority and control. Paths of Glory: Top-down, military unit with a very clear hierarchy. Stresses the importance of structure and protocol. Decisions are made by those with power and rank. Too much authority can be devastating. Unbridled power along with complete disregard for others - bad combination. Demonstrates the effects of unchecked ambition. “Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” -- Lord Acton, British historian.

9 Likert’s Management System
Paths of Glory Leadership & Management Likert’s Management System Exploitive/Authoritative (S1) Paths of Glory Broulard and Mireau meet in an elegant palatial chateau to discuss top-secret military maneuvers. Mireau calls the men ”miserable cowards” for not advancing. Mireau: ”They were ordered to attack. It was their duty to obey that order.” According to Broulard, ”. . . troops are like children. . . One way to maintain discipline is to shoot a man now and then.” All responsibility lies in the hands of the upper echelon. Superiors lack trust or respect for their workforce. Autocratic style–Decisions are imposed upon subordinates. Motivation is based on threats. Theory X: Management’s role is to coerce, control, and threaten.

10 Paths of Glory Leadership & Management Passing the Buck
Superiors assign blame down the chain of command to hide their own incompetence and shirk responsibility: An organization’s culture includes customs and ethics, along with written and unwritten rules regarding policies, procedures, protocol and conduct. When the culture doesn’t allow for mistakes, scapegoating can occur. Scapegoating: A management practice in which a lower staff member is blamed for the mistakes of senior executives, often due to a lack of accountability in upper management. Other motives behind scapegoating: To support professed personal moral value by lessening feelings of guilt over one’s own responsibility for a blunder. To uphold alleged personal control by obtaining a clear explanation for a mistake that otherwise seems unfathomable. General Mireau Mireau sacrifices three innocent enlisted soldiers to cover for his errors in judgment. 1 Lieutenant Roget Roget selects Corporal Paris for the firing squad because Paris knows he is a murderer and a coward. 2 General Broulard General Broulard protects his own reputation by setting up Mireau to be the disgraced scapegoat. 3

11 Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Leadership Theories
Leadership styles stem from four basic behaviors S-1 Telling: unidirectional flow of information S-2 Selling: leader attempts to convince group S-3 Participating: leader shares decision making S-4 Delegating: parcel out tasks to team members Apollo 13 Leadership: S-3 and S-4 Paths of Glory strictly S-1 M-1: basic incompetence or unwillingness in doing task M-2: inability to do the task but willing to do so M-3: competent to do task but do not think they can M-4: the group is ready, willing, able to do the task Maturity levels of the group Apollo 13 Crew: M-4 Paths of Glory Troops: M3 D1 - Low competence and low commitment D2 - Low competence and high commitment D3 - High competence and low/variable commitment D4 - High competence and high commitment Apollo 13 Crew: D-4 Paths of Glory Troops: D3 Permutations of competency-committment

12 Similarities Leadership Theories Levels of Leadership Level 1 Position
Level 1 leadership is entry level—people follow you because they have to. Paths of Glory: Every officer in the movie demonstrated this leadership, from the sergeant to the general. Apollo 13: Gene Kranz demonstrated this as the Flight Operations Chief, the NASA physician was in charge of the astronauts’ health and Jim Lovell was in charge of Apollo 13. Level 1 Position Level 2 leadership is accomplished by people wanting to follow you. Paths of Glory: The troops trusted Colonel Dax so they followed his orders. Apollo 13: The NASA crew members respected Gene Kranz, and the Apollo 13 crew respected Jim Lovell. Their subordinates wanted to follow them. Level 2 Permission is of utmost importance Level 3 leadership happens when people follow because of what you have done for the organization. Paths of Glory: Colonel Dax had demonstrated integrity by fighting for the welfare of his troops; in return, he gained their respect and trust. Apollo 13: Gene Kranz had demonstrated he was a capable manager who could make good decisions under pressure. Jim Lovell had earned his position on the Apollo 13 crew through years of training and performance measures. Level 3 Production

13 Similarities Leadership Theories Levels of Leadership, ctd. Level 4
Level 4 leadership is accomplished when people follow you because of what you have done for them.. Paths of Glory: After volunteering to be counsel for the defendants, the men knew Colonel Dax believed in them and was willing to fight for them. Apollo 13: All of NASA knew of the disappointment that Ken Mattingly suffered after being bumped from the mission, but when he persevered for hours to find a solution for the safe return of Apollo 13, NASA realized his goal was always a successful mission,. This respect earned him a spot on future missions. Level 4 People Development is of utmost importance Level 5 leadership is the pinnacle—people follow you because of who you are and what you represent.. Paths of Glory: Colonel Dax had demonstrated his integrity and moral values on and off the battlefield, and his troops held him in the highest regard. Apollo 13: Both Gene Kranz and Jim Lovell demonstrated calm expert management under crisis without resorting to blame and despair—and all of the nation was witness to these acts of grace, strength and intelligence. Level 5 Pinnacle

14 Similarities Management Roles Management Theories by Mintzberg
Interpersonal Role: Working directly with other people. 1 Apollo 13: Jim Lovell worked directly with the crew members. Paths of Glory: Colonel Dax worked directly with the troops. Informational Role: Receiving important information and disseminating it to appropriate people. Apollo 13: Gene Kranz received information from various teams and relayed it to upper management and/or other teams. Paths of Glory: General Mireau received information from General Broulard and relayed it to other officers. 2 is of utmost importance Decisional Role: Making decisions that affect other people. Apollo 13: Gene Kranz determined the strategy NASA would use to bring Apollo 13 back home safely. Paths of Glory: General Broulard ordered the mission to take over the Anthill which ultimately sacrificed the lives of many troops. 3

15 Paths of Glory: Powerless
EMPOWERMENT: Unleashing Real Potential Paths of Glory: Powerless Apollo 13: A Powerful Team Officers showed disdain for the soldiers. Superiors put their own glory and ambition above the needs of others. Lack of ‘esprit de corps’ – no ”group spirit.” The enlisted men received little reward for achievement. The soldiers were helpless with no input in the decisions that controlled their destiny. Motivation by fear and threat of bodily harm. Manipulation. Absolute trust and mutual accountability. Training gave the team the knowledge and skills to succeed. Teamwork and creativity were encouraged. Adapted to change. Improvised. Warmth and personal regard apparent among the team. Gene Kranz kept his cool and stayed committed to solving the problem. is of utmost importance

16 A Teamwork Primer What makes a great team?
A team is a group of individuals, all working together for a common purpose. The individuals comprising a team ideally should have common goals, common objectives and more or less think on the same lines. 1 There are 4 stages of team building (given normal conditions and adequate time): Forming, storming, norming, performing 2 Characteristics of an effective team: Principled leadership. Clear, elevating goal, understood by all, with unified commitment. Defined schedules, realistic deadlines. Results-driven structure. Quality oriented. Competent members with creative solutions. Willing to take risks. Organized, logical decision making. Team members that: Listen well. Take initiative to get things done. Trust judgment of other team members. Communication Goals Principled leadership is of utmost importance

17 A Teamwork Primer Apollo 13 Paths of Glory
A great saga of teamwork & leadership at its finest. Apollo 13 Apollo 13 Several levels of teams: Houston Ground Control Engineering project teams Astronaut crew led by Jim Lovell Teamwork exemplified Not so much! Paths of Glory 1 CO2 Scrubbers This team literally held the lives of the Apollo 13 crew in their hands. If they did not successfully accomplish their project within minutes the crew would run out of oxygen. Resulting device was dubbed “the mailbox”. Worked with limited resources Performed under extreme stress and time limitation These teams all had the same qualities, forged by their own personalities, extensive training, and loyalty to each other. Strong leadership at all levels Committed and optimistic: “Failure is not an option” “With all due respect, sir, I believe this is gonna be our finest hour.” Worked well under pressure Proper resources were gathered Strong focus (obviously!) Able to change & improvise Resourceful, creative, great problem solvers Cohesive, anticipated each other Implicit trust in one another Paths of Glory The highly autocratic leadership style in the French Army did not allow for team building or independent thinking. However, Col. Dax’s men did form a very limited team based on only a few characteristics: Strong leader Respect for & subordinate to leader Commitment, goal and focus – in this case - stay alive Team traits that were missing: Communication Trust External support 2 Re-entry power consumption levels Led by pilot Ken Matttingly, this team also faced a life or death deadline to reduce power levels before the crew began re-entry. Mattingly led by example Team displayed great “out-of-the-box thinking

18 Communicative Affective
Conflict Resolution Three Levels of Group Conflict Event-based Communicative Affective Identity-based Event-based conflict is relatively simple and short-lived and has resulted from either mismatched goals or competitive strategies. Communicative-affective conflict is contentious and involves a longer shared history of conflict; members heavily invested in relationship, conflict and outcome. Identity-based conflict is based upon threats to the four pillars of human identity—belonging, competency, continuity between past, present and future and transcendent values and meaning. is of utmost importance

19 Communicative-Affective
Paths of Glory Conflict Resolution Event-based Communicative-Affective Identity-based footer Conflict There is misunderstanding regarding takeover of the Anthill. Col. Dax does not agree with the mission ordered by Gen. Mireau in less than 24 hours. Gen. Mireau ordered the radio dispatcher to deliver the order to shoot at the troops who refused to advance. Outcome Outcome Outcome Gen. Broulard does not agree with Gen. Mireau’s objections to the mission—more time needed, high casualty count and low troop morale. Resolution is usually resolved through dialogue and compromise. Gen. Mireau would not compromise and ordered the mission be carried out. Resolution is usually resolved through communication that results in reformulation of understanding. The radio dispatcher refused to carry out the order unless it was submitted in writing since it was controversial. Resolution typically demands third party intervention.

20 Apollo 13 Conflict Resolution Event-based Communicative-Affective
Identity-based Conflict NASA’s physician would not allow Ken Mattingly to fly due to the possibility that he might have measles. Jack Swigert was ordered to “stir the tanks” which resulted in setting off alarms and ultimately aborting the mission. Apollo 13 crew is informed they will not be able to reach the moon, which they thought would be their identity and destiny. Outcome Outcome Outcome Resolution: Jim Lovell focused on protecting the Odyssey from flying debris and mediates conflict when Fred Haise blames Jack Swigert for destroying their mission. Mediated communication reformulates under- standing of events and strengthens team bond. Resolution: Jim Lovell helped the crew to refocus their disappointment to resolve for a safe return home. Third party intervention shifts dynamic of conflict to collaboration. Resolution: Jim Lovell broke the news to Ken Mattingly in a team meeting factually and regretfully. Ken accepted the decision obligingly with disappointment.. Dialogue was used for conflict resolution.

21 Handling Things Differently
20/20 Hindsight Paths of Glory Apollo 13 Problem: Lack of strategic planning and very poor tactical planning with a rush to implementation. What would we do different? Decide strategically if the Anthill takeover mission was necessary. Brainstorm for more creative, effective tactical decisions. Solicit input from Colonel Dax and other key personnel. Build camaraderie through communication and participation. Explore use of non-traditional tactics. Problem: Oxygen tank #2 failed to empty properly in the countdown to launch, and a ”quick fix” was put in place to work around the problem. What would we do different? Stop the launch and replace the tank. Design a better system for parts selection and checking. Refuse to compromise on safety. Design systems so that internal components could be monitored.

22 References Page 1 Amazon. (n.d.). Churchill’s finest hour. [Audio File]. Retrieved from Amazon. (n.d.). Houston we've had a problem. [Audio File]. Retrieved from Apollo 13. (n.d.). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. [Web Graphic]. Retrieved 20:48, March 15, 2013, from BrainyQuote. (n.d.). John F. Kennedy quotes. Retrieved from Brainy Quote. (n.d.). Martin Luther King quotes. Retrieved from Campbell, C. (2011). Management principles: Module 2, Mintzberg’s managerial roles. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from /cobaltMainFrame.dowebct Edmund, L. (2011). Interdisciplinary group conflict diagnosis and intervention: Exploration of conflict intensity and effective conflict resolution methods. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. [PDF document]. Retrieved from

23 References Page 2 Fischer, B., & Boynton, A. (2007). “Out of this world” high-performing teams, a video tour. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6 (3), p doi: /AMLE Retrieved from Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (n.d.). Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory. Retrieved from History. (n.d.). Dwight D. Eisenhower photo gallery. [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from, Inc. (1995). Did you know? Apollo 13. [Audio File]. Retrieved from Lovell, J. NASA Langley Research Center. (1975). "Houston, we've had a problem." Retrieved from NASA website: Mann, W. (2008, November). “Houston, we have a problem.” Rural Telecommunications. Retrieved from

24 References Page 3 Notable Quotes. (n.d.). Leadership quotes. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Retrieved from Quote Coyote. (n.d.). Martin Luther King. [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from Quote Coyote. (n.d.). Abraham Lincoln. [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from Quote Coyote. (n.d.). Winston Churchill. [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from Sugars, B. (2008, May 28). 10 principles of leadership. Action Coach. Retrieved from Team development – meaning, stages and forming an effective team. In Management Study Guide. Retrieved from The History Place (n.d.). John F. Kennedy Photo History. [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from

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